# the nature of light what is a photon

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## The Nature Of Light

**Author :**Chandra Roychoudhuri

**ISBN :**1420044257

**Genre :**Science

**File Size :**66. 98 MB

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Focusing on the unresolved debate between Newton and Huygens from 300 years ago, The Nature of Light: What is a Photon? discusses the reality behind enigmatic photons. It explores the fundamental issues pertaining to light that still exist today. Gathering contributions from globally recognized specialists in electrodynamics and quantum optics, the book begins by clearly presenting the mainstream view of the nature of light and photons. It then provides a new and challenging scientific epistemology that explains how to overcome the prevailing paradoxes and confusions arising from the accepted definition of a photon as a monochromatic Fourier mode of the vacuum. The book concludes with an array of experiments that demonstrate the innovative thinking needed to examine the wave-particle duality of photons. Looking at photons from both mainstream and out-of-box viewpoints, this volume is sure to inspire the next generation of quantum optics scientists and engineers to go beyond the Copenhagen interpretation and formulate new conceptual ideas about light–matter interactions and substantiate them through inventive applications.

## Light The Physics Of The Photon

**Author :**Ole Keller

**ISBN :**9781439840443

**Genre :**Science

**File Size :**58. 78 MB

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From the early wave-particle arguments to the mathematical theory of electromagnetism to Einstein’s work on the quantization of light, different descriptions of what constitutes light have existed for over 300 years. Light – The Physics of the Photon examines the photon phenomenon from several perspectives. It demonstrates the importance of studying the photon as a concept belonging to a global vacuum (matter-free space). Divided into eight parts, the book begins with exploring aspects of classical optics in a global vacuum on the basis of free-space Maxwell equations. It then describes light rays and geodesics and presents a brief account of the Maxwell theory in general relativity. After discussing the theory of photon wave mechanics, the author gives a field-quantized description of the electromagnetic field, emphasizing single-photon quantum optics in Minkowskian space. He next focuses on photon physics in the rim zone of matter, paying particular attention to photon emission processes. He also takes a closer look at the photon source domain and field propagators, which conveniently describe the photon field propagation in the vicinity of and far from the electronic source domain. The last two parts discuss the photon vacuum and light quanta in Minkowskian space as well as two-photon entanglement, which is associated with the biphoton in space-time.

## Collective Electrodynamics

**Author :**Carver Mead

**ISBN :**0262632608

**Genre :**Science

**File Size :**31. 62 MB

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Carver Mead offers a radically new approach to the standard problems of electromagnetic theory.

## A Gestalt Aether Theory On The Nature Of Light And Related Phenomena

**Author :**Dilip D James

**ISBN :**

**Genre :**Education

**File Size :**71. 5 MB

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Gestalt Aether Theory recognizes that a reality must exist outside of the ordered Universe that we live in, but claims that it is a reality that is represented by chaos, where anything can and does happen; where multiple Universes are possible and where time, place and causality have no meaning. Gestalt Aether Theory explains physics in terms of the ordered Universe that we live in; quantum mechanics and Standard Theory attempt to explain physics in terms of the chaos that exists outside of the ordered universe. Take for instance the propagation of light from a point A to a point B situated a hundred meters away. Quantum mechanics would have one believe that from the time that light leaves the point of origin to the time that it is detected, that it ceases to have a corporeal existence and exists instead as a probability wave-function. In this state it is everywhere and nowhere at once, in order to cover the hundred meters from point A to B it has to first enter into multiple Universes ( hence the multi-verse theory ). GAT on the other hand explains the propagation of light from A to B in terms that reflect reality. According to Gestalt Aether theory light travels through a medium and as a consequence spreads out in accordance with the inverse square law. GAT, states that light is a wave possessing some of the characteristics of a particle, somewhat like the ultrasonic sound waves used in lithotripsy, where a sound wave is used to break stones; namely a wave that possesses some of the properties of a particle, and can therefore retain its individual energy ( Identity) independently of the intensity of the wave. Thus light in GAT (Gestalt Aether Theory) propagates just as any other wave travelling in a medium. It follows the same rules as the waves that are created when a stone is dropped into a pool of water. The whole of the ordered Universe, including gravity, neutrinos, radio-waves and super-conductivity are explained in similar terms.

## The Present Status Of The Quantum Theory Of Light

**Author :**Stanley Jeffers

**ISBN :**9789401156820

**Genre :**Science

**File Size :**89. 86 MB

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THE PRESENT STATUS OF THE QUANTUM THEORY OF LIGHT In August of 1995, a group of over 70 physicists met at York University for a three-day symposium in honour of Professor Jean-Pierre Vigier. The attendance included theoretical and experimental physicists, mathematicians, astronomers and colleagues concerned with issues in the philosophy of science. The symposium was entitled "The Present Status of the Quantum Theory of Light" in accordance with Professor Vigier's wishes but in fact encompassed many of the areas to which Professor Vigier has contributed over his long and distinguished career. These include stochastic interpretations of quantum mechanics, particle physics, and electromagnetic theory. The papers presented at the symposium have been arranged in this proceedings in the following approximate order: ideas about the nature of light and photons, electrodynamiCS, the formulation and interpretation of quantum mechanics, and aspects of relativity theory. Some of the papers presented deal with alternate interpretations of quantum phenomena in the tradition of Vigier, Bohm et al. These interpretations reject the account given in purely probabilistic terms and which deems individual quantum events to be acausal and not amenable to any analysis in space-time terms. As is well known, Einstein and others also rejected the purely statistical account of quantum mechanics. As stressed by Professor Vigier at the symposium, the current experimental situation now allows for the first time for individual quantum events to be studied, e. g.

## Light And Vacuum

**Author :**Constantin Meis

**ISBN :**9789814630917

**Genre :**Science

**File Size :**71. 52 MB

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Light and Vacuum presents a synthesis of selected fundamental topics of electromagnetic wave theory and quantum electrodynamics (QED) and analyzes the main theoretical difficulties encountered to ensure a coherent mathematical description of the simultaneous wave–particle nature of light, put in evidence by the experiments. The notion and the role of the quantum vacuum, strongly related to light, are extensively investigated. Classical electrodynamics issued from Maxwell's equations revealed the necessity of introducing the notion of volume for an electromagnetic wave to stand entailing precise values of cut-off wavelengths to account for the shape and dimensions of the surrounding space. Conversely, in QED, light is considered to be composed of point particles disregarding the conceptual question on how the frequency of oscillating electric and magnetic fields may be attributed to a point particle. To conciliate these concepts, the book provides a comprehensive overview of the author's work, including innovative contributions on the quantization of the vector potential amplitude at a single photon state, the non-local simultaneous wave–particle mathematical representation of the photon and finally the quantum vacuum. The purpose of the advanced elaborations is to raise questions, give hints and answers, and finally aspire for further theoretical and experimental studies in order to improve our knowledge and understanding on the real essence of Light and Vacuum. Contents:IntroductionHistorical Survey and Experimental EvidenceBasic Principles of the Electromagnetic Wave TheoryFrom Electromagnetic Waves to Quantum ElectrodynamicsTheory, Experiments and QuestionsAnalysis of the Electromagnetic Field Quantization Process and the Photon Vector Potential. The Non-Local Photon Wave-Particle Representation and the Quantum VacuumEpilogue Readership: This book is recommended for advanced postgraduate students and researchers who are interested in Quantum Mechanics and Electrodynamics. Key Features:The main mathematical ambiguities of the quantum electrodynamics formalism are clearly put in evidence, such as: derivation of the Hamiltonian without respecting Heisenberg's commutation relations, lack of an interaction Hamiltonian between the vacuum state and the electrons, singularities … etc.The basic aspect of Quantum Electrodynamics related to the quantization of the vector potential amplitude of the electromagnetic field to a single photon state α0k (ωk) = ξωk, which derives directly from Maxwell's equations, is uniquely described in this manuscriptA coherent mathematical coupling of the electromagnetic wave theory and quantum electrodynamics is fully provided resulting in a unique simultaneous wave particle formalism for the photon, in agreement with the experimental evidenceThe quantum vacuum issues arise naturally from the vector potential quantization procedure and corresponds to a very low energy density, compatible with recent astrophysical observations. Furthermore, it is explicitly expressed as a function of creation and annihilation operators permitting direct interactions with the electronsKeywords:Light;Electromagnetic Field;Second Quantization;Photons;Electrons;Quantum Vacuum

## The Story Of Light Science

**Author :**Dennis F. Vanderwerf

**ISBN :**9783319643168

**Genre :**Technology & Engineering

**File Size :**74. 39 MB

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This book traces the evolution of our understanding and utilization of light from classical antiquity and the early thoughts of Pythagoras to the present time. From the earliest recorded theories and experiments to the latest applications in photonic communication and computation, the ways in which light has been put to use are numerous and astounding. Indeed, some of the latest advances in light science are in fields that until recently belonged to the realm of science fiction. The author, writing for an audience of both students and other scientifically interested readers, describes fundamental investigations of the nature of light and ongoing methods to measure its speed as well as the emergence of the wave theory of light and the complementary photon theory. The importance of light in the theory of relativity is discussed as is the development of electrically-driven light sources and lasers. The information here covers the range o f weak single-photon light sources to super-high power lasers and synchrotron light sources. Many cutting-edge topics are also introduced, including entanglement-based quantum communication through optical fibers and free space, quantum teleportation, and quantum computing. The nature and use of "squeezed light" - e.g. for gravitational wave detection - is another fascinating excursion, as is the topic of fabricated metamaterials, as used to create invisibility cloaks. Here the reader also learns about the realization of extremely slow speed and time-reversed light. The theories, experiments, and applications described in this book are, whenever possible, derived from original references. The many annotated drawings and level of detail make clear the goals, procedures, and conclusions of the original investigators. Where they are required, all specialist terms and mathematical symbols are defined and explained. The final part of the book covers light expe riments in the free space of the cosmos, and also speculates about scenarios for the cosmological origins of light and the expected fate of the photon in a dying universe.

## The Photon

**Author :**Trilochan Pradhan

**ISBN :**1560729287

**Genre :**Science

**File Size :**83. 83 MB

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This book is about Maxwell's electromagnetic theory of light. First, it is a fully relativistic theory without having a non-relativistic limit. There arise many difficulties in quantising the electromagnetic field and in the physical interpretation of the wavefunction of its quanta. Further, the first quantisation of the Maxwell equations similar to quantisation of classical mechanics by the Schrodinger method, has not been discussed in most books on quantum mechanics. Second, the Maxwell field is the simplest gauge field possessing symmetry with respect to Poincare group of transformations in addition to scale, duality and special conformal transformations whose local versions give rise to new interaction of photons through new gauge fields. One of these gauge fields couples to the spin density of the photon and other particles and can bind fermion-antifermion pairs to give transverse photons. Another interesting aspect of the electromagnetic field is its coherence properties and their interpretation in terms of quantised theory.

## The Quantum Theory Of Light

**Author :**Rodney Loudon

**ISBN :**0191589780

**Genre :**

**File Size :**20. 8 MB

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This third edition, like its two predecessors, provides a detailed account of the basic theory needed to understand the properties of light and its interactions with atoms, in particular the many nonclassical effects that have now been observed in quantum-optical experiments. The earlier chapters describe the quantum mechanics of various optical processes, leading from the classical representation of the electromagnetic field to the quantum theory of light. The later chapters develop the theoretical descriptions of some of the key experiments in quantum optics. Over half of the material in this third edition is new. It includes topics that have come into prominence over the last two decades, such as the beamsplitter theory, squeezed light, two-photon interference, balanced homodyne detection, travelling-wave attenuation and amplification, quantum jumps, and the ranges of nonliner optical processes important in the generation of nonclassical light. The book is written as a textbook, with the treatment as a whole appropriate for graduate or postgraduate students, while earlier chapters are also suitable for final- year undergraduates. Over 100 problems help to intensify the understanding of the material presented.

## Dance Of The Photons

**Author :**Anton Zeilinger

**ISBN :**9781429963794

**Genre :**Science

**File Size :**39. 25 MB

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Einstein's steadfast refusal to accept certain aspects of quantum theory was rooted in his insistence that physics has to be about reality. Accordingly, he once derided as "spooky action at a distance" the notion that two elementary particles far removed from each other could nonetheless influence each other's properties—a hypothetical phenomenon his fellow theorist Erwin Schrödinger termed "quantum entanglement." In a series of ingenious experiments conducted in various locations—from a dank sewage tunnel under the Danube River to the balmy air between a pair of mountain peaks in the Canary Islands—the author and his colleagues have demonstrated the reality of such entanglement using photons, or light quanta, created by laser beams. In principle the lessons learned may be applicable in other areas, including the eventual development of quantum computers.