the nature of light what is a photon

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The Nature Of Light

Author : Chandra Roychoudhuri
ISBN : 1420044257
Genre : Science
File Size : 54. 89 MB
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Focusing on the unresolved debate between Newton and Huygens from 300 years ago, The Nature of Light: What is a Photon? discusses the reality behind enigmatic photons. It explores the fundamental issues pertaining to light that still exist today. Gathering contributions from globally recognized specialists in electrodynamics and quantum optics, the book begins by clearly presenting the mainstream view of the nature of light and photons. It then provides a new and challenging scientific epistemology that explains how to overcome the prevailing paradoxes and confusions arising from the accepted definition of a photon as a monochromatic Fourier mode of the vacuum. The book concludes with an array of experiments that demonstrate the innovative thinking needed to examine the wave-particle duality of photons. Looking at photons from both mainstream and out-of-box viewpoints, this volume is sure to inspire the next generation of quantum optics scientists and engineers to go beyond the Copenhagen interpretation and formulate new conceptual ideas about light–matter interactions and substantiate them through inventive applications.

Light And Vacuum

Author : Constantin Meis
ISBN : 9789814630917
Genre : Science
File Size : 63. 55 MB
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Light and Vacuum presents a synthesis of selected fundamental topics of electromagnetic wave theory and quantum electrodynamics (QED) and analyzes the main theoretical difficulties encountered to ensure a coherent mathematical description of the simultaneous wave–particle nature of light, put in evidence by the experiments. The notion and the role of the quantum vacuum, strongly related to light, are extensively investigated. Classical electrodynamics issued from Maxwell's equations revealed the necessity of introducing the notion of volume for an electromagnetic wave to stand entailing precise values of cut-off wavelengths to account for the shape and dimensions of the surrounding space. Conversely, in QED, light is considered to be composed of point particles disregarding the conceptual question on how the frequency of oscillating electric and magnetic fields may be attributed to a point particle. To conciliate these concepts, the book provides a comprehensive overview of the author's work, including innovative contributions on the quantization of the vector potential amplitude at a single photon state, the non-local simultaneous wave–particle mathematical representation of the photon and finally the quantum vacuum. The purpose of the advanced elaborations is to raise questions, give hints and answers, and finally aspire for further theoretical and experimental studies in order to improve our knowledge and understanding on the real essence of Light and Vacuum. Contents:IntroductionHistorical Survey and Experimental EvidenceBasic Principles of the Electromagnetic Wave TheoryFrom Electromagnetic Waves to Quantum ElectrodynamicsTheory, Experiments and QuestionsAnalysis of the Electromagnetic Field Quantization Process and the Photon Vector Potential. The Non-Local Photon Wave-Particle Representation and the Quantum VacuumEpilogue Readership: This book is recommended for advanced postgraduate students and researchers who are interested in Quantum Mechanics and Electrodynamics. Key Features:The main mathematical ambiguities of the quantum electrodynamics formalism are clearly put in evidence, such as: derivation of the Hamiltonian without respecting Heisenberg's commutation relations, lack of an interaction Hamiltonian between the vacuum state and the electrons, singularities … etc.The basic aspect of Quantum Electrodynamics related to the quantization of the vector potential amplitude of the electromagnetic field to a single photon state α0k (ωk) = ξωk, which derives directly from Maxwell's equations, is uniquely described in this manuscriptA coherent mathematical coupling of the electromagnetic wave theory and quantum electrodynamics is fully provided resulting in a unique simultaneous wave particle formalism for the photon, in agreement with the experimental evidenceThe quantum vacuum issues arise naturally from the vector potential quantization procedure and corresponds to a very low energy density, compatible with recent astrophysical observations. Furthermore, it is explicitly expressed as a function of creation and annihilation operators permitting direct interactions with the electronsKeywords:Light;Electromagnetic Field;Second Quantization;Photons;Electrons;Quantum Vacuum

The Photon

Author : Trilochan Pradhan
ISBN : 1560729287
Genre : Science
File Size : 80. 26 MB
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This book is about Maxwell's electromagnetic theory of light. First, it is a fully relativistic theory without having a non-relativistic limit. There arise many difficulties in quantising the electromagnetic field and in the physical interpretation of the wavefunction of its quanta. Further, the first quantisation of the Maxwell equations similar to quantisation of classical mechanics by the Schrodinger method, has not been discussed in most books on quantum mechanics. Second, the Maxwell field is the simplest gauge field possessing symmetry with respect to Poincare group of transformations in addition to scale, duality and special conformal transformations whose local versions give rise to new interaction of photons through new gauge fields. One of these gauge fields couples to the spin density of the photon and other particles and can bind fermion-antifermion pairs to give transverse photons. Another interesting aspect of the electromagnetic field is its coherence properties and their interpretation in terms of quantised theory.

The Photon

Author : Alfred B. Bortz
ISBN : 0823945316
Genre : Juvenile Nonfiction
File Size : 31. 8 MB
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Describes the photon, a particle of electromagnetic energy and the various people key to its discovery.

A Gestalt Aether Theory On The Nature Of Light And Related Phenomena

Author : Dilip D James
ISBN :
Genre : Education
File Size : 55. 86 MB
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Gestalt Aether Theory recognizes that a reality must exist outside of the ordered Universe that we live in, but claims that it is a reality that is represented by chaos, where anything can and does happen; where multiple Universes are possible and where time, place and causality have no meaning. Gestalt Aether Theory explains physics in terms of the ordered Universe that we live in; quantum mechanics and Standard Theory attempt to explain physics in terms of the chaos that exists outside of the ordered universe. Take for instance the propagation of light from a point A to a point B situated a hundred meters away. Quantum mechanics would have one believe that from the time that light leaves the point of origin to the time that it is detected, that it ceases to have a corporeal existence and exists instead as a probability wave-function. In this state it is everywhere and nowhere at once, in order to cover the hundred meters from point A to B it has to first enter into multiple Universes ( hence the multi-verse theory ). GAT on the other hand explains the propagation of light from A to B in terms that reflect reality. According to Gestalt Aether theory light travels through a medium and as a consequence spreads out in accordance with the inverse square law. GAT, states that light is a wave possessing some of the characteristics of a particle, somewhat like the ultrasonic sound waves used in lithotripsy, where a sound wave is used to break stones; namely a wave that possesses some of the properties of a particle, and can therefore retain its individual energy ( Identity) independently of the intensity of the wave. Thus light in GAT (Gestalt Aether Theory) propagates just as any other wave travelling in a medium. It follows the same rules as the waves that are created when a stone is dropped into a pool of water. The whole of the ordered Universe, including gravity, neutrinos, radio-waves and super-conductivity are explained in similar terms.

Lichtquanten

Author : Klaus Hentschel
ISBN : 9783662552735
Genre : Science
File Size : 31. 50 MB
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Dieses Buch beschäftigt sich mit der Entstehungsgeschichte des komplexen Konzeptes des Photons aus wissenschaftshistorischer, kognitionspsychologischer und naturwissenschaftlicher Sicht. Dabei werden unter anderem sechs verschiedene mentale Modelle des Lichtquantums bzw. Photons diskutiert und der Bogen vom Teilchenmodell Newtons, dem Singularitätsmodell Einstein und Bohrs bis zum modernen Konzept der Quantisierung des elektromagnetischen Feldes in der Quantenelektrodynamik gespannt. Der Autor beschäftigt sich zuerst mit der Entwicklungsgeschichte des Photons innerhalb der modernen Physik ab 1900, bevor er die zwölf semantischen Bedeutungsschichten des Photons ausgehend vom Anfang des 20. Jahrhunderts präsentiert. Anschließend werden die mentalen Modelle im Laufe der Geschichte bis zur Moderne beschrieben und diskutiert und das heutige Modell des Photons besprochen. Das Buch richtet sich sowohl an Naturwissenschaftler mit physikalischem Hintergrund als auch an Wissenscha ftshistoriker und Andere, die sich mit der Begriffs- und Ideengeschichte von Konzepten auseinandersetzen.

The Nature Of Light

Author : Chandrasekhar Roychoudhuri
ISBN : 1628417366
Genre : Bioluminescence
File Size : 51. 12 MB
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Proceedings of SPIE present the original research papers presented at SPIE conferences and other high-quality conferences in the broad-ranging fields of optics and photonics. These books provide prompt access to the latest innovations in research and technology in their respective fields. Proceedings of SPIE are among the most cited references in patent literature.

Qed

Author : Richard P. Feynman
ISBN : 9783492959865
Genre : Science
File Size : 57. 50 MB
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Richard P. Feynman (1918–1988) erhielt 1965 für seine Beiträge zur Quantenelektrodynamik (QED) den Nobelpreis für Physik. Seine spektakulären Arbeiten zur »Theorie des Lichts und der Materie« erklärt der »brillanteste, respektloseste und einflussreichste theoretische Physiker der Nachkriegszeit« (The New York Times) hier auch für Nichtphysiker.

New Scientist

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ISBN :
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File Size : 90. 50 MB
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New Scientist magazine was launched in 1956 "for all those men and women who are interested in scientific discovery, and in its industrial, commercial and social consequences". The brand's mission is no different today - for its consumers, New Scientist reports, explores and interprets the results of human endeavour set in the context of society and culture.

The Present Status Of The Quantum Theory Of Light

Author : Stanley Jeffers
ISBN : 9789401156820
Genre : Science
File Size : 63. 9 MB
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THE PRESENT STATUS OF THE QUANTUM THEORY OF LIGHT In August of 1995, a group of over 70 physicists met at York University for a three-day symposium in honour of Professor Jean-Pierre Vigier. The attendance included theoretical and experimental physicists, mathematicians, astronomers and colleagues concerned with issues in the philosophy of science. The symposium was entitled "The Present Status of the Quantum Theory of Light" in accordance with Professor Vigier's wishes but in fact encompassed many of the areas to which Professor Vigier has contributed over his long and distinguished career. These include stochastic interpretations of quantum mechanics, particle physics, and electromagnetic theory. The papers presented at the symposium have been arranged in this proceedings in the following approximate order: ideas about the nature of light and photons, electrodynamiCS, the formulation and interpretation of quantum mechanics, and aspects of relativity theory. Some of the papers presented deal with alternate interpretations of quantum phenomena in the tradition of Vigier, Bohm et al. These interpretations reject the account given in purely probabilistic terms and which deems individual quantum events to be acausal and not amenable to any analysis in space-time terms. As is well known, Einstein and others also rejected the purely statistical account of quantum mechanics. As stressed by Professor Vigier at the symposium, the current experimental situation now allows for the first time for individual quantum events to be studied, e. g.

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