western diseases an evolutionary perspective cambridge studies in biological and evolutionary anthropology

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Western Diseases

Author : Tessa M. Pollard
ISBN : 9781139469623
Genre : Science
File Size : 77. 28 MB
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As a group, western diseases such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, breast cancer, allergies and mental health problems constitute one of the major problems facing humans at the beginning of the 21st century, particularly as they extend into poorer countries. An evolutionary perspective has much to offer standard biomedical understandings of western diseases. At the heart of this approach is the notion that human evolution occurred in circumstances very different from the modern affluent western environment and that, as a consequence, human biology is not adapted to the contemporary western environment. Written with an anthropological perspective and aimed at advanced undergraduates and graduates taking courses in the ecology and evolution of disease, Tessa Pollard applies and extends this evolutionary perspective by analysing trends in rates of western diseases and providing a new synthesis of current understandings of evolutionary processes, and of the biology and epidemiology of disease.

Evolving Human Nutrition

Author : Stanley J. Ulijaszek
ISBN : 9781139788960
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 70. 70 MB
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While most of us live our lives according to the working week, we did not evolve to be bound by industrial schedules, nor did the food we eat. Despite this, we eat the products of industrialization and often suffer as a consequence. This book considers aspects of changing human nutrition from evolutionary and social perspectives. It considers what a 'natural' human diet might be, how it has been shaped across evolutionary time and how we have adapted to changing food availability. The transition from hunter-gatherer and the rise of agriculture through to the industrialisation and globalisation of diet are explored. Far from being adapted to a 'Stone Age' diet, humans can consume a vast range of foodstuffs. However, being able to eat anything does not mean that we should eat everything, and therefore engagement with the evolutionary underpinnings of diet and factors influencing it are key to better public health practice.

Anthropological Perspectives On Tooth Morphology

Author : G. Richard Scott
ISBN : 9781107011458
Genre : Medical
File Size : 63. 57 MB
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This follow-up to The Anthropology of Modern Human Teeth puts methods to use in interpreting human origins and affinities.

The Evolutionary Biology Of Human Body Fatness

Author : Jonathan C. K. Wells
ISBN : 9780521884204
Genre : Nature
File Size : 67. 10 MB
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Integrates medical and evolutionary data on the role of body fat in human biology, including the current obesity epidemic.

Simulating Human Origins And Evolution

Author : K. P. Wessen
ISBN : 1139444565
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 72. 22 MB
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The development of populations over time, and, on longer timescales, the evolution of species, are both influenced by a complex of interacting, underlying processes. Computer simulation provides a means of experimenting within an idealised framework to allow aspects of these processes and their interactions to be isolated, controlled, and understood. In this book, computer simulation is used to model migration, extinction, fossilisation, interbreeding, selection and non-hereditary effects in the context of human populations and the observed distribution of fossil and current hominoid species. The simulations described enable the visualisation and study of lineages, genetic diversity in populations, character diversity across species and the accuracy of reconstructions, allowing insights into human evolution and the origins of humankind for graduate students and researchers in the fields of physical anthropology, human evolution, and human genetics.

Human Evolutionary Biology

Author : Michael P. Muehlenbein
ISBN : 9781139789004
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 86. 92 MB
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Wide-ranging and inclusive, this text provides an invaluable review of an expansive selection of topics in human evolution, variation and adaptability for professionals and students in biological anthropology, evolutionary biology, medical sciences and psychology. The chapters are organized around four broad themes, with sections devoted to phenotypic and genetic variation within and between human populations, reproductive physiology and behavior, growth and development, and human health from evolutionary and ecological perspectives. An introductory section provides readers with the historical, theoretical and methodological foundations needed to understand the more complex ideas presented later. Two hundred discussion questions provide starting points for class debate and assignments to test student understanding.

Beasts Of The Earth

Author : E. Fuller Torrey
ISBN : 9780813537894
Genre : Medical
File Size : 50. 89 MB
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Humans have lived in close proximity to other animals for thousands of years. Recent scientific studies have even shown that the presence of animals has a positive effect on our physical and mental health. People with pets typically have lower blood pressure, show fewer symptoms of depression, and tend to get more exercise. But there is a darker side to the relationship between animals and humans. Animals are carriers of harmful infectious agents and the source of a myriad of human diseases. In recent years, the emergence of high-profile illnesses such as AIDS, SARS, West Nile virus, and bird flu has drawn much public attention, but as E. Fuller Torrey and Robert H. Yolken reveal, the transfer of deadly microbes from animals to humans is neither a new nor an easily avoided problem. Beginning with the domestication of farm animals nearly 10,000 years ago, Beasts of the Earth traces the ways that human-animal contact has evolved over time. Today, shared living quarters, overlapping ecosystems, and experimental surgical practices where organs or tissues are transplanted from non-humans into humans continue to open new avenues for the transmission of infectious agents. Other changes in human behavior like increased air travel, automated food processing, and threats of bioterrorism are increasing the contagion factor by transporting microbes further distances and to larger populations in virtually no time at all. While the authors urge that a better understanding of past diseases may help us lessen the severity of some illnesses, they also warn that, given our increasingly crowded planet, it is not a question of if but when and how often animal-transmitted diseases will pose serious challenges to human health in the future.

The Metabolic Ghetto

Author : Jonathan Wells
ISBN : 9781107009479
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 72. 94 MB
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A multidisciplinary analysis of the role of nutrition in generating hierarchical societies and cultivating a global epidemic of chronic diseases.

Models Of Obesity

Author : Stanley J. Ulijaszek
ISBN : 9781107117518
Genre : Science
File Size : 25. 57 MB
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Taking a comparative approach, this book investigates the ways in which obesity and its susceptibilities are framed in science and policy and how they might work better. Providing a clear, authoritative voice on the debate, the author builds on early work to engage further in ecological and complexity thinking in obesity. Many of the models that have emerged since obesity became a population-level issue are examined, including the energy balance model, and models used to examine human body fatness from a range of perspectives including evolutionary, anthropological, environmental, and political viewpoints. The book is ideal for those working on, or interested in, obesity science, health policy, health economics, evolutionary medicine, medical sociology, nutrition and public health who want to understand the shifts that have taken place in obesity science, policy, and intervention in the past forty years.

Gorilla Biology

Author : Andrea B. Taylor
ISBN : 1139435574
Genre : Science
File Size : 32. 29 MB
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Gorillas are one of our closest living relatives, the largest of all living primates, and teeter on the brink of extinction. These fascinating animals are the focus of this in-depth and comprehensive examination of gorilla biology. Gorilla Biology combines recent research in morphology, genetics and behavioural ecology to reveal the complexity and diversity of gorilla populations. The first section focuses on morphological and molecular variation and underscores the importance of understanding diverse biological patterns at all levels in testing evolutionary and adaptive hypotheses and elucidating subspecies and species diversification. Following are discussions of the ecological constraints that influence gorilla social organization and highlight their surprising flexibility. The book ends with discussions of the conservation status of gorillas and the many and increasing threats to their continued survival. Giving insight into the evolutionary biology of these unique primates, this book will be essential reading for primatologists, anthropologists and evolutionary biologists.

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