# the quantum vacuum an introduction to quantum electrodynamics

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## The Quantum Vacuum

**Author :**Peter W. Milonni

**ISBN :**9780080571492

**Genre :**Science

**File Size :**54. 98 MB

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In modern physics, the classical vacuum of tranquil nothingness has been replaced by a quantum vacuum with fluctuations of measurable consequence. In The Quantum Vacuum, Peter Milonni describes the concept of the vacuum in quantum physics with an emphasis on quantum electrodynamics. He elucidates in depth and detail the role of the vacuum electromagnetic field in spontaneous emission, the Lamb shift, van der Waals, and Casimir forces, and a variety of other phenomena, some of which are of technological as well as purely scientific importance. This informative text also provides an introduction based on fundamental vacuum processes to the ideas of relativistic quantum electrodynamics and quantum field theory, including renormalization and Feynman diagrams. Experimental as well as theoreticalaspects of the quantum vacuum are described, and in most cases details of mathematical derivations are included. Chapter 1 of The Quantum Vacuum - published in advance in The American Journal of Physics (1991)-was later selected by readers as one of the Most Memorable papers ever published in the 60-year history of the journal. This chapter provides anexcellent beginning of the book, introducing a wealth of information of historical interest, the results of which are carefully woven into subsequent chapters to form a coherent whole. Does not assume that the reader has taken advanced graduate courses, making the text accessible to beginning graduate students Emphasizes the basic physical ideas rather than the formal, mathematical aspects of the subject Provides a careful and thorough treatment of Casimir and van der Waals forces at a level of detail not found in any other book on this topic Clearly presents mathematical derivations

## Quantum Electrodynamics Of Strong Fields

**Author :**Walter Greiner

**ISBN :**9783642822728

**Genre :**Science

**File Size :**68. 73 MB

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The fundamental goal of physics is an understanding of the forces of nature in their simplest and most general terms. Yet there is much more involved than just a basic set of equations which eventually has to be solved when applied to specific problems. We have learned in recent years that the structure of the ground state of field theories (with which we are generally concerned) plays an equally funda mental role as the equations of motion themselves. Heisenberg was probably the first to recognize that the ground state, the vacuum, could acquire certain prop erties (quantum numbers) when he devised a theory of ferromagnetism. Since then, many more such examples are known in solid state physics, e. g. supercon ductivity, superfluidity, in fact all problems concerned with phase transitions of many-body systems, which are often summarized under the name synergetics. Inspired by the experimental observation that also fundamental symmetries, such as parity or chiral symmetry, may be violated in nature, it has become wide ly accepted that the same field theory may be based on different vacua. Practical ly all these different field phases have the status of more or less hypothetical models, not (yet) directly accessible to experiments. There is one magnificent ex ception and this is the change of the ground state (vacuum) of the electron-posi tron field in superstrong electric fields.

## Forces Of The Quantum Vacuum

**Author :**William M R Simpson

**ISBN :**9789814644778

**Genre :**Science

**File Size :**57. 57 MB

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Forces of the Quantum Vacuum presents a number of theoretical approaches to Casimir, van der Waals and Casimir–Polder forces that have been fruitfully employed in mainstream research, and also reviews the experimental evidence for Casimir forces. Beginning with basic ideas in quantum mechanics and building its way to a sophisticated form of macroscopic QED, the book provides an inspiring training manual for graduate students to develop in a natural progression the ideas needed for modern theoretical research on Casimir forces.

## Introduction To Quantum Field Theory

**Author :**Shau-Jin Chang

**ISBN :**9971506815

**Genre :**Science

**File Size :**50. 92 MB

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This book presents in a short volume the basics of quantum field theory and many body physics. The first part introduces the perturbative techniques without sophisticated apparatus and applies them to numerous problems including quantum electrodynamics (renormalization), Fermi and Bose gases, the Brueckner theory of nuclear system, liquid Helium and classical systems with noise. The material is clear, illustrative and the important points are stressed to help the reader get the understanding of what is crucial without overwhelming him with unnecessary detours or comments. The material in the second part ranges from variational principles to path integrals, discusses gauge theory, the renormalization group and classical solutions together with their applications.

## Basics Of Quantum Electrodynamics

**Author :**Ioan Merches

**ISBN :**9781466580381

**Genre :**Science

**File Size :**33. 70 MB

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Quantum electrodynamics (QED) is the branch of relativistic quantum field theory that deals specifically with the interactions between charged particles. It is widely used to solve problems in many areas of physics, such as elementary particles, atomic and molecular systems, and solid state physics. This accessible text, Basics of Quantum Electrodynamics, supplies a solid foundation in this dynamic area of physics, making a direct connection to the concepts of quantum mechanics familiar to the advanced undergraduate student. Chapters cover the general theory of free fields and the quantization of the scalar, electromagnetic, and spinorial fields, which prepares readers for understanding field interactions. The authors describe the general theory of field interactions, introducing the scattering matrix and the Feynman–Dyson graphs. They then discuss divergence-free second-order processes, such as Compton and Møller scattering, followed by divergent second-order processes, which cover vacuum polarization and mass and charge renormalization. Providing a modern, informative textbook, this volume illustrates the intimate connection between quantum mechanics and QED in two basic steps: the quantization of free fields, followed by the theory of their interactions. The text contains solved problems to facilitate the application of the theory, as well as a useful appendix on the theory of distributions. The step-by-step description of the quantization of various fields and the clear presentation of the most important interaction processes in QED make this textbook a useful guide for those studying physics at both the graduate and undergraduate level, as well as a reference for teachers and researchers in the field.

## Relativistic Quantum Mechanics And Introduction To Quantum Field Theory

**Author :**Anton Z. Capri

**ISBN :**9812381376

**Genre :**Science

**File Size :**75. 78 MB

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This invaluable textbook is divided into two parts. The first part includes a detailed discussion on the discrete transformations for the Dirac equation, as well as on the central force problem for the Dirac equation. In the second part, the external field problem is examined; pair production and vacuum polarization leading to charge renormalization are treated in detail. Relativistic Quantum Mechanic's and Introduction to Quantum Field Theory has arisen from a graduate course which the author taught for several years at the University of Alberta to students interested in particle physics and field theory.

## Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics

**Author :**Sergio M. Dutra

**ISBN :**9780471713470

**Genre :**Science

**File Size :**79. 71 MB

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What happens to light when it is trapped in a box? Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics addresses a fascinating question in physics: what happens to light, and in particular to its interaction with matter, when it is trapped inside a box? With the aid of a model-building approach, readers discover the answer to this question and come to appreciate its important applications in computing, cryptography, quantum teleportation, and opto-electronics. Instead of taking a traditional approach that requires readers to first master a series of seemingly unconnected mathematical techniques, this book engages the readers' interest and imagination by going straight to the point, introducing the mathematics along the way as needed. Appendices are provided for the additional mathematical theory. Researchers, scientists, and students of modern physics can refer to Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics and examine the field thoroughly. Several key topics covered that readers cannot find in any other quantum optics book include: * Introduction to the problem of the "vacuum catastrophe" and the cosmological constant * Detailed up-to-date account of cavity QED lasers and thresholdless lasing * Examination of cavities with movable walls * First-principles discussion about cavity QED in open cavities * Pedagogical account of microscopic quantization in dielectrics Complementing the coverage of the most advanced theory and techniques, the author provides context by discussing the historical evolution of the field and its discoveries. In that spirit, "recommended reading," provided in each chapter, leads readers to both contemporary literature as well as key historical papers. Despite being one of many specialties within physics, cavity quantum electrodynamics serves as a window to many of the fundamental issues of physics. Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics will serve as an excellent resource for advanced undergraduate quantum mechanics courses as well as for graduate students, researchers, and scientists who need a comprehensive introduction to the field.

## Quantum Electrodynamics

**Author :**Efim Samoĭlovich Fradkin

**ISBN :**UOM:39015022065745

**Genre :**Science

**File Size :**49. 16 MB

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## An Introduction To Quantum Field Theory

**Author :**George Sterman

**ISBN :**0521311322

**Genre :**Science

**File Size :**80. 76 MB

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This is a systematic presentation of Quantum Field Theory from first principles, emphasizing both theoretical concepts and experimental applications. Starting from introductory quantum and classical mechanics, this book develops the quantum field theories that make up the "Standard Model" of elementary processes. It derives the basic techniques and theorems that underly theory and experiment, including those that are the subject of theoretical development. Special attention is also given to the derivations of cross sections relevant to current high-energy experiments and to perturbative quantum chromodynamics, with examples drawn from electron-positron annihilation, deeply inelastic scattering and hadron-hadron scattering. The first half of the book introduces the basic ideas of field theory. The discussion of mathematical issues is everywhere pedagogical and self contained. Topics include the role of internal symmetry and relativistic invariance, the path integral, gauge theories and spontaneous symmetry breaking, and cross sections in the Standard Model and the parton model. The material of this half is sufficient for an understanding of the Standard Model and its basic experimental consequences. The second half of the book deals with perturbative field theory beyond the lowest-order approximation. The issues of renormalization and unitarity, the renormalization group and asymptotic freedom, infrared divergences in quantum electrodynamics and infrared safety in quantum chromodynamics, jets, the perturbative basis of factorization at high energy and the operator product expansion are discussed. Exercises are included for each chapter, and several appendices complement the text.

## Probing The Quantum Vacuum

**Author :**Walter Dittrich

**ISBN :**9783540455851

**Genre :**Science

**File Size :**77. 16 MB

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This book is devoted to an investigation of the vacuum of quantum elec trodynamics (QED), relying on the perturbative effective action approach. If the vacuum is probed with external perturbations, the response of the system can be analyzed after averaging over the high energy degrees of freedom. This results in an effective description of the properties of the vacuum, which are comparable to the properties of a classical medium. We concentrate primarily on the physics of slowly varying fields or soft photons by integrating out the high energy degrees of freedom, i.e. the elec trons, employing Schwinger's proper time method. We derive a new represen tation of the one loop photon polarization tensor, coupling to all orders to an arbitrary constant electromagnetic field, fully maintaining the dependence on the complete set of invariants. On the basis of effective Lagrangians, we derive the light cone condition for low frequency photons propagating in strong fields. Our formalism can be extended to various external perturbations, such as temperature and Casimir situations. We give a proof of the "unified formula" for low energy phenom ena that describes the refractive indices of various perturbed quantum vacua. In the high energy domain, we observe similarities between a vacuum with a superstrong magnetic field and a magnetized plasma. The question of mea surability of the various effects is addressed; a violation of causality is not found.