the photochemistry of atmospheres

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The Photochemistry Of Atmospheres

Author : Joel Levine
ISBN : 9780323146630
Genre : Science
File Size : 30. 95 MB
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The Photochemistry of Atmospheres: Earth, the Other Planets, and Comets discusses the photochemical and chemical processes in atmospheres This book focuses on the earth’s atmosphere in the past, present, and future, atmospheres of other planets and their satellites, and comets. General topics in atmospheric photochemistry, such as composition and structure, transfer of incoming solar radiation, and principles governing the rates of photochemical and chemical processes are also elaborated. This text also covers the role of eddy and molecular transport and continuity-transport equation used in theoretical numerical modeling studies. This publication is recommended for advanced-level courses in the atmospheric and planetary sciences, as well as reference for those interested in learning about atmospheric/climatic environmental problems, their causes and consequences, and discoveries concerning the atmospheres of neighboring worlds.

Photochemistry Of Planetary Atmospheres

Author : Yuk Ling Yung
ISBN : 9780195105018
Genre : Science
File Size : 38. 69 MB
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This valuable reference presents detailed studies of eleven planetary atmospheres at the same time it offers an extensive survey of the principal chemical cycles that control the present composition and past history of these planetary atmospheres.

Photochemistry Of The Atmospheres Of Mars And Venus

Author : Vladimir A. Krasnopolsky
ISBN : 9783642704017
Genre : Science
File Size : 73. 38 MB
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Spacecraft study of the Solar system is one of humanity's most outstanding achievements. Thanks to this study, our present knowledge of properties of and conditions on the planets exceeds many-fold that of 20 years ago: planets have been rediscovered. This is especially the case for planetary atmospheres, whose properties were for the most part either not at all or only erroneously known. Much research has been invested in the study of the atmospheres of Mars and Venus, and their chemical composition and photochemistry are basic problems in these studies. In the present publication I have tried to summarize all findings in this field. The English version of the book includes new data in the field from the last 3 years since the book was published in Russian. I wish to thank U. von Zahn, who initiated my talks with Springer-Verlag and acted as technical editor. December 2, 1985 V. A. KRASNOPOLSKY Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 Chemical Composition and Structure of the Martian Atmosphere 4 1. 1 Carbon Dioxide and Atmospheric Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1. 2 CO and O Mixing Ratios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2 1. 3 Ozone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 1. 4 Water Vapor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 1. 5 Composition of the Upper Atmosphere as Determined from Airglow Spectroscopy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 1. 6 Mass Spectrometric Measurements of the Atmospheric Composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 1. 7 Ionospheric Composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 1. 8 Temperature Profile of the Lower Atmosphere. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 1. 9 Temperature of the Upper Atmosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 1. 10 Eddy Diffusion Coefficient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 2 Photochemistry of the Martian Atmosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Chemistry Of The Upper And Lower Atmosphere

Author : Barbara J. Finlayson-Pitts
ISBN : 0080529070
Genre : Science
File Size : 82. 37 MB
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Here is the most comprehensive and up-to-date treatment of one of the hottest areas of chemical research. The treatment of fundamental kinetics and photochemistry will be highly useful to chemistry students and their instructors at the graduate level, as well as postdoctoral fellows entering this new, exciting, and well-funded field with a Ph.D. in a related discipline (e.g., analytical, organic, or physical chemistry, chemical physics, etc.). Chemistry of the Upper and Lower Atmosphere provides postgraduate researchers and teachers with a uniquely detailed, comprehensive, and authoritative resource. The text bridges the "gap" between the fundamental chemistry of the earth's atmosphere and "real world" examples of its application to the development of sound scientific risk assessments and associated risk management control strategies for both tropospheric and stratospheric pollutants. Serves as a graduate textbook and "must have" reference for all atmospheric scientists Provides more than 5000 references to the literature through the end of 1998 Presents tables of new actinic flux data for the troposphere and stratospher (0-40km) Summarizes kinetic and photochemical date for the troposphere and stratosphere Features problems at the end of most chapters to enhance the book's use in teaching Includes applications of the OZIPR box model with comprehensive chemistry for student use

The Atmosphere And Climate Of Mars

Author : Robert M. Haberle
ISBN : 9781108179386
Genre : Science
File Size : 35. 22 MB
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Humanity has long been fascinated by the planet Mars. Was its climate ever conducive to life? What is the atmosphere like today and why did it change so dramatically over time? Eleven spacecraft have successfully flown to Mars since the Viking mission of the 1970s and early 1980s. These orbiters, landers and rovers have generated vast amounts of data that now span a Martian decade (roughly eighteen years). This new volume brings together the many new ideas about the atmosphere and climate system that have emerged, including the complex interplay of the volatile and dust cycles, the atmosphere-surface interactions that connect them over time, and the diversity of the planet's environment and its complex history. Including tutorials and explanations of complicated ideas, students, researchers and non-specialists alike are able to use this resource to gain a thorough and up-to-date understanding of this most Earth-like of planetary neighbours.

Atmospheric Chemistry

Author : Julian Heicklen
ISBN : 9780323151108
Genre : Science
File Size : 74. 64 MB
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Atmospheric Chemistry is a comprehensive treatment of atmospheric chemistry and covers topics ranging from the structure of the atmosphere to the chemistry of the upper atmosphere and the ionosphere. Atmospheric pollutants, hydrocarbon oxidation, and photochemical smog are also discussed, along with the reactions of O8 and singlet O2, the chemistry of SO2 and aerosols, and methods for controlling atmospheric pollution. This book is comprised of 10 chapters and begins with an overview of the composition and chemistry of the atmosphere as well as its physical characteristics and the chemistry of meteors. The next two chapters deal with the chemistry of the upper atmosphere and the ionosphere, with emphasis on neutral oxygen atmosphere, carbon-hydrogen-oxygen cycle, and the D region. The chemistry of atmospheric pollutants is also examined, along with hydrocarbon oxidation and photochemical smog. The remaining chapters focus on the reactions of O8 and singlet O2, the chemistry of SO2 and aerosols, and methods for controlling atmospheric pollution. This monograph should be useful to graduate students and scientists who wish to study atmospheric chemistry.

Photochemistry Of Air Pollution

Author : Philip Leighton
ISBN : 9780323156455
Genre : Science
File Size : 61. 68 MB
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Photochemistry of Air Pollution provides information pertinent to air pollution and atmospheric chemistry. This book discusses the photochemical reactions produced by sunlight may convert relatively harmless pollutants into substances that constitute a nuisance, create possible health hazard, and cause economic problem to humans. Organized into 10 chapters, this book starts with an overview of the problem of air pollution, particularly photochemical smog. This text then discusses the factors that collectively determine the amount and spectral distribution of the radiation entering a surface layer of the atmosphere. Other chapters compare the specific absorption rates of several absorbers that are present in the air during periods of photochemical smog, including oxygen, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, ketones, peroxides, and particulate matter. The final chapter deals with the process of formation of the substances responsible for the physiological effects of eye irritation and plant damage. This book is a valuable resource for photochemists and air pollution scientists.

Applied Photochemistry

Author : Rachel C. Evans
ISBN : 9789048138302
Genre : Science
File Size : 62. 88 MB
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Applied Photochemistry encompasses the major applications of the chemical effects resulting from light absorption by atoms and molecules in chemistry, physics, medicine and engineering, and contains contributions from specialists in these key areas. Particular emphasis is placed both on how photochemistry contributes to these disciplines and on what the current developments are. The book starts with a general description of the interaction between light and matter, which provides the general background to photochemistry for non-specialists. The following chapters develop the general synthetic and mechanistic aspects of photochemistry as applied to both organic and inorganic materials, together with types of materials which are useful as light absorbers, emitters, sensitisers, etc. for a wide variety of applications. A detailed discussion is presented on the photochemical processes occurring in the Earth’s atmosphere, including discussion of important current aspects such as ozone depletion. Two important distinct, but interconnected, applications of photochemistry are in photocatalytic treatment of wastes and in solar energy conversion. Semiconductor photochemistry plays an important role in these and is discussed with reference to both of these areas. Free radicals and reactive oxygen species are of major importance in many chemical, biological and medical applications of photochemistry, and are discussed in depth. The following chapters discuss the relevance of using light in medicine, both with various types of phototherapy and in medical diagnostics. The development of optical sensors and probes is closely related to diagnostics, but is also relevant to many other applications, and is discussed separately. Important aspects of applied photochemistry in electronics and imaging, through processes such as photolithography, are discussed and it is shown how this is allowing the increasing miniaturisation of semiconductor devices for a wide variety of electronics applications and the development of nanometer scale devices. The final two chapters provide the basic ideas necessary to set up a photochemical laboratory and to characterise excited states. This book is aimed at those in science, engineering and medicine who are interested in applying photochemistry in a broad spectrum of areas. Each chapter has the basic theories and methods for its particular applications and directs the reader to the current, important literature in the field, making Applied Photochemistry suitable for both the novice and the experienced photochemist.

The Observations And Photochemistry Of Atmospheric Ozone And Their Meteorological Significance

Author : Richard Craig
ISBN : 9781935704881
Genre : Science
File Size : 51. 16 MB
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The objectives of the American Meteorological Society are "the development and dissemination of knowledge of meteorology in all its phases and applications, and the advancement of its professional ideals." The organization of the Society took place in affiliation with the American Association for the Advancement of Science at Saint Louis, Missouri, December 29, 1919, and its incorporation, at Washington, D. C., January 21, 1920. The work of the Society is carried on by the Bulletin, the Journal, and Meteorological Monographs, by papers and discussions at meetings of the Society, through the offices of the Secretary and the Executive Secretary, and by correspondence. All of the Americas are represented in the membership of the Society as well as many foreign countries.

Atmospheric Measurements During Popcorn Characterisation Of The Photochemistry Over A Rural Area

Author : J. Rudolph
ISBN : 9789401708135
Genre : Science
File Size : 20. 43 MB
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Present policy issues concern the reduction of ozone levels by controlling its precursors, NOx and volatile organic compounds (VOC). VOC are emitted from anthropogenic and biogenic sources. Whereas our understanding of VOC emissions from anthropogenic sources has advanced significantly in recent years, there is still a lack of knowledge concerning the contribution of biogenic VOC to the budget of organic trace gases and their impact on the formation of ozone in the troposphere. Improving ozone reduction strategies in the future requires a detailed understanding of the chemical processes in the troposphere. This book comprises the results of atmospheric measurements obtained during the field campaign POPCORN (Photo-Oxidant Formation by Plant Emitted Compounds and OH Radicals in North-Eastern Germany) which was carried out to investigate the role and impact of biogenic trace gases on tropospheric chemistry. This volume describes meteorological situations and origins of air masses during the campaign, and presents measurements of a variety of trace gases, solar radiation and photolysis frequencies. Special attention is given to OH radical measurements and the in-situ comparison of the two OH measurement techniques.

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