thresholds of genotoxic carcinogens from mechanisms to regulation

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Thresholds Of Genotoxic Carcinogens

Author : Takehiko Nohmi
ISBN : 9780128018033
Genre : Medical
File Size : 89. 54 MB
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Thresholds of Genotoxic Carcinogens: From Mechanisms to Regulation brings together current opinion and research activities from Japan, the US, and Europe on the subject of genotoxic thresholds. In regulation, it is an adage that genotoxic carcinogens have no thresholds for action, and that they impose cancer risk on humans even at very low levels. This policy is frequently called into question as humans possess a number of defense mechanisms including detoxication, DNA repair, and apoptosis, meaning there is a threshold at which these genotoxic carcinogens take action. The book examines these potential thresholds, describing the potential cancer risks of daily low-level exposure, the mechanisms involved (such as DNA repair, detoxication, translesion DNA synthesis), chemical and statistical methods of analysis, and the ways in which these may be utilized to inform policy. Thresholds of Genotoxic Carcinogens: From Mechanisms to Regulation is an essential reference for any professional researchers in genetic toxicology and those involved in toxicological regulation. Unites an international team of experts to provide a balanced overview of the current opinion on thresholds of genotoxic carcinogens Provides all the information readers need to determine a safe threshold for potential genotoxic carcinogens Includes information on the mechanisms of genotoxic carcinogens and how these can inform regulation Serves as an essential reference for any professional researchers in genetic toxicology and those involved in toxicological regulation

The Cellular Response To The Genotoxic Insult

Author : Helmut Greim
ISBN : 9781782626046
Genre : Science
File Size : 56. 34 MB
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Genotoxic carcinogens can lead to DNA mutations with the potential to cause cancer. Typically, a series of mutation events are needed before malignancy occurs so a single, small exposure may not result in disease. Also, cells have an armoury of defence mechanisms which, to a degree, counter the effects of mutagens. Distinguishing the point at which exposure to a carcinogen increases mutation rates beyond the background level is challenging. In fact, there is now general agreement that, for genotoxic carcinogens, no specific threshold can be identified. However, NOAELs (No Observed Adverse Effect Levels) may be used in the process of establishing a dose-response relationship. These denote the level of exposure at which there is no significant increase in adverse effects in the exposed population when compared to an appropriate control. Such a scientifically defendable threshold allows us to propose health based exposure limits for genotoxic carcinogens. This book describes the various cellular defence mechanisms individually and explains how they are regulated. The processes covered include metabolic inactivation, epigenetic regulation, scavenging mechanisms, DNA-repair and apoptosis. It also considers dose-dependent threshold mechanisms of carcinogenesis and the rate limiting parameters. Aimed at graduate level and above, the book discusses the consequences of genotoxic evaluation and urges readers to question the idea that even low exposures present a cancer risk.

Principles And Methods Of Toxicology Fifth Edition

Author : A. Wallace Hayes
ISBN : 084933778X
Genre : Medical
File Size : 69. 60 MB
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Founded on the paradox that all things are poisons and the difference between poison and remedy is quantity, the determination of safe dosage forms the base and focus of modern toxicology. In order to make a sound determination there must be a working knowledge of the biologic mechanisms involved and of the methods employed to define these mechanisms. While the vastness of the field and the rapid accumulation of data may preclude the possibility of absorbing and retaining more than a fraction of the available information, a solid understanding of the underlying principles is essential. Extensively revised and updated with four new chapters and an expanded glossary, this fifth edition of the classic text, Principles and Methods of Toxicology provides comprehensive coverage in a manageable and accessible format. New topics include 'toxicopanomics', plant and animal poisons, information resources, and non-animal testing alternatives. Emphasizing the cornerstones of toxicology-people differ, dose matters, and things change, the book begins with a review of the history of toxicology and followed by an explanation of basic toxicological principles, agents that cause toxicity, target organ toxicity, and toxicological testing methods including many of the test protocols required to meet regulatory needs worldwide. The book examines each method or procedure from the standpoint of technique and interpretation of data and discusses problems and pitfalls that may be associated with each. The addition of several new authors allow for a broader and more diverse treatment of the ever-changing and expanding field of toxicology. Maintaining the high-quality information and organizational framework that made the previous editions so successful, Principles and Methods of Toxicology, Fifth Edition continues to be a valuable resource for the advanced practitioner as well as the new disciple of toxicology.

Environmental Regulations And Standard Setting

Author : Bhaskar Nath
ISBN : 9781848261037
Genre :
File Size : 63. 63 MB
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Environmental Regulations and Standard Setting is a component of Encyclopedia of Environmental and Ecological Sciences, Engineering and Technology Resources in the global Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), which is an integrated compendium of twenty one Encyclopedias. Environmental regulation and the setting of environmental standards is concerned with command-and-control standards and regulations to control most of the pollutants generated by anthropogenic activities impacting on the three main environmental compartments: air, water, and land (including waste). Methods of regulatory control are described along with all major associated issues, including criteria for standard setting, enforcement of standards, public participation, and the deficiencies of conventional standards and regulations in securing the sustainability of earth's natural environmental capital. The Theme is organized into four different topics which represent the main scientific areas of the theme: The first topic, the need for environmental regulation and standards, problems encountered in setting standards, and the major deficiencies of environmental standards vis-à-vis environmental sustainability are discussed in this topic. The succeeding two topics are Environmental Quality Standards; Source-Oriented Control of Pollution; The fourth topic, the two prevailing types of standards are discussed — ecologically-based standards whose main purpose is to limit the degradation caused to ecosystems by anthropogenic activities, and health-based standards which focus on minimizing the adverse environmental impacts on human health. This volume is aimed at the following five major target audiences: University and College Students, Educators, Professional Practitioners, Research Personnel and Policy Analysts, Managers, and Decision Makers and NGOs.

Criminal Indifference Of The Fda To Cancer Prevention

Author : Samuel S. Epstein M.D.
ISBN : 9781493157754
Genre : Medical
File Size : 52. 4 MB
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Samuel S. Epstein, M.D. is professor emeritus of Environmental and Occupational Medicine at the University of Illinois at Chicago School of Public Health, and Chairman of the Cancer Prevention Coalition, and former Congressional consultant. His awards include the 1998 Right Livelihood Award and the 2005 Albert Schweitzer Golden Grand Medal. He has authored 270 scientific articles and 18 books on the causes, prevention and politics of cancer, including the groundbreaking "The Politics of Cancer" (1979); Cancer-Gate: How To Win The Losing Cancer War (2005); and "Healthy Beauty" (2010). Dr. Epstein is an internationally recognized authority on avoidable causes of cancer in air, water, consumer products, and the workplace.

Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship Qsar Models Of Mutagens And Carcinogens

Author : Romualdo Benigni
ISBN : 0203010825
Genre : Science
File Size : 25. 57 MB
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Applied with success in a number of areas, QSAR studies have become particularly popular in the rational design of drugs and pesticides. Much has been published on the principles of QSAR in this area, but not on their application s to toxic chemicals. This book provides the first comprehensive, interdisciplinary presentation of QSAR studies on chemical mutagens and carcinogens. It synthesizes the body of knowledge and recent advances in this rapidly emerging field through the contributions of leading experts from around the world. Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) Models of Mutagens and Carcinogens focuses on the use of QSAR modeling in predicting and designing compounds for synthesis and testing of cancer drugs. The authors clearly show how QSAR can contribute to the elucidation of mechanisms, to identifying toxic chemicals solely by their chemical structure, and to the design of safer chemicals. The contents include a general introduction to QSAR theory and extensive reviews of virtually all existing QSAR models.

Cancer Risk Assessment

Author : Ching-Hung Hsu
ISBN : 1118035127
Genre : Science
File Size : 64. 62 MB
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With a weight-of-the-evidence approach, cancer risk assessment indentifies hazards, determines dose-response relationships, and assesses exposure to characterize the true risk. This book focuses on the quantitative methods for conducting chemical cancer risk assessments for solvents, metals, mixtures, and nanoparticles. It links these to the basic toxicology and biology of cancer, along with the impacts on regulatory guidelines and standards. By providing insightful perspective, Cancer Risk Assessment helps researchers develop a discriminate eye when it comes to interpreting data accurately and separating relevant information from erroneous.

Chromosomal Alterations

Author : Günter Obe
ISBN : 9783540714149
Genre : Science
File Size : 67. 71 MB
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The book helps the reader to better understand cytogenetics and the intricacies of the methodology. The different methods of fluorescence in situ hybridization are discussed and the results achieved are presented. The book provides a comprehensive review of basic and applied aspects of cytogenetics and thus is of intense interest to all those interested in chromosomes and their alterations by different types of mutagens, including chemical mutagens and ionizing and nonionizing radiation, with special reference to electromagnetic fields.

Epigenetics And Human Health

Author : Alexander Haslberger
ISBN : 9783527644759
Genre : Science
File Size : 80. 30 MB
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After first introducing the concept of epigenetics, this handbook and ready reference provides an overview of the main research on epigenetics. It adopts a multidisciplinary approach, involving molecular biology, molecular epidemiology and nutritional science, with a special focus of the book is on disease prevention and treatment. Of interest to all healthcare-related professionals as well as nutritionists, and the medical community focusing on disease prevention.

Low Dose Exposures In The Environment

Author : Christian Streffer
ISBN : 3540210830
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 24. 45 MB
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The ever-increasing release of harmful agents due to human activities have led in some areas of the world to heavy pollution. In order to protect human health and the environment, environmental standards that shall limit the release and the concentration of those toxic agents in the environment and hence the exposure to it have to be established. The related assessment and decision-making procedures have to be based on solid scientific data about the effects and mechanisms of these agents as well as on ethical, social and economic aspects. For risk evaluation, the knowledge of the dose response curve is an essential prerequisite. Dose responses without a threshold dose are most critical in this connection. Such dose responses are assumed for mutagenic and carcinogenic effects, which, therefore, dominate also the discussion in this book. In the environmentally important low dose range, risk estimation can only be achieved by extrapolation from higher doses with measurable effects. The extrapolation is accompanied with uncertainties which makes risk evaluation as well as risk communication frequently problematic. In order to ensure rational efficient and fair decisions beyond a sound scientific assessment the dialogue between disciplines, with the affected people and with the general public is necessary. In this book, the whole range of relevant and essential aspects of risk evaluation and standard setting is addressed. Starting with the ethical foundations, the sound analysis of recent scientific findings sets the frame for further reflections by theory of cognition, psychosocial sciences, and jurisprudence. The authors end up with concluding recommendations for coping with the recent problems of standard setting in the field of environmentally relevant low doses. The book is designed to a readership of scientists, legislators, administrators, and the interested public.

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