the prefrontal cortex

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The Prefrontal Cortex

Author : Joaquin Fuster
ISBN : 0080887988
Genre : Science
File Size : 88. 13 MB
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This is the fourth edition of the undisputed classic on the prefrontal cortex, the principal "executive" structure of the brain. Because of its role in such cognitive functions as working memory, planning, and decision-making, the prefrontal cortex is critically involved in the organization of behavior, language, and reasoning. Prefrontal dysfunction lies at the foundation of several psychotic and neurodegenerative disorders, including schizophrenia and dementia. * Written by an award-winning author who discovered "memory cells"-the physiological substrate of working memory * Provides an in-depth examination of the contributions of every relevant methodology, from comparative anatomy to modern imaging * Well-referenced with more than 2000 references

Prefrontal Cortex

Author : Satoru Otani
ISBN : 9781402079498
Genre : Medical
File Size : 56. 30 MB
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This volume, Prefrontal Cortex: from Synaptic Plasticity to Cognition, is an interdisciplinary approach to characterize the function of the anterior portion of the frontal lobe in rodents and human and non-human primates. The specific topics discussed in the chapters of this volume are purposefully diverse: they range from membrane properties of prefrontal neurons to cognitive psychology. Nevertheless, this volume must not be regarded as a mere collection of writings with the different sub-themes. As you will see, chapters often vigorously encompass domains of the prefrontal field in effort to provide a big picture. That is actually what we attempted to do in this volume. On one hand, we have accumulated knowledge on the properties of neurons and synapses in the prefrontal cortex as well as the actions of critical neuromodulators such as dopamine. On the other hand, behavioral and cognitive neurosciences have begun to reveal the fascinating role of the prefrontal cortex in such mental processes as working memory, attention switching and rule following, and long-term memory. Needless to say, our ultimate goal as neurobiologists is to know what relationship there is between these cellular and cognitive processes. This volume is meant to serve as a comprehensive introduction towards that goal. Readers will be informed, for example, of how plasticity of prefrontal neurons is regulated, how it is involved in certain cognitive processes in rodents, and how the rodent models can apply to the primates.

The Neurobiology Of The Prefrontal Cortex

Author : Richard E. Passingham
ISBN : 9780191633096
Genre : Medical
File Size : 46. 17 MB
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The prefrontal cortex makes up almost a quarter of the human brain, and it expanded dramatically during primate evolution. The Neurobiology of the Prefrontal Cortex presents a new theory about its fundamental function. In this important new book, the authors argue that primate-specific parts of the prefrontal cortex evolved to reduce errors in foraging choices, so that particular ancestors of modern humans could overcome periodic food shortages. These developments laid the foundation for working out problems in our imagination, which resulted in the insights that allow humans to avoid errors entirely, at least at times. In the book, the authors detail which parts of the prefrontal cortex evolved exclusively in primates, how its connections explain why the prefrontal cortex alone can perform its function, and why other parts of the brain cannot do what the prefrontal cortex does. Based on an analysis of its evolutionary history, the book uses evidence from lesion, imaging, and cell-recording experiments to argue that the primate prefrontal cortex generates goals from a current behavioural context and that it can do so on the basis of single events. As a result, the prefrontal cortex uses the attentive control of behaviour to augment an older general-purpose learning system, one that evolved very early in the history of animals. This older system learns slowly and cumulatively over many experiences based on reinforcement. The authors argue that a new learning system evolved in primates at a particular time and place in their history, that it did so to decrease the errors inherent in the older learning system, and that severe volatility of food resources provided the driving force for these developments. Written by two leading brain scientists, The Neurobiology of the Prefrontal Cortex is an important contribution to our understanding of the evolution and functioning of the human brain.

The Prefrontal Cortex Its Structure Function And Pathology

Author : J.P.C. de Bruin
ISBN : 9780080862101
Genre : Medical
File Size : 27. 74 MB
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Thanks to a resurgence of interest and a recent proliferation of research techniques, much new and illuminating data has emerged during the last decade relating to the prefrontal cortex, particularly in primates and rodents. In view of this progress, the 16th International Summer School of Brain Research was held in Amsterdam, The Netherlands from 28 August to 1 September 1989, devoted to the topic of `The Prefrontal Cortex: Its Structure, Function and Pathology'. The edited proceedings, embodied in this 85th volume of `Progress in Brain Research', fall into three sections - the first of which, following two introductory chapters, discusses the present knowledge of the organization of prefrontal cortical systems. In the second section, developmental and plasticity aspects in rodent and human cortex are considered, whilst the third section deals extensively with the functional aspects characteristic for the prefrontal cortex in primates, rats and rabbits. The last section reviews several topics on dysfunction of prefrontal cortex in rat and man, including a historical review on psychosurgery.

Development Of The Prefrontal Cortex

Author : Norman A. Krasnegor
ISBN : STANFORD:36105019324115
Genre : Science
File Size : 38. 27 MB
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In this scholarly reference, notable investigators in the fields of neuroscience and behavior examine research findings concerning the prefrontal cortex. Readers will explore evolutionary issues, brain-behavior relationships, and the neurobiology, neuropsychology, and neuropathology of this important region of the brain.

Early Mediodorsal Thalamic Damage Induces Alterations In Prefrontal Cortex Potential Model For Schizophrenia

Author :
ISBN : 9780549435723
Genre :
File Size : 53. 10 MB
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One of the most consistent findings in schizophrenia is a decrease in volume and neuronal number in the medial dorsal nucleus of the thalamus (MD) (Pakkenberg 1990; Pakkenberg 1992; Popken et al., 2000; Young et al., 2000; Byne et al., 2001; Lewis et al., 2001; Byne et al., 2002). The MD is reciprocally connected to the prefrontal cortex (PFC), another region implicated in schizophrenia. Focusing on the interplay between the MD and the PFC, this study examined the hypothesis that early damage to the MD may lead to alterations in morphology of pyramidal cells in the PFC, similar to that observed in schizophrenics. Unilateral electrolytic lesions of the MD in Long-Evans rat pups were made on postnatal day 4 (P4) and animals developed to P60. We examined morphological profiles for pyramidal cells in three subregions of the PFC: prelimbic (PL), anterior cingulate 1(CG-1), and Dorsolateral anterior cingulate (DL) cortices, which receive afferents from the MD. Structural alterations were assessed by three meausures: immunostaining levels for microtubule-associated protein 2, an indicator of dendritic integrity (Caceres et al., 1992), number of basilar dendrites, as well as spine density. Lesions causing mean MD volume decreases of 12.30% led to significant decreases in MAP2 immunostaining. No difference was observed in pyramidal cell density in any of the regions in or layers, so the reduction in MAP2 staining likely occurred as a function of reduced protein levels and not due to lower cell densities in these regions. Early postnatal thalamic lesions led to significant reductions in the number of primary and secondary dendrites for pyramidal cells in the PFC, suggesting early MD damage affected the dendritic arbors. Spines on pyramidal dendrites are the predominant targets of the MD (Kuroda et al., 1995), and are induced by afferent input activity (Kossel et al., 1997). Mean nuclear volume decreases of 14.82% in the MD led to decreases in the density of spines along basilar dendrites. The data showed that early loss of cells in the MD could affect the morphology of pyramidal neurons in the PFC, and support the hypothesis that the alterations in PFC observed in schizophrenic subjects could arise as a consequence of early MD damage.

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