tropical meteorology an introduction springer atmospheric sciences

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Tropical Meteorology

Author : T.N. Krishnamurti
ISBN : 9781461474098
Genre : Science
File Size : 62. 51 MB
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This book is designed as an introductory course in Tropical Meteorology for the graduate or advanced level undergraduate student. The material within can be covered in a one-semester course program. The text starts from the global scale-view of the Tropics, addressing the zonally symmetric and asymmetric features of the tropical circulation. It then goes on to progressively smaller spatial and time scales – from the El Niño Southern Oscillation and the Asian Monsoon, down to tropical waves, hurricanes, sea breezes, and tropical squall lines. The emphasis in most chapters is on the observational aspects of the phenomenon in question, the theories regarding its nature and maintenance, and the approaches to its numerical modeling. The concept of scale interactions is also presented as a way of gaining insight into the generation and redistribution of energy for the maintenance of oscillations of a variety of spatial and temporal scales.

Lectures In Meteorology

Author : Nicole Mölders
ISBN : 9783319021447
Genre : Science
File Size : 89. 80 MB
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Lectures in Meteorology is a comprehensive reference book for meteorologists and environmental scientists to look up material on the thermodynamics, dynamics and chemistry of the troposphere. The lectures demonstrate how to derive/develop equations – an essential tool for model development. All chapters present applications of the material including numerical models. The lectures are written in modular form, i.e. they can be used at the undergraduate level for classes covered by the chapters or at the graduate level as a comprehensive, intensive course. The student/instructor can address chapters 2 (thermodynamics) and 4 (radiation) in any order. They can also switch the order of chapter 5 (chemistry) and 6 (dynamics). Chapter 7 (climatology and climate) requires an understanding of all chapters. Chapter 3 (cloud physics) needs basics from chapter 2 to understand the cloud microphysical processes. The governing conservation equations for trace constituents, dry air, water substances, total mass, energy, entropy and momentum are presented, including simplifications and their application in models. A brief introduction to atmospheric boundary layer processes is presented as well. Basic principles of climatology discussed include analysis methods, atmospheric waves and their analytical solutions, tropical and extra-tropical cyclones, classical and non-classical mesoscale circulations, and the global circulation. The atmospheric chemistry section encompasses photolytic and gas-phase processes, aqueous chemistry, aerosol processes, fundamentals of biogeochemical cycles and the ozone layer. Solar and terrestrial radiation; major absorber; radiation balance; radiative equilibrium; radiative-convective equilibrium; and basics of molecular, aerosol and cloud adsorption and scattering and their use in remote sensing are also presented.

An Introduction To The Meteorology And Climate Of The Tropics

Author : J. F. P. Galvin
ISBN : 9781119086246
Genre : Science
File Size : 90. 44 MB
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What do we mean by the tropics? The weather and the climates it produces across the tropical zone are significantly different from those experienced by the people living in higher latitudes, so forecasters across Europe and much of North America are unfamiliar with its effects. In this book, Jim Galvin demystifies the topic in this zone that is increasingly of interest to those studying weather and climate. This book was written for weather forecasters, meteorology, environmental science and geography students as an introductory guide. It builds on the experience of the author, his professional experience in the World Area Forecast Centre at the Met Office, Exeter, using studies into the weather and climate seen within the tropical air mass conducted over many years. Its unique approach presents a practical approach to tropical weather studies, drawing on both academic and practical knowledge, covering air mass dynamics, seasonal changes, moist and dry weather, climate variability and human health in chapters and appendices that build up the overall picture, summarising our current state of knowledge. As an overview, it covers the broad range of effects connected with climate and weather in a straightforward way and is clearly illustrated throughout.

Applied Hydrometeorology

Author : Pukhraj Rakhecha
ISBN : 9781402098444
Genre : Science
File Size : 39. 83 MB
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Water is vital for life. Since the dawn of civilization, much effort has been made to harness sources of fresh water. Recent years have raised global awareness of the need for increasing demand of water worldwide, largely because of growing population, rising standard of living, higher demand for energy, and greater appreciation for environmental quality. As an example, the world population has increased threefold in the past five decades. In order to meet the rising water demand, water resources are being developed by building large dams, reservoirs, barrages and weirs across rivers worldwide. The guiding principle for water resources development has been to ensure adequate supply of water for agriculture, domestic use (including fine drinking water), waste disposal, industries, and energy production, with due attention to maintain the ecosystem functions. This development, however, depends on a holistic, cooperative and scientific approach. The basic inputs in the assessment of water resources for a given region are from hydrological data and the subject of hydrology forms the core in achieving sustainable development of water resources. Barring a few exceptions, hydrological data for most river basins are sparse and therefore it is difficult to comprehensively assess their water resources. The major source of water is rainfall which occurs as a result of condensation of atmospheric moisture governed by the science of meteorology.

Fundamentals Of Boundary Layer Meteorology

Author : Xuhui Lee
ISBN : 9783319608532
Genre : Science
File Size : 67. 8 MB
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This textbook introduces a set of fundamental equations that govern the conservation of mass (dry air, water vapor, trace gas), momentum and energy in the lower atmosphere. Simplifications of each of these equations are made in the context of boundary-layer processes. Extended from these equations the author then discusses a key set of issues, including (1) turbulence generation and destruction, (2) force balances in various portions of the lower atmosphere, (3) canopy flow, (4) tracer diffusion and footprint theory, (5) principles of flux measurement and interpretation, (6) models for land evaporation, (7) models for surface temperature response to land use change, and (8) boundary layer budget calculations for heat, water vapor and carbon dioxide. Problem sets are supplied at the end of each chapter to reinforce the concepts and theory presented in the main text. This volume offers the accumulation of insights gained by the author during his academic career as a researcher and teacher in the field of boundary-layer meteorology.

An Introduction To Boundary Layer Meteorology

Author : Roland B. Stull
ISBN : 9789400930278
Genre : Science
File Size : 55. 42 MB
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Part of the excitement in boundary-layer meteorology is the challenge associated with turbulent flow - one of the unsolved problems in classical physics. An additional attraction of the filed is the rich diversity of topics and research methods that are collected under the umbrella-term of boundary-layer meteorology. The flavor of the challenges and the excitement associated with the study of the atmospheric boundary layer are captured in this textbook. Fundamental concepts and mathematics are presented prior to their use, physical interpretations of the terms in equations are given, sample data are shown, examples are solved, and exercises are included. The work should also be considered as a major reference and as a review of the literature, since it includes tables of parameterizatlons, procedures, filed experiments, useful constants, and graphs of various phenomena under a variety of conditions. It is assumed that the work will be used at the beginning graduate level for students with an undergraduate background in meteorology, but the author envisions, and has catered for, a heterogeneity in the background and experience of his readers.

Geoinformatics And Atmospheric Science

Author : Tomasz Niedzielski
ISBN : 9783319660929
Genre : Science
File Size : 59. 56 MB
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This volume presents recent developments in atmospheric sciences driven by numerical modeling which makes use of geospatial technologies and increasing computational power. It gathers examples of how geoinformatics supports meteorological, climatological and water-related studies. One of the most important features of geospatial technologies is that they provide methods and tools which may be utilized in real time or near real time in order to monitor and predict atmospheric processes. This is particularly crucial in areas where dynamics of atmospheric phenomena is considerable and causes difficulties in accurate forecasting. One of such areas is the transitional zone between oceanic and continental features of the mid-latitude climate. Good examples of investigations into the transitional zone come from Poland and its neighboring countries. The topical volume provides the reader with a selection of papers on physically-based and data-based modelling of weather-related phenomena over Poland. This main theme of the topical volume is extended to cover case studies on the use of geoinformatics in atmospheric studies in other regions at a range of spatial scales.

Stratosphere Troposphere Interactions

Author : K. Mohanakumar
ISBN : 9781402082177
Genre : Science
File Size : 80. 58 MB
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Stratospheric processes play a signi?cant role in regulating the weather and c- mate of the Earth system. Solar radiation, which is the primary source of energy for the tropospheric weather systems, is absorbed by ozone when it passes through the stratosphere, thereby modulating the solar-forcing energy reaching into the t- posphere. The concentrations of the radiatively sensitive greenhouse gases present in the lower atmosphere, such as water vapor, carbon dioxide, and ozone, control the radiation balance of the atmosphere by the two-way interaction between the stratosphere and troposphere. The stratosphere is the transition region which interacts with the weather s- tems in the lower atmosphere and the richly ionized upper atmosphere. Therefore, this part of the atmosphere provides a long list of challenging scienti?c problems of basic nature involving its thermal structure, energetics, composition, dynamics, chemistry, and modeling. The lower stratosphere is very much linked dynamically, radiatively,and chemically with the upper troposphere,even though the temperature characteristics of these regions are different. The stratosphere is a region of high stability, rich in ozone and poor in water - por and temperature increases with altitude. The lower stratospheric ozone absorbs the harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun and protects life on the Earth. On the other hand, the troposphere has high concentrations of water vapor, is low in ozone, and temperature decreases with altitude. The convective activity is more in the troposphere than in the stratosphere.

Tropical Forests In Transition

Author : J. Goldammer
ISBN : 9783034872560
Genre : Science
File Size : 63. 58 MB
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In evolutionary time scales natural disturbances have affected the vegetation on Earth. During the Quaternary the forest biomes of the tropics were subjected to manifold disturbances. Climate changes and climate oscillations were associated with changing precipitation and drought regimes, flooding, siltation, landslides, etc. The prehistorical forest was also influenced by the effects of large wildlife populations. Large-scale catastrophies in the forest biomes were mainly caused by abiotic environmental alterations, the small-scale disturbances were and still are related to both biotic and abiotic processes. Both the large-and the small-scale disturbances have played a significant role in shaping distribution, dynamics, structure and composition of the paleoforest. After the expansion of hominids and early humans, and later, by modern humans, the anthropogenic influences on the tropical forest began to overlap natural disturbances. Today's anthropogenic impacts on the tropical forests differ qualitatively and quanitatively from the natural disturbances. The speed of tropical deforestation and savannization is dramatically increasing. The physical and chemical impacts of forest conversion and biomass burning add to other anthropogenic influences on the atmosphere and climate. The expected anthropogenic climate change will also have considerable impacts on the tropical flora and fauna. The book on "Tropical Forests in Transition" synthesizes information on changing environmental conditions and human impacts on the tropical forest by looking back to the paleoecology, analyzing the impact of modern human populations and modeling the future of the tropical forest in a changing environment. The aim of the book is to strengthen multidisciplinary thinking in disturbance ecology.

Impact Of Climate Change On Water Resources

Author : Komaragiri Srinivasa Raju
ISBN : 9789811061103
Genre : Science
File Size : 21. 76 MB
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This book gives an overview of various aspects of climate change by integrating global climate models, downscaling approaches, and hydrological models. It also covers themes that help in understanding climate change in a holistic manner. The book includes worked-out examples, revision questions, exercise problems, and case studies, making it relevant for use as a textbook in graduate courses and professional development programs. The book will serve well researchers, students, as well as professionals working in the area of hydroclimatology.

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