the rule of law in crisis and conflict grey zones regulating the use of force in a global information environment

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The Rule Of Law In Crisis And Conflict Grey Zones

Author : Michael John-Hopkins
ISBN : 9781351996747
Genre : Law
File Size : 49. 54 MB
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This book responds to ongoing calls for clarification and consensus regarding the meaning, scope and interplay of humanitarian law and human rights law in the ‘grey zones’ of unconventional operational environments such as counterterrorism and counterinsurgency operations. It contributes to the debate in this area by developing objective criteria for determining where the shift from the legal framework of law enforcement to that of non-international armed conflict occurs in relation to targeting law and weaponry law; by developing improved objective criteria for determining what constitutes direct participation in hostilities and de facto membership in an organised armed group; by taking stock of how existing targeting and weaponry rules are being applied to unconventional conflicts within civilian populated areas by key state players as well as by international and regional human rights mechanisms; by arguing for the progressive realisation of targeting and weaponry law so that they are more fitting for operational environments that are increasingly urbanised and civilianised; by seeking to understand how global networked connectivity may affect our understanding of the operational theatre of war and the geographical reach of the legal framework of non-international armed conflict.?

Private Security Companies During The Iraq War

Author : Scott Fitzsimmons
ISBN : 9781317541707
Genre : History
File Size : 40. 90 MB
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This book explores the use of deadly force by private security companies during the Iraq War. The work focuses on and compares the activities of the US companies Blackwater and Dyncorp. Despite sharing several important characteristics, such as working for the same client (the US State Department) during the same time period, the employees of Blackwater fired their weapons far more often, and killed and seriously injured far more people in Iraq than their counterparts in DynCorp. In order to explain this disparity, the book undertakes the most comprehensive analysis ever attempted on the use of violence by the employees of these firms. Based on extensive empirical research, it offers a credible explanation for this difference: Blackwater maintained a relatively bellicose military culture that placed strong emphasis on norms encouraging its personnel to exercise personal initiative, proactive use of force, and an exclusive approach to security, which, together, motivated its personnel to use violence quite freely against anyone they suspected of posing a threat. Specifically, Blackwater’s military culture motivated its personnel to fire upon suspected threats more quickly, at greater distances, and with a greater quantity of bullets, and to more readily abandon the people they shot at when compared to DynCorp’s personnel, who maintained a military culture that encouraged far less violent behaviour. Utilizing the Private Security Company Violent Incident Dataset (PSCVID), created by the author in 2012, the book draws upon data on hundreds of violent incidents involving private security personnel in Iraq to identify trends in the behaviour exhibited by the employees of different firms. Based on this rich and original empirical data, the book provides the definitive study of contemporary private security personnel in the Iraq War. This book will be of much interest to students of the Iraq War, Private Security Companies, Military Studies, War and Conflict Studies and IR in general.

International Intervention And The Use Of Force Military And Police Roles

Author : Cornelius Friesendorf
ISBN : 9292222023
Genre :
File Size : 36. 64 MB
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International Law And The Use Of Force

Author : Christine Gray
ISBN : 9780192536440
Genre : Law
File Size : 27. 62 MB
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This book explores the large and controversial subject of the use of force in international law. It examines not only the use of force by states but also the role of the UN in peacekeeping and enforcement action, and the increasing role of regional organizations in the maintenance of international peace and security. The UN Charter framework is under challenge. Russia's invasion of Georgia and intervention in Ukraine, the USA's military operations in Syria, and Saudi Arabia's campaign to restore the government of Yemen by force all raise questions about the law on intervention. The 'war on terror' that began after the 9/11 terrorist attacks on the USA has not been won. It has spread far beyond Afghanistan: it has led to targeted killings in Pakistan, Somalia, and Yemen, and to intervention against ISIS in Iraq and Syria. Is there an expanding right of self-defence against non-state actors? Is the use of force effective? The development of nuclear weapons by North Korea has reignited discussion about the legality of pre-emptive self-defence. The NATO-led operation in Libya increased hopes for the implementation of 'responsibility to protect', but it also provoked criticism for exceeding the Security Council's authorization of force because its outcome was regime change. UN peacekeeping faces new challenges, especially with regard to the protection of civilians, and UN forces have been given revolutionary mandates in several African states. But the 2015 report Uniting Our Strengths reaffirmed that UN peacekeeping is not suited to counter-terrorism or enforcement operations; the UN should turn to regional organizations such as the African Union as first responders in situations of ongoing armed conflict.

The Use Of Force In Un Peace Operations

Author : Trevor Findlay
ISBN : 0198292821
Genre : Law
File Size : 86. 19 MB
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One of the most vexing issues that has faced the international community since the end of the Cold War has been the use of force by the United Nations peacekeeping forces. UN intervention in civil wars, as in Somalia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Rwanda, has thrown into stark relief the difficulty of peacekeepers operating in situations where consent to their presence and activities is fragile or incomplete and where there is little peace to keep. Complex questions arise in these circumstances. When and how should peacekeepers use force to protect themselves, to protect their mission, or, most troublingly, to ensure compliance by recalcitrant parties with peace accords? Is a peace enforcement role for peacekeepers possible or is this simply war by another name? Is there a grey zone between peacekeeping and peace enforcement? Trevor Findlay reveals the history of the use of force by UN peacekeepers from Sinai in the 1950s to Haiti in the 1990s. He untangles the arguments about the use of force in peace operations and sets these within the broader context of military doctrine and practice. Drawing on these insights the author examines proposals for future conduct of UN operations, including the formulation of UN peacekeeping doctrine and the establishment of a UN rapid reaction force.

Training Manual On International Environmental Law

Author : Lal Kurukulasuriya
ISBN : 9280725548
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 51. 19 MB
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Offers an overview of the body of environmental law. This report is intended for legal stakeholders from various backgrounds including government representatives, judges, university professors and students to enable them to more effectively participate in the global, regional and national efforts to preserve the Earth for future generations.

Climate Change As A Security Risk

Author : Hans Joachim Schellnhuber
ISBN : 9781849775939
Genre : Law
File Size : 81. 93 MB
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Without resolute counteraction, climate change will overstretch many societies' adaptive capacities within the coming decades. This could result in destabilization and violence, jeopardizing national and international security to a new degree. However, climate change could also unite the international community. This is provided that we recognize climate change as a threat to humankind and so set the course for adopting a dynamic and globally coordinated climate policy. If we fail to do so, climate change will draw ever-deeper lines of division and conflict in international relations, triggering numerous conflicts between and within countries over the distribution of resources - especially water and land, and over the management of migration, or over compensation payments between the countries mainly responsible for climate change and those countries most affected by its destructive effects. With Climate Change as a Security Risk, WBGU has compiled a flagship report on an issue that quite rightly is rising rapidly up the international political agenda. The authors pull no punches on the likelihood of increasing tensions and conflicts in a climatically constrained world and spotlight places where possible conflicts may flare up in the 21st century unless climate change is checked. The report makes it clear that climate policy is preventative security policy.

International Organisations

Author : Peter Viggo Jakobsen
ISBN : 9788771470383
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 28. 68 MB
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International organisations are playing an increasingly important role in settling disputes. Progress in conflict management shows that more disputes than ever are being settled by negotiation and not on the battlefield. Therefore, there needs to be an increased focus on the ‘tool boxes’ of international organisations in the peace and security realm. However, at the same time the complexity of contemporary conflicts and conflict management is posing great challenges for the structures, resources and roles of most international organisations. This books deals with seven of these international organisations: the United Nations (UN), the European Union (EU), the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), the African Union (AU), the Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) and the Collective Security Treaty Organisation (CSTO). This wide range of international organisations operate in different regions of the world and have different histories, legal foundations, security partners and resources for conflict management – all elements dealt with in this book. It is our hope that the book will provide readers with a deeper understanding of these international organisations, their establishment, how they have evolved and the tools of conflict management they use.

Peacetime Regime For State Activities In Cyberspace

Author : Liina Areng
ISBN : 994992118X
Genre :
File Size : 37. 34 MB
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From War To The Rule Of Law

Author : J. J. C. Voorhoeve
ISBN : 9789053568675
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 71. 96 MB
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As recent events in Iraq demonstrate, countries that have suffered civil war or rule by military regime can face a long, difficult transition to peaceful democracy. Drawing on the experiences of Bosnia, Haiti, Rwanda and Afghanistan, this outstanding volume demonstrates that newly emerging democracies need more than emergency economic support: restoring the rule of law can involve the training of a new police force, for example, or the creation of an international war crimes tribunal. Concluding with specific recommendations for the UN and EU members, Voorhoeve reminds us that disregard for human rights or delay in civilian reconciliation can lead to resurgences of violence.

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