trace amines and neurological disorders potential mechanisms and risk factors

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Trace Amines And Neurological Disorders

Author : Tahira Farooqui
ISBN : 9780128036167
Genre : Medical
File Size : 27. 44 MB
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Trace Amines and Neurological Disorders: Potential Mechanisms and Risk Factors explores trace amines which, under normal conditions, are present in the mammalian brain and peripheral nervous tissues at very low (nanomolar) concentrations. However, in a diverse array of human pathologies ranging from substance abuse, depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, eating disorders, schizophrenia, and other neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases, the levels of trace amines are unusually high with an imbalance in their functions. Furthermore, the rapid turnover of trace amines is evidenced by their dramatic increases following treatment with monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI) or deletion of the MAO genes. This suggests that the concentration of trace amines may be considerably higher at neuronal synapses than predicted by steady-state measures, implicating some pathophysiological role. Therefore, understanding molecular mechanisms and developing selective agonists and antagonists for trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs) has become a good approach for treating these diseases. Although the effects of trace amines at low physiological concentrations in mammalian species have been difficult to demonstrate, they may serve to maintain the neuronal activity of other monoamine neurotransmitters by possessing postsynaptic modulatory effects, particularly dopamine and serotonin, within defined physiological limits. Such an effect of trace amines makes them ideal candidates for the development of novel therapeutics for a wide range of human disorders. This book presents up-to-date, cutting-edge, and comprehensive information on the link between trace amines and neurological disorders. Focuses on recent findings on trace amines, providing insights into the functional significance, molecular mechanisms, and biological relevance of TAARS in neurological disorders Edited work with chapters authored by leaders in the field from around the globe, the broadest, most expert coverage available Provides cutting-edge research on trace amines-mediated signaling in vertebrate model systems

Taste And Smell

Author : Dietmar Krautwurst
ISBN : 9783319489278
Genre : Science
File Size : 81. 33 MB
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Medicinal chemistry is both science and art. The science of medicinal chemistry offers mankind one of its best hopes for improving the quality of life. The art of medicinal chemistry continues to challenge its practitioners with the need for both intuition and experience to discover new drugs. Hence sharing the experience of drug research is uniquely beneficial to the field of medicinal chemistry. Drug research requires interdisciplinary team-work at the interface between chemistry, biology and medicine. Therefore, the topic-related series Topics in Medicinal Chemistry covers all relevant aspects of drug research, e.g. pathobiochemistry of diseases, identification and validation of (emerging) drug targets, structural biology, drugability of targets, drug design approaches, chemogenomics, synthetic chemistry including combinatorial methods, bioorganic chemistry, natural compounds, high-throughput screening, pharmacological in vitro and in vivo investigations, drug-receptor interactions on the molecular level, structure-activity relationships, drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination, toxicology and pharmacogenomics. In general, special volumes are edited by well known guest editors.

Trace Amines

Author : Alan A. Boulton
ISBN : 9781461246022
Genre : Medical
File Size : 88. 56 MB
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How Selegiline Deprenyl Slows Brain Aging

Author : Joseph Knoll
ISBN : 9781608054701
Genre : Medical
File Size : 59. 72 MB
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This e-book is a reference on Selegiline ((-)-Deprenyl) effects on the brain. Selegiline, described in thousands of research papers, is registered in over 60 countries. At present, more than one hundred preparations containing selegiline circulate in the global market under different brand names. They are widely used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, major depression and as a geroprotective / anti-aging drug. ((-)-Deprenyl) selegiline, the first selective inhibitor of B-type MAO which, in contrast to the known MAO inhibitors, did not potentiate the effect of tyramine but inhibited it. the compound could be combined with levodopa in Parkinson's disease without signs of hypertensive reactions. the DATATOP study in the USA revealed that (-)-deprenyl delayed the onset of disability associated with early, otherwise untreated Parkinson's disease. the age-related decay of the supply of the brain with phenylethylamine (PEA), due to the progressive increase of MAO-B activity in the aging brain, and dopamine, due to the better than average decline of the dopaminergic neuronal activity during the postdevelopmental phase of life, are irresistible biochemical lesions of aging. the speed of deterioration of behavioral performances with the passing of time and longevity depends significantly on the pace of the worsening of these lesions. (-)-Deprenyl, increasing the supply of the brain with PEA and dopamine, counteracts this aging process. Maintenance of male rats from sexual maturity until death on ((-)-deprenyl) delays the age-related loss of the capacity to ejaculate, slows the age-related decline of learning ability and prolongs life. In humans, maintenance from sexual maturity on (-)-deprenyl (1 mg daily) is, for the time being, the most promising prophylactic treatment to fight against the age-related decay of behavioral performances, prolonging life, and preventing or delaying the onset of age-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's. This e-book is a useful reference for graduate medical students, academic researchers in the field of neuropsychopharmacology, neurophysiology and gerontology and professional research groups in commercial organizations manufacturing selegiline preparations.

Fundamental Neuroscience

Author : Larry R. Squire
ISBN : 9780123858702
Genre : Medical
File Size : 23. 16 MB
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Fundamental Neuroscience, 3rd Edition introduces graduate and upper-level undergraduate students to the full range of contemporary neuroscience. Addressing instructor and student feedback on the previous edition, all of the chapters are rewritten to make this book more concise and student-friendly than ever before. Each chapter is once again heavily illustrated and provides clinical boxes describing experiments, disorders, and methodological approaches and concepts. A companion web site contains test questions, and an imagebank of the figures for ready use in presentations, slides, and handouts. Capturing the promise and excitement of this fast-moving field, Fundamental Neuroscience, 3rd Edition is the text that students will be able to reference throughout their neuroscience careers! New to this edition: * 30% new material including new chapters on Dendritic Development and Spine Morphogenesis, Chemical Senses, Cerebellum, Eye Movements, Circadian Timing, Sleep and Dreaming, and Consciousness * Companion website with figures, web links to additional material, and test questions * Additional text boxes describing key experiments, disorders, methods, and concepts * Multiple model system coverage beyond rats, mice, and monkeys * Extensively expanded index for easier referencing

The Headaches

Author : Jes Olesen
ISBN : 9780781754002
Genre : Medical
File Size : 31. 28 MB
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Established worldwide as the one definitive, encyclopedic reference on headache, The Headaches is now in its thoroughly revised, updated Third Edition. The foremost international authorities examine the mechanisms of over 100 types of headache and provide evidence-based treatment recommendations, including extensive tables of controlled clinical trials. This edition presents the revised International Headache Society classification of headaches and explains how to use this new classification for accurate diagnosis. Many headache entities are discussed for the first time, such as chronic migraines; primary headache attributed to sexual activity; primary stabbing, cough, exertional, and thunderclap headaches; hypnic headaches; and new daily persistent headaches. A new section focuses on childhood headaches. Chapters that focus on headaches in elderly patients and patients with psychiatric or medical diseases are also included.

Primer On The Autonomic Nervous System

Author : David Robertson
ISBN : 9780123865250
Genre : Medical
File Size : 69. 26 MB
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The Primer on the Autonomic Nervous System presents, in a readable and accessible format, key information about how the autonomic nervous system controls the body, particularly in response to stress. It represents the largest collection of world-wide autonomic nervous system authorities ever assembled in one book. It is especially suitable for students, scientists and physicians seeking key information about all aspects of autonomic physiology and pathology in one convenient source. Providing up-to-date knowledge about basic and clinical autonomic neuroscience in a format designed to make learning easy and fun, this book is a must-have for any neuroscientist's bookshelf! Greatly amplified and updated from previous edition including the latest developments in the field of autonomic cardiovascular regulation and neuroscience Provides key information about all aspects of autonomic physiology and pathology Discusses stress and how its effects on the body are mediated Compiles contributions by over 140 experts on the autonomic nervous system

Magnesium In The Central Nervous System

Author : Robert Vink
ISBN : 9780987073051
Genre : Medical
File Size : 78. 85 MB
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The brain is the most complex organ in our body. Indeed, it is perhaps the most complex structure we have ever encountered in nature. Both structurally and functionally, there are many peculiarities that differentiate the brain from all other organs. The brain is our connection to the world around us and by governing nervous system and higher function, any disturbance induces severe neurological and psychiatric disorders that can have a devastating effect on quality of life. Our understanding of the physiology and biochemistry of the brain has improved dramatically in the last two decades. In particular, the critical role of cations, including magnesium, has become evident, even if incompletely understood at a mechanistic level. The exact role and regulation of magnesium, in particular, remains elusive, largely because intracellular levels are so difficult to routinely quantify. Nonetheless, the importance of magnesium to normal central nervous system activity is self-evident given the complicated homeostatic mechanisms that maintain the concentration of this cation within strict limits essential for normal physiology and metabolism. There is also considerable accumulating evidence to suggest alterations to some brain functions in both normal and pathological conditions may be linked to alterations in local magnesium concentration. This book, containing chapters written by some of the foremost experts in the field of magnesium research, brings together the latest in experimental and clinical magnesium research as it relates to the central nervous system. It offers a complete and updated view of magnesiums involvement in central nervous system function and in so doing, brings together two main pillars of contemporary neuroscience research, namely providing an explanation for the molecular mechanisms involved in brain function, and emphasizing the connections between the molecular changes and behavior. It is the untiring efforts of those magnesium researchers who have dedicated their lives to unraveling the mysteries of magnesiums role in biological systems that has inspired the collation of this volume of work.

Molecular Genetic And Nutritional Aspects Of Major And Trace Minerals

Author : James F Collins
ISBN : 9780128023761
Genre : Medical
File Size : 59. 2 MB
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Molecular, Genetic, and Nutritional Aspects of Major and Trace Minerals is a unique reference that provides a complete overview of the non-vitamin micronutrients, including calcium, copper, iodine, iron, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, phosphorus, potassium, selenium, sodium, and zinc. In addition, the book covers the nutritional and toxicological properties of nonessential minerals chromium, fluoride and boron, and silicon and vanadium, as well as ultra-trace minerals and those with no established dietary requirement for humans. Users will find in-depth chapters on each essential mineral and mineral metabolism, along with discussions of dietary recommendations in the United States and around the world. Presents the only scientific reference to cover all of the nutritionally relevant essential major and trace minerals Provides a broad introductory chapter on each mineral to give readers valuable background and context Clarifies the cellular and molecular aspects of each mineral and its genetic and genomic aspects Includes coverage of all nutritionally relevant minerals—essential major trace minerals and ultra-trace minerals Underscores the important interactions between minerals so readers learn how metabolism of one mineral influences another

Amines And Their Metabolites

Author : Alan A. Boulton
ISBN : UCAL:B4532478
Genre : Medical
File Size : 42. 64 MB
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Techniques u-r the neurosciences are evolving rapidly. There are currently very few volumes dedicated to the methodology - ployed by neuroscrentists, and those that are available often seem either out of date or limited in scope This series is about the methods most widely used by modern-day neuroscrentrsts and 1s written by their colleagues who are practicing experts Volume 1 will be useful to all neuroscientists since it concerns those procedures used routinely across the widest range of subdiscrplines Collectmg these general techmques together in a single volume strikes us not only as a service, but will no doubt prove of exceptronal utilrtarian value as well Volumes 2 and 3 - scribe all current procedures for the analyses of ammes and their metabolrtes and of ammo acids, respectively. These collectrons will clearly be of value to all neuroscrentrsts working m or contemplating research in those fields. Similar reasons exist for Volume 4 on receptor bmdmg techniques since experimental - tails are provided for all types of lrgand-receptor binding, including chapters on general principles, drug discovery and - velopment, and a most useful appendix on computer programs for Scatchard, nonlinear, and competitrve displacement analyses. Volume 5 provides procedures for the assessment of enzymes- volved m brogemc amme synthesis and catabolrsm. Volumes in the NEUROMETHODS series will be useful to neurochemists, -pharmacologists, -physrologrsts, -anatomrsts, psychopharmacologrsts, psychratrrsts, neurologrsts, and chemists (organic, analytrcal, pharmaceutrcal, medicinal), m fact, everyone involved m the neurosciences, both basic and clinical.

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