uneducated guesses using evidence to uncover misguided education policies

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Uneducated Guesses

Author : Howard Wainer
ISBN : 9781400839575
Genre : Education
File Size : 85. 75 MB
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Uneducated Guesses challenges everything our policymakers thought they knew about education and education reform, from how to close the achievement gap in public schools to admission standards for top universities. In this explosive book, Howard Wainer uses statistical evidence to show why some of the most widely held beliefs in education today--and the policies that have resulted--are wrong. He shows why colleges that make the SAT optional for applicants end up with underperforming students and inflated national rankings, and why the push to substitute achievement tests for aptitude tests makes no sense. Wainer challenges the thinking behind the enormous rise of advanced placement courses in high schools, and demonstrates why assessing teachers based on how well their students perform on tests--a central pillar of recent education reforms--is woefully misguided. He explains why college rankings are often lacking in hard evidence, why essay questions on tests disadvantage women, why the most grievous errors in education testing are not made by testing organizations--and much more. No one concerned about seeing our children achieve their full potential can afford to ignore this book. With forceful storytelling, wry insight, and a wealth of real-world examples, Uneducated Guesses exposes today's educational policies to the light of empirical evidence, and offers solutions for fairer and more viable future policies.

Uneducated Guesses

Author : Howard Wainer
ISBN : 9780691149288
Genre : Education
File Size : 52. 74 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Uneducated Guesses challenges everything our policymakers thought they knew about education and education reform, from how to close the achievement gap in public schools to admission standards for top universities. In this explosive book, Howard Wainer uses statistical evidence to show why some of the most widely held beliefs in education today--and the policies that have resulted--are wrong. He shows why colleges that make the SAT optional for applicants end up with underperforming students and inflated national rankings, and why the push to substitute achievement tests for aptitude tests makes no sense. Wainer challenges the thinking behind the enormous rise of advanced placement courses in high schools, and demonstrates why assessing teachers based on how well their students perform on tests--a central pillar of recent education reforms--is woefully misguided. He explains why college rankings are often lacking in hard evidence, why essay questions on tests disadvantage women, why the most grievous errors in education testing are not made by testing organizations--and much more. No one concerned about seeing our children achieve their full potential can afford to ignore this book. With forceful storytelling, wry insight, and a wealth of real-world examples, Uneducated Guesses exposes today's educational policies to the light of empirical evidence, and offers solutions for fairer and more viable future policies.

Graphic Discovery

Author : Howard Wainer
ISBN : 9781400849277
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 51. 94 MB
Format : PDF
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Good graphs make complex problems clear. From the weather forecast to the Dow Jones average, graphs are so ubiquitous today that it is hard to imagine a world without them. Yet they are a modern invention. This book is the first to comprehensively plot humankind's fascinating efforts to visualize data, from a key seventeenth-century precursor--England's plague-driven initiative to register vital statistics--right up to the latest advances. In a highly readable, richly illustrated story of invention and inventor that mixes science and politics, intrigue and scandal, revolution and shopping, Howard Wainer validates Thoreau's observation that circumstantial evidence can be quite convincing, as when you find a trout in the milk. The story really begins with the eighteenth-century origins of the art, logic, and methods of data display, which emerged, full-grown, in William Playfair's landmark 1786 trade atlas of England and Wales. The remarkable Scot singlehandedly popularized the atheoretical plotting of data to reveal suggestive patterns--an achievement that foretold the graphic explosion of the nineteenth century, with atlases published across the observational sciences as the language of science moved from words to pictures. Next come succinct chapters illustrating the uses and abuses of this marvelous invention more recently, from a murder trial in Connecticut to the Vietnam War's effect on college admissions. Finally Wainer examines the great twentieth-century polymath John Wilder Tukey's vision of future graphic displays and the resultant methods--methods poised to help us make sense of the torrent of data in our information-laden world.

Visual Revelations

Author : Howard Wainer
ISBN : 9781134810536
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 24. 8 MB
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To function in modern society complex data must be absorbed and understood at a breakneck pace. The most efficient way to do this is through data-based graphics. This book is an exploration and celebration of graphical methods of data presentation. Visual Revelations' principal purpose is to enlighten, inform, and amuse the reader regarding the shortcomings of common graphical practices; particularly how they can misinform while simultaneously providing models of wonderful graphics. There are many examples of the best graphic practice, graphs that go beyond conveying, facts, and structure to be able to carry emotion as well. Aimed at an educated, lay audience, this volume benefits anyone who must either convey or receive quantitative information, including designers, statisticians, and people in the media.

Measuring Success

Author : Jack Buckley
ISBN : 9781421424965
Genre : Education
File Size : 20. 98 MB
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"Once touted as the single best way to measure students from diverse backgrounds, schools, and experiences, standardized college admissions tests are now criticized for being hopelessly biased in favor of traditionally privileged groups. Out of this has emerged the test-optional movement that seeks to allow students to apply to schools without sitting through the rigors of the SAT. This book takes a step back and applies rigorous empirical measurements to these rival claims. Drawing upon the expertise of higher education researchers, admissions officers, enrollment managers, and policy professionals, this edited volume is among the first to investigate the research and policy implications of test-optional practices. It was conceived in response to the editors' frustration with the fragmented and incomplete state of the literature around the contemporary debate on college admissions testing. Many students, teachers, parents, policymakers--frankly, nearly anyone immediately outside the testing industry and college admissions--have little understanding of how admissions tests are used. This lack of transparency has often fueled beliefs that college assessments are biased, misused, or overused. Decades of research on various aspects of testing, such as the predictive validity of assessments, makes a compelling case for their value. But all-too-frequently researchers and admissions officers talk past one another instead of engaging substantively. This collection intends to remedy the situation by bringing these disparate voices together. This book is designed for provosts, enrollment managers, and college admissions officers seeking to strike the proper balance between uniformity and fairness"--

Tackling Under Performance In Teachers

Author : Jill Earnshaw
ISBN : 9781134408764
Genre : Education
File Size : 53. 93 MB
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All headteachers will be faced with a member of staff who is under performing at some stage in their career, but knowing how to deal with the problem to everyone's benefit is not always easy. Through the use of case studies the expert authors examine ways under-performance can be handled in a range of circumstances. Clear guidance is given on procedures that should be followed to ensure actions are within a legal framework and within current directives on performance management. Key sections include: * how to handle capability issues * ill health and capability * procedures and the legal framework * performance management. Tackling Under-performance in Teachers will be a valuable resource for headteachers, school governors and LEA officers involved in school management.

Picturing The Uncertain World

Author : Howard Wainer
ISBN : 0691137595
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 79. 12 MB
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In his entertaining and informative book Graphic Discovery, Howard Wainer unlocked the power of graphical display to make complex problems clear. Now he's back with Picturing the Uncertain World, a book that explores how graphs can serve as maps to guide us when the information we have is ambiguous or incomplete. Using a visually diverse sampling of graphical display, from heartrending autobiographical displays of genocide in the Kovno ghetto to the "Pie Chart of Mystery" in a New Yorker cartoon, Wainer illustrates the many ways graphs can be used--and misused--as we try to make sense of an uncertain world. Picturing the Uncertain World takes readers on an extraordinary graphical adventure, revealing how the visual communication of data offers answers to vexing questions yet also highlights the measure of uncertainty in almost everything we do. Are cancer rates higher or lower in rural communities? How can you know how much money to sock away for retirement when you don't know when you'll die? And where exactly did nineteenth-century novelists get their ideas? These are some of the fascinating questions Wainer invites readers to consider. Along the way he traces the origins and development of graphical display, from William Playfair, who pioneered the use of graphs in the eighteenth century, to instances today where the public has been misled through poorly designed graphs. We live in a world full of uncertainty, yet it is within our grasp to take its measure. Read Picturing the Uncertain World and learn how.

Transitions In Work And Learning

Author : Alan Lesgold
ISBN : NAP:08714
Genre : Education
File Size : 36. 63 MB
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These 12 conference papers offer a view of the evolving role of assessment in fostering learning and clearer signaling of individuals' skills. "Introduction" (Michael J. Feuer, Richard J. Shavelson) is followed by two papers in part I that question whether empirical evidence supports the claim of a skills mismatch in the economy: "Is There a Gap Between Employer Skill Needs and the Skills of the Work Force?" (Harry J. Holzer) and "Skills and the Economy: An Employer Context for Understanding the School-to-Work Transition" (Robert Zemsky). Two papers in part II are microlevel explorations of the changing nature of jobs in specific workplaces: "Should Social Skills Be in the Vocational Curriculum? Evidence from the Automotive Repair Field" (Bonalyn Nelsen) and "Manufacturing the New Worker: Literate Activities and Working Identities in a High-Performance Versus a Traditionally Organized Workplace" (Glynda Hull). Part III's two papers address implications of changing workplaces for the assessment and measurement of skills: "Twenty-First Century Measures for Twenty-First Century Work" (Kenneth Pearlman) and "Postmodern Test Theory" (Robert J. Mislevy). Two papers in part IV consider how the legal and social environment will constrain changing definitions and requirements of work with new approaches to selection, screening, and assessment: "Legal Restrictions on Assessments" (Dennis Parker) and "Assessment without Adverse Impact" (Neal Schmitt). Part V offers three overarching perspectives on the evolving literature and policy debate over school-to-work transitions and the roles of assessment: "What Policy Makers and Experts See (and Do Not See) in School-to-Work Transitions" (Larry Cuban); "Getting to Work: Thoughts on the Function and Form of the School-to-Work Transition" (Lauren B. Resnick); and "Transitions in Work and Learning" (Alan Lesgold). The agenda is appended. (YLB)

Defending Standardized Testing

Author : Richard Phelps
ISBN : 9781135614270
Genre : Education
File Size : 69. 41 MB
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The education reform movement of the past two decades has focused on raising academic standards. Some standards advocates attach a testing mechanism to gauge the extent to which high standards are actually accomplished, whereas some critics accuse the push for standards and testing of impeding reform and perpetuating inequality. At the same time, the testing profession has produced advances in the format, accuracy, dependability, and utility of tests. Never before has obtaining such an abundance of accurate and useful information about student learning been possible. Meanwhile, the American public remains steadfast in support of testing to measure student performance and monitor the performance of educational systems. Many educational testing experts who acknowledge the benefits of testing also believe that those benefits have been insufficiently articulated. Although much has been written on standardized testing policy, most of the material has been written by opponents. The contributing authors of this volume are both accomplished researchers and practitioners who are respected and admired worldwide. They bring to the project an abundance of experience working with standardized tests. The goal of Defending Standardized Testing is to: *describe current standardized testing policies and strategies; *explain many of the common criticisms of standardized testing; *document the public support for, and the realized benefits of, standardized testing; *acknowledge the limitations of, and suggest improvements to, testing practices; *provide guidance for structuring and administering large-scale testing programs in light of public preferences and the "No Child Left Behind Act" requirements; and *present a defense of standardized testing and a vision for its future. Defending Standardized Testing minimizes the use of technical jargon so as to appeal to all who have a stake in American educational reform.

Poor Economics

Author : Abhijit Banerjee
ISBN : 9781610391603
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 86. 26 MB
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Why do the poor borrow to save? Why do they miss out on free life-saving immunizations, but pay for unnecessary drugs? In Poor Economics, Abhijit V. Banerjee and Esther Duflo, two practical visionaries working toward ending world poverty, answer these questions from the ground. In a book the Wall Street Journal called “marvelous, rewarding,” the authors tell how the stress of living on less than 99 cents per day encourages the poor to make questionable decisions that feed—not fight—poverty. The result is a radical rethinking of the economics of poverty that offers a ringside view of the lives of the world's poorest, and shows that creating a world without poverty begins with understanding the daily decisions facing the poor.

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