the microbes fight back antibiotic resistance

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The Microbes Fight Back

Author : Laura Bowater
ISBN : 9781782621676
Genre :
File Size : 60. 18 MB
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Antibiotics are familiar drugs to us all, so familiar that we may take them for granted. They allow us to survive life-threatening infections, and allow us to protect the animals we farm for food. Many antibiotics have now become ineffective against common diseases, and there are few alternative treatments to replace them. In this topical book, Laura Bowater, Professor of Microbiology Education and Engagement at Norwich Medical School, considers the past, present and uncertain future of antibiotics. This book begins by looking back at how infectious diseases, such as smallpox and The Plague, were able to wreak havoc on populations before the discovery of the first antibiotics. These then revolutionised the medical world. In an engaging and accessible style, Professor Bowater takes the reader through how antibiotics are made, how bacteria are able to mutate and develop resistance and she explains why there is now a lack of new antibiotic drugs coming to market. What will a future of continued antibiotic resistance look like? How can human activities prevent the rise of ‘superbugs'? Professor Bowater highlights the need for universal cooperation in order to tackle this global health challenge, which, if not addressed, could transport us back to the medical dark ages.

The Microbes Fight Back

Author : Laura Bowater
ISBN : 1788014111
Genre : SCIENCE
File Size : 22. 61 MB
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Antibiotic Resistance

Author : Karl S. Drlica
ISBN : 0132117320
Genre : Medical
File Size : 41. 33 MB
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Authored by two leading investigators, this book presents a thorough and authoritative overview of this multifaceted field of science. Pathogenic bacteria have been evolving and spreading resistance to diverse classes of antibiotics. As a result, we risk losing our ability to control and treat infectious diseases. Understanding antibiotic resistance, therefore, is becoming increasingly essential for a broad audience of healthcare professionals, biomedical and public health researchers, students, and policymakers. The authors answer questions such as: What is resistance? How does it emerge? How do common human activities contribute to resistance? What can we do about it? How can we strengthen our “first lines of defense” against resistance? Are there better ways to discover new antibiotics? What unique issues are associated with MRSA and viral influenza? In addition to defining and evaluating one of the most important emerging threats to public health, the authors explain what can be done to minimize risks to public health, and to preserve and extend the effectiveness of existing and new antibiotics.

Antibiotic Resistance

Author : Kateryna Kon
ISBN : 9780128036686
Genre : Medical
File Size : 54. 85 MB
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Antibiotic Resistance: Mechanisms and New Antimicrobial Approaches discusses up-to-date knowledge in mechanisms of antibiotic resistance and all recent advances in fighting microbial resistance such as the applications of nanotechnology, plant products, bacteriophages, marine products, algae, insect-derived products, and other alternative methods that can be applied to fight bacterial infections. Understanding fundamental mechanisms of antibiotic resistance is a key step in the discovery of effective methods to cope with resistance. This book also discusses methods used to fight antibiotic-resistant infection based on a deep understanding of the mechanisms involved in the development of the resistance. Discusses methods used to fight antibiotic-resistant infection based on a deep understanding of mechanisms involved in the development of the resistance Provides information on modern methods used to fight antibiotic resistance Covers a wide range of alternative methods to fight bacterial resistance, offering the most complete information available Discusses both newly emerging trends and traditionally applied methods to fight antibiotic resistant infections in light of recent scientific developments Offers the most up-to-date information in fighting antibiotic resistance Includes involvement of contributors all across the world, presenting questions of interest to readers of both developed and developing countries

Antimicrobial Resistance In The Environment

Author : Patricia L. Keen
ISBN : 9780470905425
Genre : Science
File Size : 47. 80 MB
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Examines effects of the environmental distribution of antimicrobial resistance genes on human health and the ecosystem Resistance genes are everywhere in nature?in pathogens, commensals, and environmental microorganisms. This contributed work shows how the environment plays a pivotal role in the development of antimicrobial resistance traits in bacteria and the distribution of resistant microbial species, resistant genetic material, and antibiotic compounds. Readers will discover the impact of the distribution in the environment of antimicrobial resistance genes and antibiotics on both the ecosystem and human and animal health. Antimicrobial Resistance in the Environment is divided into four parts: Part I, Sources, including ecological and clinical consequences of antibiotic resistance by environmental microbes Part II, Fate, including strategies to assess and minimize the biological risk of antibiotic resistance in the environment Part III, Antimicrobial Substances and Resistance, including antibiotics in the aquatic environment Part IV, Effects and Risks, including the effect of antimicrobials used for non-human purposes on human health Recognizing the intricate links among overlapping complex systems, this book examines antimicrobial resistance using a comprehensive ecosystem approach. Moreover, the book's multidisciplinary framework applies principles of microbiology, environmental toxicology, and chemistry to assess the human and ecological risks associated with exposure to antibiotics or antibiotic resistance genes that are environmental contaminants. Each chapter has been written by one or more leading researchers in such fields as microbiology, environmental science, ecology, and toxicology. Comprehensive reference lists at the end of all chapters serve as a gateway to the primary research in the field. Presenting and analyzing the latest findings in a field of growing importance to human and environmental health, this text offers readers new insights into the role of the environment in antimicrobial resistance development, the dissemination of antimicrobial resistant genetic elements, and the transport of antibiotic resistance genes and antibiotics.

Big Chicken

Author : Maryn McKenna
ISBN : 9781426217661
Genre : Science
File Size : 67. 64 MB
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In this eye-opening expos�, acclaimed health journalist and National Geographic contributor Maryn McKenna documents how antibiotics transformed chicken from local delicacy to industrial commodity--and human health threat--uncovering the ways we can make America's favorite meat safer again. What you eat matters--for your health, for the environment, and for future generations. In this riveting investigative narrative, McKenna dives deep into the world of modern agriculture by way of chicken: from the farm where it's raised directly to your dinner table. Consumed more than any other meat in the United States, chicken is emblematic of today's mass food-processing practices and their profound influence on our lives and health. Tracing its meteoric rise from scarce treat to ubiquitous global commodity, McKenna reveals the astounding role of antibiotics in industrial farming, documenting how and why "wonder drugs" revolutionized the way the world eats--and not necessarily for the better. Rich with scientific, historical, and cultural insights, this spellbinding cautionary tale shines a light on one of America's favorite foods--and shows us the way to safer, healthier eating for ourselves and our children.

Revenge Of The Microbes

Author : Abigail A. Salyers
ISBN : 1555812988
Genre : Medical
File Size : 38. 75 MB
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"What is antibiotic resistance, and why should I be concerned with it?" Media coverage and political and scientific discussions about "superbugs" that defy our current treatments, genetically–modified foods in our fields and grocery stores, the threat of bioterrorism, and the use of antibiotics in agriculture have increased citizen awareness and fears regarding the issues surrounding antibiotic resistance. Revenge of the Microbes: How Bacterial Resistance Is Undermining the Antibiotic Miracle is a single source of answers to this and other questions average people are asking. Written by experts with extensive experience in the field, Revenge of the Microbes provides the scientific information readers will need to form opinions and make informed decisions regarding the use of antibiotics. The authors have carefully sifted through a vast amount of information to ensure comprehensive coverage of topics including the larger issues of economics, politics, health, safety, and the environment. Specific antibiotics and controversies are examined in a real–life context; accounts of positions on all sides of the public policy debate are presented; and less common issues such as what happens to antibiotics once they are released into the environment, are addressed. The evolution of antibiotic–resistant bacteria is put into perspective and bacterial mutation and horizontal gene transfer are explained in simple terms. An in–depth documentation of antibiotic structures is provided in the appendix. Reader–friendly and comprehensible, Revenge of the Microbes will engage a diverse audience, including biologists, doctors, teachers, students, lawyers, environmentalists, and everyday citizens. This new volume encourages readers to consider the extensive role of antibiotics in modern medicine and the potentially catastrophic impact the loss of effective antibiotics would have today and on future generations.

The Antibiotic Era

Author : Scott H. Podolsky
ISBN : 9781421415949
Genre : Medical
File Size : 55. 58 MB
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In The Antibiotic Era, physician-historian Scott H. Podolsky narrates the far-reaching history of antibiotics, focusing particularly on reform efforts that attempted to fundamentally change how antibiotics are developed and prescribed. This sweeping chronicle reveals the struggles faced by crusading reformers from the 1940s onward as they advocated for a rational therapeutics at the crowded intersection of bugs and drugs, patients and doctors, industry and medical academia, and government and the media. During the post–World War II "wonder drug" revolution, antibiotics were viewed as a panacea for mastering infectious disease. But from the beginning, critics raised concerns about irrational usage and overprescription. The first generation of antibiotic reformers focused on regulating the drug industry. The reforms they set in motion included the adoption of controlled clinical trials as the ultimate arbiters of therapeutic efficacy, the passage of the Kefauver-Harris amendments mandating proof of drug efficacy via well-controlled studies, and the empowering of the Food and Drug Administration to remove inefficacious drugs from the market. Despite such victories, no entity was empowered to rein in physicians who inappropriately prescribed, or overly prescribed, approved drugs. Now, in an era of emerging bugs and receding drugs, discussions of antibiotic resistance focus on the need to develop novel antibiotics and the need for more appropriate prescription practices in the face of pharmaceutical marketing, pressure from patients, and the structural constraints that impede rational delivery of antibiotics worldwide. Concerns about the enduring utility of antibiotics—indeed, about a post-antibiotic era—are widespread, as evidenced by reports from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, academia, and popular media alike. Only by understanding the historical forces that have shaped our current situation, Podolsky argues, can we properly understand and frame our choices moving forward. -- John E. Lesch, University of California

Making Sense Of Science

Author : Cornelia Dean
ISBN : 9780674978966
Genre : Science
File Size : 88. 82 MB
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Cornelia Dean draws on her 30 years as a science journalist with the New York Times to expose the flawed reasoning and knowledge gaps that handicap readers when they try to make sense of science. She calls attention to conflicts of interest in research and the price society pays when science journalism declines and funding dries up.

Combating Antimicrobial Resistance

Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
ISBN : 9780309466523
Genre : Medical
File Size : 43. 10 MB
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As of 2017, the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance continues unabated around the world, leaving devastating health and economic outcomes in its wake. Those consequences will multiply if collaborative global action is not taken to address the spread of resistance. Major drivers of antimicrobial resistance in humans have been accelerated by inappropriate antimicrobial prescribing in health care practices; the inappropriate use of antimicrobials in livestock; and the promulgation of antibiotic resistance genes in the environment. To explore the issue of antimicrobial resistance, the Forum of Microbial Threats planned a public workshop. Participants explored issues of antimicrobial resistance through the lens of One Health, which is a collaborative approach of multiple disciplines - working locally, nationally, and globally - for strengthening systems to counter infectious diseases and related issues that threaten human, animal, and environmental health, with an end point of improving global health and achieving gains in development. They also discussed immediate and short-term actions and research needs that will have the greatest effect on reducing antimicrobial resistance, while taking into account the complexities of bridging different sectors and disciplines to address this global threat. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

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