the mechanics of earthquakes and faulting

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The Mechanics Of Earthquakes And Faulting

Author : Christopher H. Scholz
ISBN : 9781316732298
Genre : Science
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This essential reference for graduate students and researchers provides a unified treatment of earthquakes and faulting as two aspects of brittle tectonics at different timescales. The intimate connection between the two is manifested in their scaling laws and populations, which evolve from fracture growth and interactions between fractures. The connection between faults and the seismicity generated is governed by the rate and state dependent friction laws - producing distinctive seismic styles of faulting and a gamut of earthquake phenomena including aftershocks, afterslip, earthquake triggering, and slow slip events. The third edition of this classic treatise presents a wealth of new topics and new observations. These include slow earthquake phenomena; friction of phyllosilicates, and at high sliding velocities; fault structures; relative roles of strong and seismogenic versus weak and creeping faults; dynamic triggering of earthquakes; oceanic earthquakes; megathrust earthquakes in subduction zones; deep earthquakes; and new observations of earthquake precursory phenomena.

Faulting Friction And Earthquake Mechanics

Author : Chris J. Marone
ISBN : UOM:39015034018328
Genre : Science
File Size : 22. 64 MB
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The Mechanics Of Faulting

Author : Andrea Bizzarri
ISBN : 8130805022
Genre : Faults (Geology)
File Size : 58. 74 MB
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Faulting In Brittle Rocks

Author : Georg Mandl
ISBN : 9783662042625
Genre : Science
File Size : 23. 75 MB
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This book provides an introduction into the mechanics of faulting in the brittle crust of the Earth. It developed from my annual two-semester course on tectono mechanics for graduate students of engineering geology and of rock engineering at the Technical University of Graz (Austria). In this course, it is not my task to present a broad exposition and geometrical description of geological structures, but rather to focus on the mechanical processes that produce the structures. Although this was also the aim of my former book "Mechanics of Tectonic Faulting - Models and Basic Concepts" (1988, Elsevier), henceforth referred to as MTF, the present book is different in organisation and content, in order to meet the requirements of the courses and to include more recent developments. Instead of following the traditional subdivision into extensional, compressional and strike-slip faulting, the presentation focuses on mechanical aspects of tectonic faulting that are common to various, or even all types of tectonic faults in the brittle regime. In this way, geometrically disparate or dissimilar fault structures may be revealed as closely related by the underlying mechanical process, and complex structures may be better understood. It may be useful to indicate how the chapters in the book are organised. The first three chapters are an introduction to rock mechanics, tailored to applications in geology. It also presents the extremely useful graphical method of Mohr's stress circle, which is freely used throughout the book to keep the mathematics to an absolute minimum.

Tectonic Faults

Author : Mark R. Handy
ISBN : 9780262083621
Genre : Science
File Size : 41. 65 MB
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Scientists examine tectonic faulting on all scales--from seismic fault slip to the formation of mountain ranges--and discuss its connection to a wide range of global phenomena, including long-term climate change and evolution. Tectonic faults are sites of localized motion, both at the Earth's surface and within its dynamic interior. Faulting is directly linked to a wide range of global phenomena, including long-term climate change and the evolution of hominids, the opening and closure of oceans, and the rise and fall of mountain ranges. In Tectonic Faults, scientists from a variety of disciplines explore the connections between faulting and the processes of the Earth's atmosphere, surface, and interior. They consider faults and faulting from many different vantage points--including those of surface analysts, geochemists, material scientists, and physicists--and in all scales, from seismic fault slip to moving tectonic plates. They address basic issues, including the imaging of faults from Earth's surface to the base of the lithosphere and deeper, the structure and rheology of fault rocks, and the role of fluids and melt on the physical properties of deforming rock. They suggest strategies for understanding the interaction of faulting with topography and climate, predicting fault behavior, and interpreting the impacts on the rock record and the human environment. Using an Earth Systems approach, Tectonic Faults provides a new understanding of feedback between faulting and Earth's atmospheric, surface, and interior processes, and recommends new approaches for advancing knowledge of tectonic faults as an integral part of our dynamic planet.

The Seismogenic Zone Of Subduction Thrust Faults

Author : Timothy H. Dixon
ISBN : 9780231512015
Genre : Science
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Subduction zones, one of the three types of plate boundaries, return Earth's surface to its deep interior. Because subduction zones are gently inclined at shallow depths and depress Earth's temperature gradient, they have the largest seismogenic area of any plate boundary. Consequently, subduction zones generate Earth's largest earthquakes and most destructive tsunamis. As tragically demonstrated by the Sumatra earthquake and tsunami of December 2004, these events often impact densely populated coastal areas and cause large numbers of fatalities. While scientists have a general understanding of the seismogenic zone, many critical details remain obscure. This volume attempts to answer such fundamental concerns as why some interplate subduction earthquakes are relatively modest in rupture length (greater than 100 km) while others, such as the great (M greater than 9) 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and 2004 Sumatra events, rupture along 1000 km or more. Contributors also address why certain subduction zones are fully locked, accumulating elastic strain at essentially the full plate convergence rate, while others appear to be only partially coupled or even freely slipping; whether these locking patterns persist through the seismic cycle; and what is the role of sediments and fluids on the incoming plate. Nineteen papers written by experts in a variety of fields review the most current lab, field, and theoretical research on the origins and mechanics of subduction zone earthquakes and suggest further areas of exploration. They consider the composition of incoming plates, laboratory studies concerning sediment evolution during subduction and fault frictional properties, seismic and geodetic studies, and regional scale deformation. The forces behind subduction zone earthquakes are of increasing environmental and societal importance.

Modern Global Seismology

Author : Thorne Lay
ISBN : 0080536719
Genre : Science
File Size : 74. 76 MB
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Intended as an introduction to the field, Modern Global Seismology is a complete, self-contained primer on seismology. It features extensive coverage of all related aspects, from observational data through prediction, emphasizing the fundamental theories and physics governing seismic waves--both natural and anthropogenic. Based on thoroughly class-tested material, the text provides a unique perspective on the earths large-scale internal structure and dynamic processes, particularly earthquake sources, and on the application of theory to the dynamic processes of the earths upper skin. Authored by two experts in the field of geophysics. this insightful text is designed for the first-year graduate course in seismology. Exploration seismologists will also find it an invaluable resource on topics such as elastic-wave propagation, seismicinstrumentation, and seismogram analysis useful in interpreting their high-resolution images of structure for oil and mineral resource exploration. More than 400 illustrations, many from recent research articles, help readers visualize mathematical relationships 49 Boxed Features explain advanced topics Provides readers with the most in-depth presentation of earthquake physics available Contains incisive treatments of seismic waves, waveform evaluation and modeling, and seismotectonics Provides quantitative treatment of earthquake source mechanics Contains numerous examples of modern broadband seismic recordings Fully covers current seismic instruments and networks Demonstrates modern waveform inversion methods Includes extensive references for further reading

The Complex Faulting Process Of Earthquakes

Author : J. Koyama
ISBN : 0792344995
Genre : Science
File Size : 32. 51 MB
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In seismology an earthquake source is described in terms of a fault with a particular rupture size. The faulting process of large earthquakes has been investigated in the last two decades through analyses of long-period seismo grams produced by advanced digital seismometry. By long-period far-field approximation, the earthquake source has been represented by physical parameters such as s~ismic moment, fault dimension and earthquake mag nitude. Meanwhile, destruction often results from strong ground motion due to large earthquakes at short distances. Since periods of strong ground motion are far shorter than those of seismic waves at teleseismic distances, the theory of long-period source process of earthquakes cannot be applied directly to strong ground motion at short distances. The excitation and propagation of high-frequency seismic waves are of special interest in recent earthquake seismology. In particular, the descrip tion and simulation of strong ground motion are very important not only for problems directly relevant to earthquake engineering, but also to the frac ture mechanics of earthquake faulting. Understanding of earthquake sources has been developed by investigating the complexity of faulting processes for the case of large earthquakes. Laboratory results on rock failures have also advanced the understanding of faulting mechanisms. Various attempts have been made to simulate, theoretically and empirically, the propagation of short-period seismic waves in the heterogeneous real earth.

Seismic Hazard Of The Circum Pannonian Region

Author : Giuliano F. Panza
ISBN : 9783034884150
Genre : Science
File Size : 62. 47 MB
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requiring the adaptation of probabilistic maps to design ground motions; and (d) the generalization of design parameters to locations where there is little seismic history. Maximum displacements, velocities, and, based on the European Build ing Code EC8, design ground acceleration maps have thus been produced by ZivCic et al. for Slovenia, Marku┬žic et al. for Croatia, Bus et al. for Hungary, and Radulian et al. for Romania. The last two contributions in the volume are dedicated to studies of local site effects that could affect the microzonation of large urban areas. Moldoveanu et al. employed a technique based on the modal summation and finite dif ferences to calculate the expected ground motion in the capital city of Bucha rest due to large intermediate-depth Vrancea earthquakes. Their results outline that the presence of alluvial sediments and the possible variation of event scenario require the use of all three components of motion for a reliable determination of the seismic input. The study of Marmureanu et al. , more limited in scope, offers a laboratory analysis of the attenuation effects for sur face layers. The authors confirm that seismic attenuation in sedimentary layers is a function of the strain levels induced by large earthquakes, and find that the quality factor is nearly constant over a relatively wide frequency range, between 7 and 100 Hz.

Shallow Subduction Zones Seismicity Mechanics And Seismic Potential

Author : Renata Dmowska
ISBN : 9783034873338
Genre : Science
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Reprint from Pure and Applied Geophysics (PAGEOPH), Volume 142 (1994), No. 1

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