the positive obligations of the state under the european convention of human rights routledge research in human rights law

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The Positive Obligations Of The State Under The European Convention Of Human Rights

Author : Dimitris Xenos
ISBN : 9780415668125
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 20. 97 MB
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The system of the European Convention of Human Rights imposes positive obligations on the state to guarantee human rights in circumstances where state agents dot not directly interfere. In addition to the traditional/liberal negative obligation of non-interference, the state must actively protect the human rights of individuals residing within its jurisdiction. The liability of the state in terms of positive obligations induces a freestanding imperative of human rights that changes fundamentally the perception of the role of the state and the participatory ability of the individual, who can now assert their human rights in all circumstances in which they are relevant. In that regard, positive obligations herald the most advanced review of the state's business ever attempted in international law. The book undertakes a comprehensive study of positive obligations: from establishing the legitimacy of positive obligations within the system of the Convention to their practical implementation at the national level. Analysing in depth legal principles that pervade the whole system of the Convention, a coherent methodological framework of critical stages and parameters is provided to determine the content of positive obligations in a consistent, predictable and realistic manner. This study of the Convention explains and critically analyses the state's positive obligations, as imposed by the European Court of Human Rights, and sets out original proposals for their future development. The book will be of interest to those who study, research or practice public law, civil rights and liberties or international/European human rights law.

The European Court Of Human Rights In The Post Cold War Era

Author : James A. Sweeney
ISBN : 9781136159428
Genre : Law
File Size : 54. 65 MB
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The European Court of Human Rights in the Post-Cold War Era: Universality in Transition examines transitional justice from the perspective of its impact on the universality of human rights, taking the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights as its detailed case study. The problem is twofold: there are questions about differences in human rights standards between transitional and non-transitional situations, and about differences between transitions. The European Court has been a vital part of European democratic consolidation and integration for over half a century, setting meaningful standards and offering legal remedies to the individually repressed, the politically vulnerable, and the socially excluded. After their emancipation from Soviet influence in the 1990s, and with membership of the European Union in mind for many, the new democracies of Central and Eastern Europe flocked to the Convention system. The voluminous jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights can now give us some clear information about how an international human rights law regime can interact with transitional justice. The jurisprudence is divided between those cases concerning the human rights implications of explicitly transitional policies (such as lustration), and those that involve impacts upon specific democratic rights during the transition. The book presents a close examination of claims by states that transitional policies and priorities require a level of deference from the Strasbourg institutions. The book proposes that states’ claims for leeway from international human rights supervisory mechanisms during times of transition can be characterised not as arguments for cultural relativism, but for ‘transitional relativism’.

Human Rights Law In Europe

Author : Kanstantsin Dzehtsiarou
ISBN : 9781135971861
Genre : Law
File Size : 82. 29 MB
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This book provides analysis and critique of the dual protection of human rights in Europe by assessing the developing legal relationship between the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) and the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR). The book offers a comprehensive consideration of the institutional framework, adjudicatory approaches, and the protection of material rights within the law of the European Union and the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR). It particularly explores the involvement and participation of stakeholders in the functioning of the EU and the ECtHR, and asks how well the new legal model of ‘the EU under the ECtHR’ compares to current EU law, the ECHR and general international law. Including contributions from leading scholars in the field, each chapter sets out specific case-studies that illustrate the tensions and synergies emergent from the EU-ECHR relationship. In so doing, the book highlights the overlap and dialectic between Europe’s two primary international courts. The book will be of great interest to students and researchers of European Law and Human Rights.

Litigating Transnational Human Rights Obligations

Author : Mark Gibney
ISBN : 9781135121051
Genre :
File Size : 32. 31 MB
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Human rights have traditionally been framed in a vertical perspective with the duties of States confined to their own citizens or residents. Obligations beyond this territorial space have been viewed as either being absent or minimalistic at best. However, the territorial paradigm has now been seriously challenged in recent years in part because of the increasing awareness of the ability of States and other actors to impact human rights far from home both positively and negatively. In response to this awareness various legal principles have come into existence setting out some transnational human rights obligations of varying degrees. However, notwithstanding these initiatives, judicial institutions and monitoring bodies continue to show an enormous hesitancy in moving beyond a territorial reading of international human rights law. This book addresses the issue in an innovative and challenging way by crafting legally sound hypothetical "judgments" from a number of adjudicatory fora. The judgments are based on real world situations where extraterritorial or transnational issues have emerged, and draw on existing international human rights law, albeit a progressive interpretation of this law. The book shows that there are a number of judicial and quasi-judicial systems where transnational human rights claims can, and should be enforced. These include: the World Trade Organization; the International Court of Justice; the regional human rights monitoring bodies; domestic courts; and the UN treaty bodies. Each hypothetical judgment is accompanied by detailed commentary placing it in context in order to show how international human rights law can address issues of a transnational character. The book will be of interest to human scholars and lawyers, practitioners, activists and aid officials.

Human Rights Obligations Of Non State Actors

Author : Andrew Clapham
ISBN : 0199288461
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 79. 17 MB
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Human rights activists increasingly address the activity of multinational corporations, the policies of international organizations such as the World Bank and World Trade Organization, and international crimes committed by entities such as armed opposition groups and terrorists. This book presents an approach to human rights which goes beyond the traditional focus on states and outlines the human rights obligations of non-state actors. It finishes with examples of how non-state actors can be held legally accountable for their actions in various jurisdictions and suggests a framework for understanding the limits of human rights in this context.

International Human Rights Law

Author : Manisuli Ssenyonjo
ISBN : 9781317114130
Genre : Law
File Size : 25. 12 MB
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This timely and valuable book explores the development of international human rights law over the last six decades. The volume brings together leading experts to reflect on different aspects of human rights law, not only considering and evaluating the developments so far, but also identifying relevant problems and proposing relevant possible perspectives for the continued positive future development of human rights law. The book is international in perspective, both in scope and context, and covers developments in the international protection of human rights since the adoption of the UDHR in 1948. The developments considered include the United Nations system of protecting human rights as well as regional human rights systems in Africa, America and Europe. It also considers some key themes relevant to human rights including globalisation, protecting human rights in emergency situations and trade sanctions, the development of human rights NGOs, and many others. The book will be an invaluable resource for students, academics and policy-makers working in the field of international human rights.

Human Rights And The Dark Side Of Globalisation

Author : Thomas Gammeltoft-Hansen
ISBN : 9781315408255
Genre : LAW
File Size : 74. 94 MB
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This edited volume examines the continued viability of international human rights law in the context of growing transnational law enforcement. With states increasingly making use of global governance modes, core exercises of public authority such as migration control, surveillance, detention and policing, are increasingly conducted extraterritorially, outsourced to foreign governments or delegated to non-state actors. New forms of cooperation raise difficult questions about divided, shared and joint responsibility under international human rights law. At the same time, some governments engage in transnational law enforcement exactly to avoid such responsibilities, creatively seeking to navigate the complex, overlapping and sometimes unclear bodies of international law. As such, this volume argues that this area represents a particular dark side of globalisation, requiring both scholars and practitioners to revisit basic assumptions and legal strategies. The volume will be of great interest to students, scholars and practitioners of international relations, human rights and public international law.

Religious Actors And International Law

Author : Ioana Cismas
ISBN : 9780191021893
Genre : Law
File Size : 24. 47 MB
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This book assesses whether a new category of religious actors has been constructed within international law. Religious actors, through their interpretations of the religion(s) they are associated with, uphold and promote, or indeed may transform, potentially oppressive structures or discriminatory patterns. This study moves beyond the concern that religious texts and practices may be incompatible with international law, to provide an innovative analysis of how religious actors themselves are accountable under international law for the interpretations they choose to put forward. The book defines religious actors as comprising religious states, international organizations, and non-state entities that assume the role of interpreting religion and so claim a 'special' legitimacy anchored in tradition or charisma. Cutting across the state / non-state divide, this definition allows the full remit of religious bodies to be investigated. It analyses the crucial question of whether religious actors do in fact operate under different international legal norms to non-religious states, international organizations, or companies. To that end, the Holy See-Vatican, the Organization of Islamic Cooperation, and churches and religious organizations under the European Convention on Human Rights regime are examined in detail as case studies. The study ultimately establishes that religious actors cannot be seen to form an autonomous legal category under international law: they do not enjoy special or exclusive rights, nor incur lesser obligations, when compared to their respective non-religious peers. Going forward, it concludes that a process of two-sided legitimation may be at stake: religious actors will need to provide evidence for the legality of their religious interpretations to strengthen their legitimacy, and international law itself may benefit from religious actors fostering its legitimacy in different cultural contexts.

International Economic Law In The 21st Century

Author : Ernst-Ulrich Petersmann
ISBN : 9781847319814
Genre : Law
File Size : 50. 48 MB
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The state-centred 'Westphalian model' of international law has failed to protect human rights and other international public goods effectively. Most international trade, financial and environmental agreements do not even refer to human rights, consumer welfare, democratic citizen participation and transnational rule of law for the benefit of citizens. This book argues that these 'multilevel governance failures' are largely due to inadequate regulation of the 'collective action problems' in the supply of international public goods, such as inadequate legal, judicial and democratic accountability of governments vis-a-vis citizens. Rather than treating citizens as mere objects of intergovernmental economic and environmental regulation and leaving multilevel governance of international public goods to discretionary 'foreign policy', human rights and constitutional democracy call for 'civilizing' and 'constitutionalizing' international economic and environmental cooperation by stronger legal and judicial protection of citizens and their constitutional rights in international economic law. Moreover intergovernmental regulation of transnational cooperation among citizens must be justified by 'principles of justice' and 'multilevel constitutional restraints' protecting rights of citizens and their 'public reason'. The reality of 'constitutional pluralism' requires respecting legitimately diverse conceptions of human rights and democratic constitutionalism. The obvious failures in the governance of interrelated trading, financial and environmental systems must be restrained by cosmopolitan, constitutional conceptions of international law protecting the transnational rule of law and participatory democracy for the benefit of citizens.

Corporate Social Responsibility Human Rights And The Law

Author : Olufemi Amao
ISBN : 9781136715907
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 43. 47 MB
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This book considers the legal control of multinational corporations (MNCs) for violations of human rights from a developing country’s perspective, examining the role for corporate social responsibility (CSR) in regulating the conduct of MNCs. The book uses the case study of Nigeria which is host to major MNCs from the EU and the US, to show that the CSR concept is currently insufficient to deal with externalities emanating from MNCs‘ operations including human rights violations. The book goes on to argue that whilst control of MNCs involves regulation at the international level, more emphasis needs to be placed on possibilities at home States and host States where there are stronger bases for the control of corporations. It examines possibilities in the European Union, exploring ways in which the EU can ensure that MNCs from its territory do not violate human rights when operating abroad.

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