the nature of light what is a photon

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The Nature Of Light

Author : Chandra Roychoudhuri
ISBN : 9781351835831
Genre : Science
File Size : 25. 95 MB
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Focusing on the unresolved debate between Newton and Huygens from 300 years ago, The Nature of Light: What is a Photon? discusses the reality behind enigmatic photons. It explores the fundamental issues pertaining to light that still exist today. Gathering contributions from globally recognized specialists in electrodynamics and quantum optics, the book begins by clearly presenting the mainstream view of the nature of light and photons. It then provides a new and challenging scientific epistemology that explains how to overcome the prevailing paradoxes and confusions arising from the accepted definition of a photon as a monochromatic Fourier mode of the vacuum. The book concludes with an array of experiments that demonstrate the innovative thinking needed to examine the wave-particle duality of photons. Looking at photons from both mainstream and out-of-box viewpoints, this volume is sure to inspire the next generation of quantum optics scientists and engineers to go beyond the Copenhagen interpretation and formulate new conceptual ideas about light–matter interactions and substantiate them through inventive applications.

Lichtquanten

Author : Klaus Hentschel
ISBN : 9783662552735
Genre : Science
File Size : 83. 28 MB
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Dieses Buch beschäftigt sich mit der Entstehungsgeschichte des komplexen Konzeptes des Photons aus wissenschaftshistorischer, kognitionspsychologischer und naturwissenschaftlicher Sicht. Dabei werden unter anderem sechs verschiedene mentale Modelle des Lichtquantums bzw. Photons diskutiert und der Bogen vom Teilchenmodell Newtons, dem Singularitätsmodell Einstein und Bohrs bis zum modernen Konzept der Quantisierung des elektromagnetischen Feldes in der Quantenelektrodynamik gespannt. Der Autor beschäftigt sich zuerst mit der Entwicklungsgeschichte des Photons innerhalb der modernen Physik ab 1900, bevor er die zwölf semantischen Bedeutungsschichten des Photons ausgehend vom Anfang des 20. Jahrhunderts präsentiert. Anschließend werden die mentalen Modelle im Laufe der Geschichte bis zur Moderne beschrieben und diskutiert und das heutige Modell des Photons besprochen. Das Buch richtet sich sowohl an Naturwissenschaftler mit physikalischem Hintergrund als auch an Wissenscha ftshistoriker und Andere, die sich mit der Begriffs- und Ideengeschichte von Konzepten auseinandersetzen.

The Photon

Author : Trilochan Pradhan
ISBN : 1560729287
Genre : Science
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This book is about Maxwell's electromagnetic theory of light. First, it is a fully relativistic theory without having a non-relativistic limit. There arise many difficulties in quantising the electromagnetic field and in the physical interpretation of the wavefunction of its quanta. Further, the first quantisation of the Maxwell equations similar to quantisation of classical mechanics by the Schrodinger method, has not been discussed in most books on quantum mechanics. Second, the Maxwell field is the simplest gauge field possessing symmetry with respect to Poincare group of transformations in addition to scale, duality and special conformal transformations whose local versions give rise to new interaction of photons through new gauge fields. One of these gauge fields couples to the spin density of the photon and other particles and can bind fermion-antifermion pairs to give transverse photons. Another interesting aspect of the electromagnetic field is its coherence properties and their interpretation in terms of quantised theory.

Optik Oder Abhandlung Ber Spiegelungen Brechungen Beugungen Und Farben Des Lichts 1704

Author : Sir Isaac Newton
ISBN : COLUMBIA:CU04009886
Genre : Optics
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A Gestalt Aether Theory On The Nature Of Light And Related Phenomena

Author : Dilip D James
ISBN :
Genre : Education
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Gestalt Aether Theory recognizes that a reality must exist outside of the ordered Universe that we live in, but claims that it is a reality that is represented by chaos, where anything can and does happen; where multiple Universes are possible and where time, place and causality have no meaning. Gestalt Aether Theory explains physics in terms of the ordered Universe that we live in; quantum mechanics and Standard Theory attempt to explain physics in terms of the chaos that exists outside of the ordered universe. Take for instance the propagation of light from a point A to a point B situated a hundred meters away. Quantum mechanics would have one believe that from the time that light leaves the point of origin to the time that it is detected, that it ceases to have a corporeal existence and exists instead as a probability wave-function. In this state it is everywhere and nowhere at once, in order to cover the hundred meters from point A to B it has to first enter into multiple Universes ( hence the multi-verse theory ). GAT on the other hand explains the propagation of light from A to B in terms that reflect reality. According to Gestalt Aether theory light travels through a medium and as a consequence spreads out in accordance with the inverse square law. GAT, states that light is a wave possessing some of the characteristics of a particle, somewhat like the ultrasonic sound waves used in lithotripsy, where a sound wave is used to break stones; namely a wave that possesses some of the properties of a particle, and can therefore retain its individual energy ( Identity) independently of the intensity of the wave. Thus light in GAT (Gestalt Aether Theory) propagates just as any other wave travelling in a medium. It follows the same rules as the waves that are created when a stone is dropped into a pool of water. The whole of the ordered Universe, including gravity, neutrinos, radio-waves and super-conductivity are explained in similar terms.

Grundlagen Der Photonik

Author : Bahaa E. A. Saleh
ISBN : 3527406778
Genre : Optoelectronics
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Schon die erste Auflage des englischen Lehrbuchs 'Fundamentals of Photonics' zeichnete sich durch seine ausgewogene Mischung von Theorie und Praxis aus, und deckte in detaillierter Darstellung die grundlegenden Theorien des Lichts ab. Es umfasste sowohl die Themen Strahlenoptik, Wellenoptik, elektromagnetische Optik, Photonenoptik, sowie die Wechselwirkung von Licht und Materie, als auch die Theorie der optischen Eigenschaften von Halbleitern. Die Photonik-Technologie hat eine rasante Entwicklung genommen seit der Publikation der ersten Ausgabe von 'Fundamentals of Photonics' vor 15 Jahren. Die nun vorliegende Zweite Auflage des Marksteins auf dem Gebiet der Photonik trägt mit zwei neuen und zusätzlichen Kapiteln den neuesten technologischen Fortschritten Rechnung: Photonische Kristalle sowie Ultrakurzpuls-Optik. Zudem wurden alle Kapitel gründlich überarbeitet und viele Abschnitte hinzugefügt, so z.B. über Laguerre-Gauss Strahlen, die Sellmeier-Gleichung, Photonenkristall-Wellenleiter, photonische Kristallfasern, Mikrosphären-Resonatoren, Optische Kohärenz Tomographie, Bahndrehimpuls des Photons, Bohrsche Theorie, Raman-Verstärker, rauscharme Avalanche-Photodioden, Abstimmkurven und Dispersions-Management.

Photons In Natural And Life Sciences

Author : Hans-Joachim Lewerenz
ISBN : 9783642237492
Genre : Technology & Engineering
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The book describes first the principle photon generation processes from nuclear reactions, electron motion and from discrete quantum transitions. It then focuses on the use of photons in various selected fields of modern natural and life sciences. It bridges disciplines such as physics, chemistry, earth- and materials science, proteomics, information technology, photoelectrochemistry, photosynthesis and spintronics. Advanced light sources and their use in natural and life sciences are emphasized and the effects related to the quantum nature of photons (quantum computing, teleportation) are described. The content encompasses among many other examples the role of photons on the origin of life and on homochirality in biology, femtosecond laser slicing, photothermal cancer therapy, the use of gamma rays in materials science, photoelectrochemical surface conditioning, quantum information aspects and photo-spintronics. The book is written for scientists and graduate students from all related disciplines who are interested in the science beyond their immediate research field. It is meant to encourage interdisciplinary research and development in an age where nanoscience results in a convergence of formerly more disparate science.

Qed

Author : Richard P. Feynman
ISBN : 9783492959865
Genre : Science
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Richard P. Feynman (1918–1988) erhielt 1965 für seine Beiträge zur Quantenelektrodynamik (QED) den Nobelpreis für Physik. Seine spektakulären Arbeiten zur »Theorie des Lichts und der Materie« erklärt der »brillanteste, respektloseste und einflussreichste theoretische Physiker der Nachkriegszeit« (The New York Times) hier auch für Nichtphysiker.

The Quantum Theory Of Radiation

Author : E. R. Pike
ISBN : 0191590053
Genre : Science
File Size : 77. 92 MB
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This book is unique in covering phenomena in photon- matter interactions in a unified way over a range of many orders in energy. The quantum field theoretic approach to the fully relativistic theory of quantum electrodynamics (QED) is presented together with the non- relativistic theory in both confined and unconfined geometries. The predictions of QED have been verified to a greater accuracy than any other physical theory. Moreover QED is a paradigm for other gauge theories and is presented in such a way that the generalisation to other gauge theories is natural. Gauge and Poincare symmetry properties and the non-existence of a photon wave function are thoroughly discussed. Starting from the Dirac equation the non-relativistic interaction of the electron with the electromagnetic field is derived as an effective Hamiltonian of multipole expansions. Much of quantum optics is based on the lowest order dipole approximation. From this point on the treatment of fully relativistic QED and quantum optics is done in parallel. Applications of perturbation theory such as Compton and Moller scattering and the theory photdetection are given. After the impressive successes of QED, the limitation of the theory and the necessity of electroweak theory and quantumchromodynamics are discussed. The remaining chapters are devoted to quantum optics inside cavaties. Various approaches to open systems such as master equations are discussed within the context of active systems (e.g. the laser) and passive systems. Semi- classical approximarions are shown to imply a rich non- linear dynamics including chaos for certain parameter regimes. The effect of fluctuations on such non-linear dynamics is also studied. The final chapter is devoted to highly non- classical states of the light field such as photon number, squeezed and two photon entangled states. The latter are studied for the important system of parametric down conversion and the localisation properties of photons are characterised in terms of asympotic tails in photodetection probabilities as a function of time delay. The range of the book has wider benefits. Workers in quantum optics will gain a deeper understanding of the foundations of their subject and field theorists will see concrete examples of open systems, which are beginning to impinge on fundamental theories.

From Photon To Neuron

Author : Philip Nelson
ISBN : 9781400885480
Genre : Science
File Size : 72. 26 MB
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A richly illustrated undergraduate textbook on the physics and biology of light Students in the physical and life sciences, and in engineering, need to know about the physics and biology of light. Recently, it has become increasingly clear that an understanding of the quantum nature of light is essential, both for the latest imaging technologies and to advance our knowledge of fundamental life processes, such as photosynthesis and human vision. From Photon to Neuron provides undergraduates with an accessible introduction to the physics of light and offers a unified view of a broad range of optical and biological phenomena. Along the way, this richly illustrated textbook builds the necessary background in neuroscience, photochemistry, and other disciplines, with applications to optogenetics, superresolution microscopy, the single-photon response of individual photoreceptor cells, and more. With its integrated approach, From Photon to Neuron can be used as the basis for interdisciplinary courses in physics, biophysics, sensory neuroscience, biophotonics, bioengineering, or nanotechnology. The goal is always for students to gain the fluency needed to derive every result for themselves, so the book includes a wealth of exercises, including many that guide students to create computer-based solutions. Supplementary online materials include real experimental data to use with the exercises. Assumes familiarity with first-year undergraduate physics and the corresponding math Overlaps the goals of the MCAT, which now includes data-based and statistical reasoning Advanced chapters and sections also make the book suitable for graduate courses An Instructor's Guide and illustration package is available to professors

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