the positive obligations of the state under the european convention of human rights routledge research in human rights law

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The Positive Obligations Of The State Under The European Convention Of Human Rights

Author : Dimitris Xenos
ISBN : 9780415668125
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 86. 38 MB
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The system of the European Convention of Human Rights imposes positive obligations on the state to guarantee human rights in circumstances where state agents dot not directly interfere. In addition to the traditional/liberal negative obligation of non-interference, the state must actively protect the human rights of individuals residing within its jurisdiction. The liability of the state in terms of positive obligations induces a freestanding imperative of human rights that changes fundamentally the perception of the role of the state and the participatory ability of the individual, who can now assert their human rights in all circumstances in which they are relevant. In that regard, positive obligations herald the most advanced review of the state's business ever attempted in international law. The book undertakes a comprehensive study of positive obligations: from establishing the legitimacy of positive obligations within the system of the Convention to their practical implementation at the national level. Analysing in depth legal principles that pervade the whole system of the Convention, a coherent methodological framework of critical stages and parameters is provided to determine the content of positive obligations in a consistent, predictable and realistic manner. This study of the Convention explains and critically analyses the state's positive obligations, as imposed by the European Court of Human Rights, and sets out original proposals for their future development. The book will be of interest to those who study, research or practice public law, civil rights and liberties or international/European human rights law.

The Responsibility To Protect In International Law

Author : Susan Breau
ISBN : 9781317569596
Genre : Law
File Size : 24. 81 MB
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This book will consider a rapidly emerging guiding general principle in international relations and, arguably, in international law: the Responsibility to Protect. This principle is a solution proposed to a key preoccupation in both international relations and international law scholarship: how the international community is to respond to mass atrocities within sovereign States. There are three facets to this responsibility; the responsibility to prevent; the responsibility to react, and the responsibility to rebuild. This doctrine will be analysed in light of the parallel development of customary and treaty international legal obligations imposing responsibilities on sovereign states to the international community in key international law fields such as international human rights law, international criminal law and international environmental law. These new developments demand academic study and this book fills this lacuna by rigorously considering all of these developments as part of a trend towards assumption of international responsibility. This must include the responsibility on the part of all states to respond to threats of genocide, crimes against humanity, ethnic cleansings and large-scale war crimes. The discussion surrounding aggravated state responsibility is also explored, with the author concluding that this emerging norm within international law is closely related to the responsibility to protect in its imposition of an international responsibility to act in response to an international wrong. This book will be of great interest to scholars on international law, the law of armed conflict, security studies and IR in general.

The European Court Of Human Rights In The Post Cold War Era

Author : James A. Sweeney
ISBN : 9781136159428
Genre : Law
File Size : 59. 7 MB
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The European Court of Human Rights in the Post-Cold War Era: Universality in Transition examines transitional justice from the perspective of its impact on the universality of human rights, taking the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights as its detailed case study. The problem is twofold: there are questions about differences in human rights standards between transitional and non-transitional situations, and about differences between transitions. The European Court has been a vital part of European democratic consolidation and integration for over half a century, setting meaningful standards and offering legal remedies to the individually repressed, the politically vulnerable, and the socially excluded. After their emancipation from Soviet influence in the 1990s, and with membership of the European Union in mind for many, the new democracies of Central and Eastern Europe flocked to the Convention system. The voluminous jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights can now give us some clear information about how an international human rights law regime can interact with transitional justice. The jurisprudence is divided between those cases concerning the human rights implications of explicitly transitional policies (such as lustration), and those that involve impacts upon specific democratic rights during the transition. The book presents a close examination of claims by states that transitional policies and priorities require a level of deference from the Strasbourg institutions. The book proposes that states’ claims for leeway from international human rights supervisory mechanisms during times of transition can be characterised not as arguments for cultural relativism, but for ‘transitional relativism’.

The Development Of Positive Obligations Under The European Convention On Human Rights By The European Court Of Human Rights

Author : Alastair Mowbray
ISBN : 9781847311931
Genre : Law
File Size : 53. 38 MB
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During the last thirty years the European Court of Human Rights has been developing,at an expanding pace, positive obligations under the European Convention. This monograph seeks to provide a critical analysis of the burgeoning case law concerning positive obligations, a topic which is relatively uncharted in the existing literature. Positive obligations require many different forms of action by member states, ranging from effectively investigating killings through to protecting peaceful demonstrators from violent attacks by their opponents. The contemporary significance of these obligations is graphically illustrated by the fact that it is the obligation upon states to provide fair trials to determine civil and criminal proceedings within a reasonable time that is the source of the overwhelming majority of complaints to the European Court in recent years. The study examines the legal bases and content of key positive obligations. Conclusions are then drawn concerning the reasons for the development of these obligations and areas of potential expansion are identified.

Religious Actors And International Law

Author : Ioana Cismas
ISBN : 9780191021893
Genre : Law
File Size : 68. 30 MB
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This book assesses whether a new category of religious actors has been constructed within international law. Religious actors, through their interpretations of the religion(s) they are associated with, uphold and promote, or indeed may transform, potentially oppressive structures or discriminatory patterns. This study moves beyond the concern that religious texts and practices may be incompatible with international law, to provide an innovative analysis of how religious actors themselves are accountable under international law for the interpretations they choose to put forward. The book defines religious actors as comprising religious states, international organizations, and non-state entities that assume the role of interpreting religion and so claim a 'special' legitimacy anchored in tradition or charisma. Cutting across the state / non-state divide, this definition allows the full remit of religious bodies to be investigated. It analyses the crucial question of whether religious actors do in fact operate under different international legal norms to non-religious states, international organizations, or companies. To that end, the Holy See-Vatican, the Organization of Islamic Cooperation, and churches and religious organizations under the European Convention on Human Rights regime are examined in detail as case studies. The study ultimately establishes that religious actors cannot be seen to form an autonomous legal category under international law: they do not enjoy special or exclusive rights, nor incur lesser obligations, when compared to their respective non-religious peers. Going forward, it concludes that a process of two-sided legitimation may be at stake: religious actors will need to provide evidence for the legality of their religious interpretations to strengthen their legitimacy, and international law itself may benefit from religious actors fostering its legitimacy in different cultural contexts.

Human Rights And The Protection Of Privacy In Tort Law

Author : Hans-Joachim Cremer
ISBN : 9781136913969
Genre : Law
File Size : 51. 99 MB
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In its case law, the European Court of Human Rights has acknowledged that national courts are bound to give effect to Article 8 of the European Convention of Human Rights (ECHR) which sets out the right to private and family life, when they rule on controversies between private individuals. Article 8 of the ECHR has thus been accorded mittelbare Drittwirkung or indirect ‘third-party’ effect in private law relationships. The German law of privacy, centring on the "allgemeines Persönlichkeitsrecht", has quite a long history, and the influence of the European Court of Human Rights’ interpretation of the ECHR has led to a strengthening of privacy protection in the German law. This book considers how English courts could possibly use and adapt structures adopted by the German legal order in response to rulings from the European Court of Human Rights, to strengthen the protection of privacy in the private sphere.

Human Rights And The Dark Side Of Globalisation

Author : Thomas Gammeltoft-Hansen
ISBN : 9781315408255
Genre : LAW
File Size : 37. 97 MB
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This edited volume examines the continued viability of international human rights law in the context of growing transnational law enforcement. With states increasingly making use of global governance modes, core exercises of public authority such as migration control, surveillance, detention and policing, are increasingly conducted extraterritorially, outsourced to foreign governments or delegated to non-state actors. New forms of cooperation raise difficult questions about divided, shared and joint responsibility under international human rights law. At the same time, some governments engage in transnational law enforcement exactly to avoid such responsibilities, creatively seeking to navigate the complex, overlapping and sometimes unclear bodies of international law. As such, this volume argues that this area represents a particular dark side of globalisation, requiring both scholars and practitioners to revisit basic assumptions and legal strategies. The volume will be of great interest to students, scholars and practitioners of international relations, human rights and public international law.

The Human Rights Of Companies

Author : Marius Emberland
ISBN : 0199289832
Genre : Law
File Size : 49. 80 MB
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This book studies the response of the European Court of Human Rights, the international court that supervises governmental compliance with the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR), to complaints submitted to it by companies and their shareholders. The protection of business vis-a-visgovernmental regulation is hardly the main concern of international human rights law, yet it is not disputed that companies, and their owners, in principle enjoy protection under the ECHR. Such complaints are not unproblematic for the Court in Strasbourg, however. This book analyses the Court's reasoning in three groups of cases in which they have presented difficult issues of treaty interpretation. As the case law is streamlined in a minimalist fashion which obscures the Court's rationale, the book construes the structural framework within which the Courtoperates and explains how the relevant case law is largely coherent when considered against the general structure of ECHR protection. This book is the first major study of the protection of business enterprise under the European Convention on Human Rights and thus an invaluable guide to understanding how the Court in Strasbourg responds to corporate complaints. More importantly, by focusing on a field of European human rights lawthat is regarded by many as marginal and even objectionable, the book reveals the fundamental structures of European human rights protection, where the protection of economic activity and corporate life is regarded as inseparable from core values of the ECHR such as an effective political democracyand the rule of law.

International Human Rights Law

Author : Manisuli Ssenyonjo
ISBN : 9781317114130
Genre : Law
File Size : 73. 40 MB
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This timely and valuable book explores the development of international human rights law over the last six decades. The volume brings together leading experts to reflect on different aspects of human rights law, not only considering and evaluating the developments so far, but also identifying relevant problems and proposing relevant possible perspectives for the continued positive future development of human rights law. The book is international in perspective, both in scope and context, and covers developments in the international protection of human rights since the adoption of the UDHR in 1948. The developments considered include the United Nations system of protecting human rights as well as regional human rights systems in Africa, America and Europe. It also considers some key themes relevant to human rights including globalisation, protecting human rights in emergency situations and trade sanctions, the development of human rights NGOs, and many others. The book will be an invaluable resource for students, academics and policy-makers working in the field of international human rights.

Human Rights Obligations Of Non State Actors

Author : Andrew Clapham
ISBN : 0199288461
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 35. 53 MB
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Human rights activists increasingly address the activity of multinational corporations, the policies of international organizations such as the World Bank and World Trade Organization, and international crimes committed by entities such as armed opposition groups and terrorists. This book presents an approach to human rights which goes beyond the traditional focus on states and outlines the human rights obligations of non-state actors. It finishes with examples of how non-state actors can be held legally accountable for their actions in various jurisdictions and suggests a framework for understanding the limits of human rights in this context.

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