the politics and rhetoric of scientific method historical studies studies in history and philosophy of science

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The Politics And Rhetoric Of Scientific Method

Author : J. Schuster
ISBN : 9789400945609
Genre : History
File Size : 61. 34 MB
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The institutionalization of History and Philosophy of Science as a distinct field of scholarly endeavour began comparatively earl- though not always under that name - in the Australasian region. An initial lecturing appointment was made at the University of Melbourne immediately after the Second World War, in 1946, and other appoint ments followed as the subject underwent an expansion during the 1950s and 1960s similar to that which took place in other parts of the world. Today there are major Departments at the University of Melbourne, the University of New South Wales and the University of Wollongong, and smaller groups active in many other parts of Australia and in New Zealand. "Australasian Studies in History and Philosophy of Science" aims to provide a distinctive publication outlet for Australian and New Zealand scholars working in the general area of history, philosophy and social studies of science. Each volume comprises a group of essays on a connected theme, edited by an Australian or a New Zealander with special expertise in that particular area. Papers address general issues, however, rather than local ones; parochial topics are avoided. Further more, though in each volume a majority of the contributors is from Australia or New Zealand, contributions from elsewhere are by no means ruled out. Quite the reverse, in fact - they are actively encour aged wherever appropriate to the balance of the volume in question.

From Discrete To Continuous

Author : K. Neal
ISBN : 9789401700771
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 88. 37 MB
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In the early modern period, a crucial transformation occurred in the classical conception of number and magnitude. Traditionally, numbers were merely collections of discrete units that measured some multiple. Magnitude, on the other hand, was usually described as being continuous, or being divisible into parts that are infinitely divisible. This traditional idea of discrete number versus continuous magnitude was challenged in the early modern period in several ways. This detailed study explores how the development of algebraic symbolism, logarithms, and the growing practical demands for an expanded number concept all contributed to a broadening of the number concept in early modern England. An interest in solving practical problems was not, in itself, enough to cause a generalisation of the number concept. It was the combined impact of novel practical applications together with the concomitant development of such mathematical advances as algebraic notation and logarithms that produced a broadened number concept.

Theatrum Philosophicum

Author : Claus Zittel
ISBN : 9783050061306
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 47. 9 MB
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Zu den wenigen unumstößlichen Gewissheiten in der Philosophiegeschichtsschreibung zählt die Lehrmeinung, Descartes sei der Ahnherr des philosophischen Rationalismus, also einer Philosophie, die der sinnlichen Erkenntnis misstraue und einzig aus von der Vernunft intuitiv erkannten ersten Prinzipien alle weiteren Kenntnisse mit mathematischer Sicherheit deduziere. Die Anschauung habe seither als eigenständiges Erkenntnisorgan ausgedient, Bilder wurden in der Philosophie liquidiert. Schaut man jedoch nicht nur in die wenigen Texte, auf denen das klassische Descartes-Bild basiert, stellt man mit Verwunderung fest, dass Descartes weit mehr als jeder andere Philosoph der Frühen Neuzeit Bilder zur Unterstützung seiner Argumentationen eingesetzt hat. Diese Bilder sind weitgehend unbekannt. Ausgehend von Descartes’ ästhetischer Frühphilosophie, werden in der vorliegenden Arbeit zunächst die rhetorischen Muster und kognitiven Ansprüche von Descartes’ Metaphern und der Traumerzählung analysiert. Vor diesem Hintergrund werden dann die Entwicklungen und Transformationen ästhetischer Konzepte in ihrer jeweiligen Funktion für seine Naturphilosophie aufgezeigt. Descartes legt u. a. seine Schriften als Schule des Sehens an und versucht, die Imagination des Lesers zu kontrollieren und zugleich Naturphänomene bildhaft zu konzeptualisieren. Die Modi der Erfahrung und die Weisen der Erklärung werden durch die Bilder erweitert und neu konzipiert. Dadurch verändert und erweitert sich nicht zuletzt auch Descartes’ Verständnis von Deduktion und Methode. In manchen Fällen lässt sich sogar zeigen, dass die Abbildungen die Argumentationen Descartes nicht nur unterstützten, sondern sogar erst ermöglichen.

Zwischen Texttradition Und Methode

Author : Susanne Mahler
ISBN : STANFORD:36105114761138
Genre : French literature
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The Literary Structure Of Scientific Argument

Author : Peter Dear
ISBN : 9781512801590
Genre : Science
File Size : 88. 3 MB
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In this volume, seven historians of science examine the historical creation and meaning of a range of scientific textual forms from the seventeenth to the late nineteenth centuries. They consider examples from the fields of chemistry, medicine, physics, zoology, physiology, and mathematics, exposing the rich possibilities for a new, historically rooted approach to our scientific cultural heritage. Peter Dear presents the case for "taking texts seriously"—asking historians of science to confront issues and techniques moving to the forefront in a number of disciplines, and asking literary scholars and literary-minded intellectual historians not to "put science quietly to one side," or treat it as a mere source of cultural metaphors, but to understand it in terms of historically specific textual construction. The Literary Structure of Scientific Argument will interest historians, philosophers, and sociologists, as well as literary scholars concerned with science.

Boston Studies In The Philosophy Of Science

Author : Ursula Klein
ISBN : UCLA:L0082511338
Genre : Chemical structure
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The Cambridge History Of Science

Author : Katharine Park
ISBN : 9780521572446
Genre : Science
File Size : 63. 83 MB
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A comprehensive account of knowledge of the natural world in Europe, ca.1500-1700. Often referred to as the Scientific Revolution, this period saw major transformations in fields as diverse as anatomy and astronomy, natural history and mathematics. Articles by leading specialists describe in clear, accessible prose supplemented by extensive bibliographies, how new ideas, discoveries, and institutions shaped the ways in which nature came to be studied, understood, and used. Part I frames the study of 'The New Nature' in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Part II surveys the 'Personae and Sites of Natural Knowledge'. Part III treats the study of nature by discipline, following the classification of the sciences current in early modern Europe. Part IV takes up the implications of the new natural knowledge for religion, literature, art, gender, and European identity

Zur Verteidigung Der Vernunft Gegen Ihre Liebhaber Und Ver Chter

Author : Christoph Menke
ISBN : 3518118935
Genre : Aesthetics
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Science In The Public Sphere

Author : Richard R. Yeo
ISBN : UOM:39015054143246
Genre : History
File Size : 62. 5 MB
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The common focus of these essays is the debate on the nature of science - often referred to by contemporaries as 'natural knowledge' - in Britain during the first half of the 19th century. A study of these debates allow us to see how British science of this period began to cast loose some of its earlier theological supports, but still relied on a moral framework to affirm its distinctive method, ethos and cultural value.

The American Historical Association S Guide To Historical Literature

Author : Mary Beth Norton
ISBN : UOM:39015032275250
Genre : History
File Size : 28. 30 MB
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This entirely new edition of a keystone reference is the place to start researching any topic in any field of history. Hundreds of historians from around the world have selected and provided commentary on the best and most useful works in their fields--almost 27,000 annotated citations--to provide unprecedented bibliographic guidance of extraordinary breadth, from prehistory to the twentieth century. Presented in an accessible format, this completely new work has been ten years in planning and execution. It is divided into sections arranged by chronology and national and regional history, with each section introduced by a brief historiographical essay. And it also contains expanded coverage of Africa, Asia, and North and South America. Each bibliographic citation is identified by a unique reference number and includes all essential data, along with a brief critical annotation written by a specialist in the field. Also included are guides to the contributors of annotations and complete author and subject indexes. An indispensable work for scholars, students, librarians, and general readers, the AHA Guide to Historical Literature is essential for anyone who is serious about history.

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