weather in the city how design determines the urban climate

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Weather In The City

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ISBN : 9462081980
Genre : Architecture
File Size : 76. 9 MB
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A beautifully laid-out square where you are nearly blown off your feet. A modern city apartment in which it is too hot to sleep in the summer. Everyone knows examples of urban architecture whose design fails to take the urban climate properly into account. The publication 'Weather in the City. How Design Determines the Urban Climate' explains and illustrates in a comprehensible way how smart urban design can enhance comfort in the city. The way we experience the urban climate depends on physical and psychological factors dictated by our surroundings. This book uses these factors to explain how the basic processes of the urban climate work and how they can be influenced by spatial planning and urban design. Richly illustrated with photographs, diagrams and practical examples Weather in the City is both a reference work and a source of inspiration for all those working to enhance the quality of city life: commisioners, policymakers, professionals and students in urban design, landscape architecture and planning.

Urban Climates

Author : T. R. Oke
ISBN : 9781108179362
Genre : Science
File Size : 39. 12 MB
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Urban Climates is the first full synthesis of modern scientific and applied research on urban climates. The book begins with an outline of what constitutes an urban ecosystem. It develops a comprehensive terminology for the subject using scale and surface classification as key constructs. It explains the physical principles governing the creation of distinct urban climates, such as airflow around buildings, the heat island, precipitation modification and air pollution, and it then illustrates how this knowledge can be applied to moderate the undesirable consequences of urban development and help create more sustainable and resilient cities. With urban climate science now a fully-fledged field, this timely book fulfills the need to bring together the disparate parts of climate research on cities into a coherent framework. It is an ideal resource for students and researchers in fields such as climatology, urban hydrology, air quality, environmental engineering and urban design.

Cooling The Cities

Author : Matheos Santamouris
ISBN : 9782911762543
Genre : Air conditioning
File Size : 87. 20 MB
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The power consumption due to air-conditioning of buildings becomes particularly significant in an urban environment because the temperature of the air of dense urban districts is higher than in the suburbs. This phenomenon, as well as the increase in the standards of living and other factors namely heatwaves, contribute to the growth of the traditionally low demand for artificial air-conditioning in Europe. Case studies make it possible to measure the heat island effect (the accumulation of heat in cities), to characterize the additional electricity consumption of the buildings in an urban environment, and to give an overall picture of the practices, techniques and materials which can help to cool the cities. Priority is given to the practices which avoid the need for artificial air-conditioning by taking into account the environment, the use of vegetation and " cool " materials for the construction of pavements and buildings. For the remaining needs for air-conditioning, the present systems of air-conditioning can also become more energy efficient. Case studies conducted in Seville made it possible to measure the dispersion of the needs for air-conditioning around their average value for the various zones of the city. One of the case studies evaluates the benefit associated with the systematic plantation of trees and other plants in Athens. Another case study relates to Paris and estimates the importance of centralized solutions for air-conditioning in an urban environment. This book results from a study launched by the European Commission and is written by authors from three European countries very concerned by heatwaves and their effects downtown : Greece (Athens), Spain (Seville) and France (Paris). All of them are professors or researchers in very high level laboratories (Group Building Environmental Studies in Athens University, Energy Laboratory in Ecole des Mines de Paris and in Seville University).

Climate Considerations In Building And Urban Design

Author : Baruch Givoni
ISBN : 0471291773
Genre : Architecture
File Size : 90. 95 MB
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Climate Considerations in Building and Urban Design Baruch Givoni Climate Considerations in Building and Urban Design is the most comprehensive, up–to–date reference available on building and urban climatology. Written in clear, common–sense language by Baruch Givoni, the leading authority in the field, this book is a far–reaching look at a variety of climatic influences and their effects on individuals, buildings, and communities. Aimed at architecture and urban planning professionals and students alike, Climate Considerations in Building and Urban Design offers real–life solutions to climatological site planning and design issues, helping to settle disputes about site orientation, site organization, and the assembly of building materials. Climate Considerations in Building and Urban Design is organized into three parts. The first, Building Climatology, analyzes human thermal comfort and the effect of architectural and structural design features including layout, window orientation, and shading, and ventilation conditions on the indoor climate. Then, Urban Climatology explores the ways in which the climate in densely built areas can differ from surrounding regional climactic conditions, for example, in temperature, wind speed, and humidity. This part further explores the effects of urban design elements, such as urban density and building height, on a city′s outdoor climate. Finally, Building and Urban Design Guidelines applies the body of available research on building climatology and the effects of physical planning on the urban and indoor climates to suggest design guidelines for different regions––for example, hot–dry and hot–humid climates. Filled with lists, tables, and graphs for easy cross–referencing, as well as hundreds of visuals, Climate Considerations in Building and Urban Design offers readers the ability to perform a quick check of a proposed scheme against authoritative criteria. Mr. Givoni′s latest volume is a unique, indispensable guide to the relationship between building design, urban planning, and climate.

Urban Agriculture For Growing City Regions

Author : Undine Giseke
ISBN : 9781317910138
Genre : Architecture
File Size : 34. 77 MB
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This book demonstrates how agriculture can play a determining role in integrated, climate-optimised urban development. Agriculture within urban growth centres today is more than an economic or social left-over or a niche practice. It is instead a complex system that offers multiple potentials for interaction with the urban system. Urban open space and agriculture can be linked to a productive green infrastructure – this forms new urban-rural linkages in the urbanizing region and helps shape the city. But in order to do this, agriculture has to be seen as an integral part of the urban fabric and it has to be put on the local agenda. Urban Agriculture for Growing City Regions takes the example of Casablanca, one of the fastest growing cities in North Africa, to investigate this approach. The creation of synergies between the urban and rural in an emerging megacity is demonstrated through pilot projects, design solutions, and multifunctional modules. These synergies assure greater resource efficiency; particularly regarding the use and reuse of water, and they strengthen regional food security and the social integration of multiple spheres. A transdisciplinary research approach brings together different scientific disciplines and local actors into a process of integrated knowledge production. The book will have a long lasting legacy and is essential reading for researchers, planners, practitioners and policy makers who are working on urban development and urban agricultural strategies.

Health Risks Of Ozone From Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution

Author : Markus Amann
ISBN : 9789289042895
Genre : Medical
File Size : 47. 53 MB
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Ozone is a highly oxidative compound formed in the lower atmosphere (from gases originating to a large extent from anthropogenic sources) by photochemistry driven by solar radiation. Owing to its highly reactive chemical properties, ozone is harmful to vegetation, materials and human health. In the troposphere, ozone is also an efficient greenhouse gas. This report summarizes the results of a multidisciplinary analysis to assess the effects of ozone on health. The analysis indicates that ozone pollution affects the health of most of the populations of the WHO European Region, leading to a wide range of health problems. The effects include some 21,000 premature deaths each year in 25 countries in the European Union on and after days with high ozone levels. Current policies are not sufficient to reduce ozone levels in the Region or their impact in the next decade.

Architecture Sustainable Development Vol 1

Author : Magali Bodart
ISBN : 9782874632761
Genre : Architecture
File Size : 89. 34 MB
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This book of Proceedings presents the latest thinking and research in the rapidly evolving world of architecture and sustainable development through 255 selected papers by authors coming from over 60 countries.

Environmental Design Of Urban Buildings

Author : Mat Santamouris
ISBN : 9781849771160
Genre : Architecture
File Size : 88. 13 MB
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The importance of an integrated approach in urban design is becoming increasingly apparent. This book explains how to overcome related challenges in environmental design of urban buildings and offers guidance on the use of new materials and techniques and the integration of new philosophies. Supported by the EC's SAVE 13 programme, Environmental Design of Urban Buildings includes contributions from experts at the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece, the Hellenic Open University, Greece, Cambridge Architectural Research, UK and REHVA/University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.A free CD-ROM containing multi-media software tools and climatic data accompanies the book.CONTENTSEnvironmental Urban Design * Architectural Design, Passive Environmental and Building Engineering Systems * Environmental Issues of Building Design * Sustainable Design, Construction and Operation * Intelligent Controls and Advanced Building Management Systems * Urban Building Climatology * Heat and Mass Transfer Phenomena in Urban Buildings * Applied Lighting Technologies for Urban Buildings * Case Studies * Guidelines to Integrate Energy Conservation * Indoor Air Quality * Applied Energy and Resources Management in the Urban Environment * Economic Methodologies * Integrated Building Design * Bibliography, IndexPublished with SAVE

Climate Change And Cities

Author : Cynthia Rosenzweig
ISBN : 9781139497404
Genre : Science
File Size : 85. 60 MB
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Urban areas are home to over half the world's people and are at the forefront of the climate change issue. The need for a global research effort to establish the current understanding of climate change adaptation and mitigation at the city level is urgent. To meet this goal a coalition of international researchers - the Urban Climate Change Research Network (UCCRN) - was formed at the time of the C40 Large Cities Climate Summit in New York in 2007. This book is the First UCCRN Assessment Report on Climate Change and Cities. The authors are all international experts from a diverse range of cities with varying socio-economic conditions, from both the developing and developed world. It is invaluable for mayors, city officials and policymakers; urban sustainability officers and urban planners; and researchers, professors and advanced students.

Urban Climate Design Improving Thermal Comfort In Dutch Neighbourhoods

Author : Laura Kleerekoper
ISBN : 9461866828
Genre :
File Size : 52. 67 MB
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This book presents research into the possibilities for climate adaptation in Dutch urban areas. How can cities prepare best for extreme rainfall, droughts, and heat waves in future climates? These events are likely to become more frequent and more extreme. The focus is on heat resistance as this has been a neglected concept in Dutch urban planning. The aim of this study is to extend our knowledge of the effects of climate-adaptation measures and to stimulate the implementation of such measures in the design of public space. Anticipating on the effects of climate change, the research was guided by the question: Which urban design principles can be applied in specific Dutch neighbourhoods to respond to the effects of climate change, especially in terms of outdoor thermal comfort and water management?

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