thing knowledge a philosophy of scientific instruments

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Thing Knowledge

Author : Davis Baird
ISBN : 0520928202
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 31. 9 MB
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Western philosophers have traditionally concentrated on theory as the means for expressing knowledge about a variety of phenomena. This absorbing book challenges this fundamental notion by showing how objects themselves, specifically scientific instruments, can express knowledge. As he considers numerous intriguing examples, Davis Baird gives us the tools to "read" the material products of science and technology and to understand their place in culture. Making a provocative and original challenge to our conception of knowledge itself, Thing Knowledge demands that we take a new look at theories of science and technology, knowledge, progress, and change. Baird considers a wide range of instruments, including Faraday's first electric motor, eighteenth-century mechanical models of the solar system, the cyclotron, various instruments developed by analytical chemists between 1930 and 1960, spectrometers, and more.

The Role Of Technology In Science Philosophical Perspectives

Author : Sven Ove Hansson
ISBN : 9789401797627
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 28. 91 MB
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This edited volume explores the interplay between philosophies in a wide-ranging analysis of how technological applications in science inform our systems of thought. Beginning with a historical background, the volume moves on to explore a host of topics, such as the uses of technology in scientific observations and experiments, the salient relationship between technology and mechanistic notions in science and the ways in which today’s vast and increasing computing power helps scientists achieve results that were previously unattainable. Technology allows today’s researchers to gather, in a matter of hours, data that would previously have taken weeks or months to assemble. It also acts as a kind of metaphor bank, providing biologists in particular with analogies (the heart as a ‘pump’, the nervous system as a ‘computer network’) that have become common linguistic currency. This book also examines the fundamental epistemological distinctions between technology and science and assesses their continued relevance. Given the increasing amalgamation of the philosophies of science and technology, this fresh addition to the literature features pioneering work in a promising new field that will appeal both to philosophers and scientific historiographers.

The Philosophy Of Scientific Experimentation

Author : Hans Radder
ISBN : 0822972395
Genre : Science
File Size : 35. 55 MB
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Since the late 1980s, the neglect of experiment by philosophers and historians of science has been replaced by a keen interest in the subject. In this volume, a number of prominent philosophers of experiment directly address basic theoretical questions, develop existing philosophical accounts, and offer novel perspectives on the subject, rather than rely exclusively on historical cases of experimental practice. Each essay examines one or more of six interconnected themes that run throughout the collection: the philosophical implications of actively and intentionally interfering with the material world while conducting experiments; issues of interpretation regarding causality; the link between science and technology; the role of theory in experimentation involving material and causal intervention; the impact of modeling and computer simulation on experimentation; and the philosophical implications of the design, operation, and use of scientific instruments.

Nanotechnology Challenges

Author : Joachim Schummer
ISBN : 9789812773975
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 68. 36 MB
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This book introduces the latest methods for the controlled growth of nanomaterial systems. The coverage includes simple and complex nanomaterial systems, ordered nanostructures and complex nanostructure arrays, and the essential conditions for the controlled growth of nanostructures with different morphologies, sizes, compositions, and microstructures. The book also discusses the dynamics of controlled growth and thermodynamic characteristics of two-dimensional nanorestricted systems. The authors introduce various novel synthesis methods for nanomaterials and nanostructures, such as hierarchical growth, heterostructures growth, doping growth and some developing template synthesis methods. In addition to discussing applications, the book reviews developing trends in nanomaterials and nanostructures.

Toward A New Dimension

Author : Anne Marcovich
ISBN : 9780191024016
Genre : Science
File Size : 54. 31 MB
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Over the course of the last thirty years, the investigation of objects at the nano scale has rocketed. Nanoscale scientific research has not only powerfully affected the amount and orientation of knowledge, it has perhaps even more significantly redirected the ways in which much research work is carried out, changed scientists' methodology and reasoning processes, and influenced aspects of the structure of career trajectory and the functioning of scientific disciplines. This book identifies key historical moments and episodes in the birth and evolution of nanoscience, discusses the novel repertory of epistemological concerns of practitioners, and signals sociological propensities. As Galileo's telescope explored the moon's surface four hundred years ago, nano instrumentation now makes it possible to see the surface of single molecules. Moreover, practitioners are able to manipulate individual atoms and molecules at will to produce pre-designed synthetic materials, non-existent in nature. The combinatorial of heightened observational capacity and the tailoring of synthetic artificial materials exhibiting hitherto novel physical properties has widened and transformed the worlds of scientific knowledge and technical artefact. This book invites the question: to what extent does nanoscale scientific research constitute a kind of 'scientific revolution'?

Instrumentation Between Science State And Industry

Author : B. Joerges
ISBN : 9789401090322
Genre : Science
File Size : 54. 75 MB
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these. In this book, we appropriate their conception of research-technology, and ex tend it to many other phenomena which are less stable and less localized in time and space than the Zeeman/Cotton situation. In the following pages, we use the concept for instances where research activities are orientated primarily toward technologies which facilitate both the production of scientific knowledge and the production of other goods. In particular, we use the tenn for instances where instruments and meth ods· traverse numerous geographic and institutional boundaries; that is, fields dis tinctly different and distant from the instruments' and methods' initial focus. We suggest that instruments such as the ultra-centrifuge, and the trajectories of the men who devise such artefacts, diverge in an interesting way from other fonns of artefacts and careers in science, metrology and engineering with which students of science and technology are more familiar. The instrument systems developed by re search-technologists strike us as especially general, open-ended, and flexible. When tailored effectively, research-technology instruments potentially fit into many niches and serve a host of unrelated applications. Their multi-functional character distin guishes them from many other devices which are designed to address specific, nar rowly defined problems in a circumscribed arena in and outside of science. Research technology activities link universities, industry, public and private research or me trology establishments, instrument-making finns, consulting companies, the military, and metrological agencies. Research-technology practitioners do not follow the career path of the traditional academic or engineering professional.

Controlling Technology

Author : Eric Katz
ISBN : STANFORD:36105111973330
Genre : Computers
File Size : 36. 95 MB
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Controlling Technology brings together widely conflicting views concerning the nature of modern technology as it relates to the quality of everyday life and to the larger problem of human survival on this planet. The thesis that technology has indeed become autonomous is contrasted with the position that, by its very nature, technology can only exist under human control. Thirty-four insightful essays are divided into eight parts, each with its own introduction summarizing the chapters and placing them in their appropriate contexts.

Chemical Heritage

Author :
ISBN : CHI:76684085
Genre : Chemical literature
File Size : 75. 74 MB
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Illuminating Instruments

Author : Peter John Turnbull Morris
ISBN : STANFORD:36105124111738
Genre : Science
File Size : 74. 59 MB
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This 7th volume in the Artefacts series_a collaboration between the Smithsonian Institution, the Deutches Museum, and the London Science Museum_examines the role scientific instruments have played both in the pursuit of knowledge and as cultural artifacts.

Scientific Perspectivism

Author : Ronald N. Giere
ISBN : 9780226292144
Genre : Science
File Size : 29. 16 MB
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Many people assume that the claims of scientists are objective truths. But historians, sociologists, and philosophers of science have long argued that scientific claims reflect the particular historical, cultural, and social context in which those claims were made. The nature of scientific knowledge is not absolute because it is influenced by the practice and perspective of human agents. Scientific Perspectivism argues that the acts of observing and theorizing are both perspectival, and this nature makes scientific knowledge contingent, as Thomas Kuhn theorized forty years ago. Using the example of color vision in humans to illustrate how his theory of “perspectivism” works, Ronald N. Giere argues that colors do not actually exist in objects; rather, color is the result of an interaction between aspects of the world and the human visual system. Giere extends this argument into a general interpretation of human perception and, more controversially, to scientific observation, conjecturing that the output of scientific instruments is perspectival. Furthermore, complex scientific principles—such as Maxwell’s equations describing the behavior of both the electric and magnetic fields—make no claims about the world, but models based on those principles can be used to make claims about specific aspects of the world. Offering a solution to the most contentious debate in the philosophy of science over the past thirty years, Scientific Perspectivism will be of interest to anyone involved in the study of science.

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