the wheel inventions and reinventions columbia studies in international and global history

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The Wheel

Author : Richard W. Bulliet
ISBN : 9780231540612
Genre : History
File Size : 42. 5 MB
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In this book, Richard W. Bulliet focuses on three major phases in the evolution of the wheel and their relationship to the needs and ambitions of human society. He begins in 4000 B.C.E. with the first wheels affixed to axles. He then follows with the innovation of wheels turning independently on their axles and concludes five thousand years later with the caster, a single rotating and pivoting wheel. Bulliet’s most interesting finding is that a simple desire to move things from place to place did not drive the wheel’s development. If that were the case, the wheel could have been invented at any time almost anywhere in the world. By dividing the history of this technology into three conceptual phases and focusing on the specific men, women, and societies that brought it about, Bulliet expands the social, economic, and political significance of a tool we only partially understand. He underscores the role of gender, combat, and competition in the design and manufacture of wheels, adding vivid imagery to illustrate each stage of their development.

Limits Of Westernization

Author : Perin E. Gürel
ISBN : 9780231543965
Genre : History
File Size : 23. 66 MB
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In a 2001 poll, Turks ranked the United States highest when asked: “Which country is Turkey’s best friend in international relations?” When the pollsters reversed the question—“Which country is Turkey’s number one enemy in international relations?”—the United States came in second. How did Turkey’s citizens come to hold such opposing views simultaneously? In The Limits of Westernization, Perin E. Gürel explains this unique split and its echoes in contemporary U.S.-Turkey relations. Using Turkish and English sources, Gürel maps the reaction of Turks to the rise of the United States as a world-ordering power in the twentieth century. As Turkey transitioned from an empire to a nation-state, the country’s ruling elite projected “westernization” as a necessary and desirable force but also feared its cultural damage. Turkish stock figures and figures of speech represented America both as a good model for selective westernization and as a dangerous source of degeneration. At the same time, U.S. policy makers imagined Turkey from within their own civilization templates, first as the main figure of Oriental barbarism (i.e., “the terrible Turk”), then, during the Cold War, as good pupils of modernization theory. As the Cold War transitioned to the War on Terror, Turks rebelled against the new U.S.-made trope of the “moderate Muslim.” Local artifacts of westernization—folk culture crossed with American cultural exports—and alternate projections of modernity became tinder for both Turkish anti-Americanism and resistance to state-led modernization projects. The Limits of Westernization analyzes the complex local uses of “the West” to explain how the United States could become both the best and the worst in the Turkish political imagination. Gürel traces how ideas about westernization and America have influenced national history writing and policy making, as well as everyday affects and identities. Foregrounding shifting tropes about and from Turkey—a regional power that continues to dominate American visions for the “modernization” of the Middle East—Gürel also illuminates the transnational development of powerful political tropes, from “the Terrible Turk” to “the Islamic Terrorist.”

Wiring The World

Author : Simone M. Müller
ISBN : 9780231540261
Genre : History
File Size : 46. 52 MB
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The laying of the transatlantic cable in the 1850s sparked a revolution in communication. A message could travel from Newfoundland to Ireland in minutes, collapsing the space among continents, cultures, and nations. An eclectic group of engineers, entrepreneurs, politicians, and media visionaries then developed this technology into a telecommunications system that remade civilization. The desire to wire the world, though, was not shared by all. This unusual history focuses not only on those who advanced cable communications, but also on those who harbored alternative ideas. These battles manifested in the cable wars, discourses on morality and violence, a rivalry between science and business, and the rise of strategic nationalism. They might seem peripheral, but such struggles determined the growth of cable technology, which in turn influenced world history. Filled with fascinating characters and new insight into defining events, this book recognizes globalization’s diverse paths and close ties to business and politics.

Identifying With Nationality

Author : Will Hanley
ISBN : 9780231542524
Genre : History
File Size : 60. 40 MB
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Nationality is the most important legal mechanism for sorting and classifying the world’s population today. An individual’s state of birth or naturalization determines where he or she can and cannot be and what he or she can and cannot do. Although this system may appear universal, even natural, Will Hanley shows it arose just a century ago. In Identifying with Nationality, he uses the multinational Mediterranean city of Alexandria to trace a genealogy of the nation and the formation of the modern subject. Alexandria in 1880 was an immigrant boomtown ruled by dozens of overlapping regimes. On its streets and in its police stations and courtrooms, people were identified according to name, occupation, place of origin, sect, physical description, and other attributes. By 1914, nationality had become the leading category of identification. Even before nationalist claims for independence and decolonization were widespread, nationality laws governed Alexandria’s population. Identifying with Nationality traces the advent of modern national citizenships to multinational, transimperial settings such as turn-of-the-century colonial Alexandria. Ordinary individuals abandoned old identifiers and grasped nationality as the best means to access the protections promised by expanding states, creating a problematic system that continues to complicate rules of status, mobility, and residency.

Wohlstand Und Armut Der Nationen

Author : David Landes
ISBN : 9783641051112
Genre : History
File Size : 88. 47 MB
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Das Standardwerk zur Wirtschaftsgeschichte Kaum eine Frage ist umstrittener und stärker mit Ideologie befrachtet als die, warum manche Länder wirtschaftlich äußerst erfolgreich sind, während andere unfähig scheinen, aus ihrer Armut herauszufinden. Liegt es am Klima? An der Kultur? An der Politik? In seiner umfassenden Geschichte über die Weltwirtschaft der letzten sechshundert Jahre entwickelt David Landes Antworten auf diese Fragen und bietet zugleich ein Standardwerk zur Geschichte der Weltwirtschaft.

Vortr Ge Und Aufs Tze

Author : Martin Heidegger
ISBN : 3608910905
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 31. 94 MB
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Die Seelen Der Schwarzen

Author : William E. B. Du Bois
ISBN : 3936086079
Genre : African Americans
File Size : 73. 50 MB
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