the nature of light what is a photon

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The Nature Of Light

Author : Chandra Roychoudhuri
ISBN : 1420044257
Genre : Science
File Size : 56. 69 MB
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Focusing on the unresolved debate between Newton and Huygens from 300 years ago, The Nature of Light: What is a Photon? discusses the reality behind enigmatic photons. It explores the fundamental issues pertaining to light that still exist today. Gathering contributions from globally recognized specialists in electrodynamics and quantum optics, the book begins by clearly presenting the mainstream view of the nature of light and photons. It then provides a new and challenging scientific epistemology that explains how to overcome the prevailing paradoxes and confusions arising from the accepted definition of a photon as a monochromatic Fourier mode of the vacuum. The book concludes with an array of experiments that demonstrate the innovative thinking needed to examine the wave-particle duality of photons. Looking at photons from both mainstream and out-of-box viewpoints, this volume is sure to inspire the next generation of quantum optics scientists and engineers to go beyond the Copenhagen interpretation and formulate new conceptual ideas about light–matter interactions and substantiate them through inventive applications.

Collective Electrodynamics

Author : Carver Mead
ISBN : 0262632608
Genre : Science
File Size : 55. 13 MB
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Carver Mead offers a radically new approach to the standard problems of electromagnetic theory.

Light The Physics Of The Photon

Author : Ole Keller
ISBN : 9781439840443
Genre : Science
File Size : 84. 61 MB
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From the early wave-particle arguments to the mathematical theory of electromagnetism to Einstein’s work on the quantization of light, different descriptions of what constitutes light have existed for over 300 years. Light – The Physics of the Photon examines the photon phenomenon from several perspectives. It demonstrates the importance of studying the photon as a concept belonging to a global vacuum (matter-free space). Divided into eight parts, the book begins with exploring aspects of classical optics in a global vacuum on the basis of free-space Maxwell equations. It then describes light rays and geodesics and presents a brief account of the Maxwell theory in general relativity. After discussing the theory of photon wave mechanics, the author gives a field-quantized description of the electromagnetic field, emphasizing single-photon quantum optics in Minkowskian space. He next focuses on photon physics in the rim zone of matter, paying particular attention to photon emission processes. He also takes a closer look at the photon source domain and field propagators, which conveniently describe the photon field propagation in the vicinity of and far from the electronic source domain. The last two parts discuss the photon vacuum and light quanta in Minkowskian space as well as two-photon entanglement, which is associated with the biphoton in space-time.

Dance Of The Photons

Author : Anton Zeilinger
ISBN : 9781429963794
Genre : Science
File Size : 56. 51 MB
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Einstein's steadfast refusal to accept certain aspects of quantum theory was rooted in his insistence that physics has to be about reality. Accordingly, he once derided as "spooky action at a distance" the notion that two elementary particles far removed from each other could nonetheless influence each other's properties—a hypothetical phenomenon his fellow theorist Erwin Schrödinger termed "quantum entanglement." In a series of ingenious experiments conducted in various locations—from a dank sewage tunnel under the Danube River to the balmy air between a pair of mountain peaks in the Canary Islands—the author and his colleagues have demonstrated the reality of such entanglement using photons, or light quanta, created by laser beams. In principle the lessons learned may be applicable in other areas, including the eventual development of quantum computers.

Light And Vacuum

Author : Constantin Meis
ISBN : 9789814630917
Genre : Science
File Size : 50. 71 MB
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Light and Vacuum presents a synthesis of selected fundamental topics of electromagnetic wave theory and quantum electrodynamics (QED) and analyzes the main theoretical difficulties encountered to ensure a coherent mathematical description of the simultaneous wave–particle nature of light, put in evidence by the experiments. The notion and the role of the quantum vacuum, strongly related to light, are extensively investigated. Classical electrodynamics issued from Maxwell's equations revealed the necessity of introducing the notion of volume for an electromagnetic wave to stand entailing precise values of cut-off wavelengths to account for the shape and dimensions of the surrounding space. Conversely, in QED, light is considered to be composed of point particles disregarding the conceptual question on how the frequency of oscillating electric and magnetic fields may be attributed to a point particle. To conciliate these concepts, the book provides a comprehensive overview of the author's work, including innovative contributions on the quantization of the vector potential amplitude at a single photon state, the non-local simultaneous wave–particle mathematical representation of the photon and finally the quantum vacuum. The purpose of the advanced elaborations is to raise questions, give hints and answers, and finally aspire for further theoretical and experimental studies in order to improve our knowledge and understanding on the real essence of Light and Vacuum. Contents:IntroductionHistorical Survey and Experimental EvidenceBasic Principles of the Electromagnetic Wave TheoryFrom Electromagnetic Waves to Quantum ElectrodynamicsTheory, Experiments and QuestionsAnalysis of the Electromagnetic Field Quantization Process and the Photon Vector Potential. The Non-Local Photon Wave-Particle Representation and the Quantum VacuumEpilogue Readership: This book is recommended for advanced postgraduate students and researchers who are interested in Quantum Mechanics and Electrodynamics. Key Features:The main mathematical ambiguities of the quantum electrodynamics formalism are clearly put in evidence, such as: derivation of the Hamiltonian without respecting Heisenberg's commutation relations, lack of an interaction Hamiltonian between the vacuum state and the electrons, singularities … etc.The basic aspect of Quantum Electrodynamics related to the quantization of the vector potential amplitude of the electromagnetic field to a single photon state α0k (ωk) = ξωk, which derives directly from Maxwell's equations, is uniquely described in this manuscriptA coherent mathematical coupling of the electromagnetic wave theory and quantum electrodynamics is fully provided resulting in a unique simultaneous wave particle formalism for the photon, in agreement with the experimental evidenceThe quantum vacuum issues arise naturally from the vector potential quantization procedure and corresponds to a very low energy density, compatible with recent astrophysical observations. Furthermore, it is explicitly expressed as a function of creation and annihilation operators permitting direct interactions with the electronsKeywords:Light;Electromagnetic Field;Second Quantization;Photons;Electrons;Quantum Vacuum

Photobiology

Author : Lars Olof Björn
ISBN : 0387726551
Genre : Science
File Size : 60. 19 MB
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Since the publication of the first edition in 2002, there has been an explosion of new findings and applications in the field of photobiology. This brand new edition is fully updated, includes new references, and offers five new chapters for a comprehensive look at photobiology. The chapters cover all areas of photobiology, photochemistry, and the relationship between light and biology. The book starts with the physics and chemistry of light and then deals with the evolution of photosynthesis. Four chapters deal with how organisms use light for their orientation in space and time. There are also several medically oriented chapters and two chapters specifically aimed at the photobiology educator.

Qed

Author : Richard P. Feynman
ISBN : 9781400847464
Genre : Science
File Size : 32. 81 MB
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Celebrated for his brilliantly quirky insights into the physical world, Nobel laureate Richard Feynman also possessed an extraordinary talent for explaining difficult concepts to the general public. Here Feynman provides a classic and definitive introduction to QED (namely, quantum electrodynamics), that part of quantum field theory describing the interactions of light with charged particles. Using everyday language, spatial concepts, visualizations, and his renowned "Feynman diagrams" instead of advanced mathematics, Feynman clearly and humorously communicates both the substance and spirit of QED to the layperson. A. Zee's introduction places Feynman’s book and his seminal contribution to QED in historical context and further highlights Feynman’s uniquely appealing and illuminating style.

Causal Physics

Author : Chandrasekhar Roychoudhuri
ISBN : 9781466515321
Genre : Science
File Size : 68. 70 MB
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Causal Physics: Photons by Non Interactions of Waves redefines the mathematical Superposition Principle as an operational Superposition Effect; which is the measurable physical transformation experienced by a detector due to stimulations induced by multiple waves simultaneously acting on the detecting dipoles. This light-matter interaction process driven model emerges naturally by incorporating the observed properties, Non-Interaction of Waves (NIW) and quantized photo detectors needing to fill up their "quantum-cups" with the required quantity of energy from all the stimulating waves around it. By not incorporating this NIW-property explicitly, quantum mechanics failed to extract various embedded realities in the theory while incorporated unnecessary hypotheses like wave-particle duality. The book utilizes this NIW-property to explain all the major optical phenomena (diffraction, spectrometry, coherence.) without using any self-contradictory hypotheses that are prevalent now. The book redefines the old ether (constituting the space) as a stationary Complex Tension Field (CTF), holding all the energy of the universe (no need for Dark Energy of Dark Matter). CTF sustains perpetually propagating EM waves as its linear excitations and the particles as self-looped localized resonant non-linear excitations. Tensions are identified by Maxwell, then the velocities of emitting and detecting atoms through the CTF contribute to the Doppler shifts separately. This calls for re-visiting physical processes behind Hubble Redshift and hence Expanding Universe. The success of the book derives from a novel thinking strategy of visualizing the invisible interaction processes, named as Interaction Process Mapping Epistemology (IPM-E). This is over and above the prevailing strategy of Measurable Data Modeling Epistemology (MDM-E). The approach inspires the next generation of physicists to recognizing that the "foundation of the edifice of physics" has not yet been finalized. IPM-E will stimulate more of us to become technology innovators by learning to emulate the ontologically real physical processes in nature and become more evolution congruent. Critical thinkers without expertise in optical science and engineering, will appreciate the value of the content by reading the book backward, starting from Ch.12; which explains the critical thinking methodology besides giving a very brief summary of the contents in the previous chapters. Establishes that abandoning the wave-particle-duality actually allows us to extract more realities out of quantum mechanics. Illustrates how the discovery of the NIW-property profoundly impacts several branches of fundamental physics, including Doppler effect and hence the cosmological red shift Summarizes that many ad hoc hypotheses from physics can be removed, a la Occam’s razor, while improving the reality and comprehension of some of the current working theories Demonstrates that our persistent attempts to restore causality in physical theories will be guided by our capability to visualize the invisible light matter interaction processes that are behind the emergence of all measurable data Draws close attention to the invisible but ontological interaction processes behind various optical phenomena so we can emulate them more efficiently and knowledgably in spite of limitations of our theories Designed as a reference book for general physics and philosophy, this optical science and engineering book is an ideal resource for optical engineers, physicists, and those working with modern optical equipment and high precision instrumentation.

The Present Status Of The Quantum Theory Of Light

Author : Stanley Jeffers
ISBN : 9789401156820
Genre : Science
File Size : 67. 95 MB
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THE PRESENT STATUS OF THE QUANTUM THEORY OF LIGHT In August of 1995, a group of over 70 physicists met at York University for a three-day symposium in honour of Professor Jean-Pierre Vigier. The attendance included theoretical and experimental physicists, mathematicians, astronomers and colleagues concerned with issues in the philosophy of science. The symposium was entitled "The Present Status of the Quantum Theory of Light" in accordance with Professor Vigier's wishes but in fact encompassed many of the areas to which Professor Vigier has contributed over his long and distinguished career. These include stochastic interpretations of quantum mechanics, particle physics, and electromagnetic theory. The papers presented at the symposium have been arranged in this proceedings in the following approximate order: ideas about the nature of light and photons, electrodynamiCS, the formulation and interpretation of quantum mechanics, and aspects of relativity theory. Some of the papers presented deal with alternate interpretations of quantum phenomena in the tradition of Vigier, Bohm et al. These interpretations reject the account given in purely probabilistic terms and which deems individual quantum events to be acausal and not amenable to any analysis in space-time terms. As is well known, Einstein and others also rejected the purely statistical account of quantum mechanics. As stressed by Professor Vigier at the symposium, the current experimental situation now allows for the first time for individual quantum events to be studied, e. g.

Matter And Interactions

Author :
ISBN : 9780470503478
Genre :
File Size : 72. 14 MB
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