the wheel inventions and reinventions columbia studies in international and global history

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The Wheel

Author : Richard W. Bulliet
ISBN : 0231173385
Genre : Wheels
File Size : 60. 78 MB
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In this book, Richard W. Bulliet focuses on three major phases in the evolution of the wheel and their relationship to the needs and ambitions of human society. Bulliet's most interesting finding is that a simple desire to move things from place to place did not drive the wheel's development. Bulliet expands the social, economic, and political significance of a tool we only partially understand.

Limits Of Westernization

Author : Perin E. Gürel
ISBN : 9780231543965
Genre : History
File Size : 63. 87 MB
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In a 2001 poll, Turks ranked the United States highest when asked: “Which country is Turkey’s best friend in international relations?” When the pollsters reversed the question—“Which country is Turkey’s number one enemy in international relations?”—the United States came in second. How did Turkey’s citizens come to hold such opposing views simultaneously? In The Limits of Westernization, Perin E. Gürel explains this unique split and its echoes in contemporary U.S.-Turkey relations. Using Turkish and English sources, Gürel maps the reaction of Turks to the rise of the United States as a world-ordering power in the twentieth century. As Turkey transitioned from an empire to a nation-state, the country’s ruling elite projected “westernization” as a necessary and desirable force but also feared its cultural damage. Turkish stock figures and figures of speech represented America both as a good model for selective westernization and as a dangerous source of degeneration. At the same time, U.S. policy makers imagined Turkey from within their own civilization templates, first as the main figure of Oriental barbarism (i.e., “the terrible Turk”), then, during the Cold War, as good pupils of modernization theory. As the Cold War transitioned to the War on Terror, Turks rebelled against the new U.S.-made trope of the “moderate Muslim.” Local artifacts of westernization—folk culture crossed with American cultural exports—and alternate projections of modernity became tinder for both Turkish anti-Americanism and resistance to state-led modernization projects. The Limits of Westernization analyzes the complex local uses of “the West” to explain how the United States could become both the best and the worst in the Turkish political imagination. Gürel traces how ideas about westernization and America have influenced national history writing and policy making, as well as everyday affects and identities. Foregrounding shifting tropes about and from Turkey—a regional power that continues to dominate American visions for the “modernization” of the Middle East—Gürel also illuminates the transnational development of powerful political tropes, from “the Terrible Turk” to “the Islamic Terrorist.”

Identifying With Nationality

Author : Will Hanley
ISBN : 9780231542524
Genre : History
File Size : 72. 96 MB
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Nationality is the most important legal mechanism for sorting and classifying the world’s population today. An individual’s state of birth or naturalization determines where he or she can and cannot be and what he or she can and cannot do. Although this system may appear universal, even natural, Will Hanley shows it arose just a century ago. In Identifying with Nationality, he uses the multinational Mediterranean city of Alexandria to trace a genealogy of the nation and the formation of the modern subject. Alexandria in 1880 was an immigrant boomtown ruled by dozens of overlapping regimes. On its streets and in its police stations and courtrooms, people were identified according to name, occupation, place of origin, sect, physical description, and other attributes. By 1914, nationality had become the leading category of identification. Even before nationalist claims for independence and decolonization were widespread, nationality laws governed Alexandria’s population. Identifying with Nationality traces the advent of modern national citizenships to multinational, transimperial settings such as turn-of-the-century colonial Alexandria. Ordinary individuals abandoned old identifiers and grasped nationality as the best means to access the protections promised by expanding states, creating a problematic system that continues to complicate rules of status, mobility, and residency.

The Earth And Its Peoples A Global History

Author : Richard Bulliet
ISBN : 9781337670630
Genre : History
File Size : 43. 45 MB
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Featuring a beautiful new design, THE EARTH AND ITS PEOPLES, 7th Edition, presents world history in a balanced, global framework, shifting the focus away from political centers of power and toward the living conditions and activities of ordinary people. This truly global text for the world history survey course employs fundamental themes of environment and technology and diversity and dominance to explore patterns of humans' interactions with their surroundings and with each other. The authors' approach reveals how humanity continues to shape and be shaped by the environment and how dominant structures and traditions are balanced and challenged by alternate beliefs. Technological development and how it underlies all human activity receives special emphasis. A combination of strong scholarship and detailed pedagogy gives the book its reputation for rigor and student accessibility. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

The Influence Of Sea Power Upon History 1660 1783

Author : A. T. Mahan
ISBN : 9781108023719
Genre : History
File Size : 57. 84 MB
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One of the most influential published works on naval strategy which analyses British naval domination, first published in 1890.

Cotton Climate And Camels In Early Islamic Iran

Author : Richard W. Bulliet
ISBN : 9780231148375
Genre : History
File Size : 40. 59 MB
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A boom in the production and export of cotton turned Iran into the richest region of the Islamic caliphate in the ninth and tenth centuries. Yet in the eleventh century, Iran's primacy ended as its agricultural economy entered a steep decline. Richard W. Bulliet advances several provocative explanations, for example that the boom in cotton production paralleled the spread of Islam and that Iran's agricultural decline stemmed from a significant cooling of the climate that lasted more than a century. Substantiating his argument with innovative quantitative research and scientific discoveries, Bulliet first establishes the relationship between Iran's cotton industry and Islam and then outlines the evidence for what he terms the "Big Chill." He then focuses on a lucrative but temperature-sensitive industry of cross-breeding one-humped and two-humped camels, concluding with an unusual concatenation of events that had a profound and long-lasting impact not just on the history of Iran but on the development of the world.

Handmade Culture

Author : Morgan Pitelka
ISBN : 0824828852
Genre : Art
File Size : 69. 53 MB
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Morgan Pitelka examines raku, one of Japan's most famous arts and a pottery technique practised around the world. He considers four centuries of cultural invention and reinvention during times of both political stasis and socioeconomic upheaval.

Amusing Ourselves To Death

Author : Neil Postman
ISBN : 014303653X
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 44. 4 MB
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Examines the ways in which television has transformed public discourse--in politics, education, religion, science, and elsewhere--into a form of entertainment that undermines exposition, explanation and knowledge, in a special anniversary edition of the classic critique of the influence of the mass media on a democratic society. Reprint.

The Darkening Age

Author : Catherine Nixey
ISBN : 9780544800939
Genre : History
File Size : 84. 86 MB
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A bold new history of the rise of Christianity, showing how its radical followers ravaged vast swathes of classical culture, plunging the world into an era of dogma and intellectual darkness In Harran, the locals refused to convert. They were dismembered, their limbs hung along the town’s main street. In Alexandria, zealots pulled the elderly philosopher-astronomer Hypatia from her chariot and flayed her to death with shards of broken pottery. Not long before, their fellow Christians had invaded the city’s greatest temple and razed it—smashing its world-famous statues and destroying all that was left of Alexandria’s Great Library. Today, we refer to Christianity’s conquest of the West as a “triumph.” But this victory entailed an orgy of destruction in which Jesus’s followers attacked and suppressed classical culture, helping to pitch Western civilization into a thousand-year-long decline. Just one percent of Latin literature would survive the great purge; countless antiquities, artworks, and ancient traditions were lost forever. As Catherine Nixey reveals, evidence of early Christians’ campaign of terror has been hiding in plain sight: in the palimpsests and shattered statues proudly displayed in churches and museums the world over. In The Darkening Age, Nixey resurrects this lost history, offering a wrenching account of the rise of Christianity and its terrible cost.

Losing Control

Author : Saskia Sassen
ISBN : 9780231106085
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 45. 94 MB
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What determines the flow of labor and capital in this new global information economy? Who has the capacity to coordinate this new system, to create a measure of order? And what happens to territoriality and sovereignty, two fundamental principles of the modern state? Losing Control? is a major addition to our understanding of these questions. Examining the rise of private transnational legal codes and supranational institutions such as the World Trade Organization and universal human rights covenants, Saskia Sassen argues that sovereignty remains an important feature of the international system, but that it is no longer confined to the nation-state. Sassen argues that a profound transformation is taking place, a partial denationalizing of national territory seen in such agreements as NAFTA and the European Union. Two arenas stand out in the new spatial and economic order: the global capital market and the series of codes and institutions that have mushroomed into an international human rights regime. As Sassen shows, these two quasi-legal realms now have the power and legitimacy to demand accountability from national governments, with the ironic twist that both depend upon the state to enforce their goals.

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