where is language

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Where Is Language

Author : Ruth Finnegan
ISBN : 9781472590947
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 68. 45 MB
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Language is central to human experience and our understanding of who we are, whether written or unwritten, sung or spoken. But what is language and how do we record it? Where does it reside? Does it exist and evolve within written sources, in performance, in the mind or in speech? For too long, ethnographic, aesthetic and sociolinguistic studies of language have remained apart from analyses emerging from traditions such as literature and performance. Where is Language? argues for a more complex and contextualized understanding of language across this range of disciplines, engaging with key issues, including orality, literacy, narrative, ideology, performance and the human communities in which these take place. Eminent anthropologist Ruth Finnegan draws together a lifetime of ethnographic case studies, reading and personal commentary to explore the roles and nature of language in cultures across the world, from West Africa to the South Pacific. By combining research and reflections, Finnegan discusses the multi-modality of language to provide an account not simply of vocabulary and grammar, but one which questions the importance of cultural settings and the essence of human communication itself.

The Written Language Bias In Linguistics

Author : Per Linell
ISBN : 9781134270521
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 24. 8 MB
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Linguists routinely emphasise the primacy of speech over writing. Yet, most linguists have analysed spoken language, as well as language in general, applying theories and methods that are best suited for written language. Accordingly, there is an extensive 'written language bias' in traditional and present day linguistics and other language sciences. In this book, this point is argued with rich and convincing evidence from virtually all fields of linguistics.

The Janus Face Of Language Where Are The Emotions In Words And The Words In Emotions

Author : Cornelia Herbert
ISBN : 9782889455508
Genre :
File Size : 55. 99 MB
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Language has long been considered independent from emotions. In the last few years however research has accumulated empirical evidence against this theoretical belief of a purely cognitive-based foundation of language. In particular, through research on emotional word processing it has been shown, that processing of emotional words activates emotional brain structures, elicits emotional facial expressions and modulates action tendencies of approach and avoidance, probably in a similar manner as processing of non-verbal emotional stimuli does. In addition, it has been shown that emotional content is already processed in the visual cortex in a facilitated manner which suggests that processing of emotional language content is able to circumvent in-depth semantic analysis. Yet, this is only one side of the coin. Very recent research putting words into context suggests that language may also construe emotions and that by studying word processing one can provide a window to one’s own feelings. All in all, the empirical observations support the thesis of a close relationship between language and emotions at the level of word meaning as a specific evolutionary achievement of the human species. As such, this relationship seems to be different from the one between emotions and speech, where emotional meaning is conveyed by nonverbal features of the voice. But what does this relationship between written words and emotions theoretically imply for the processing of emotional information? The present Research Topic and its related articles aim to provide answers to this question. This book comprises several experimental studies investigating the brain structures and the time course of emotional word processing. Included are studies examining the affective core dimensions underlying affective word processing and studies that show how these basic affective dimensions influence word processing in general as well as the interaction between words, feelings and (expressive) behavior. In addition, new impetus comes from studies that on the one hand investigate how task-, sublexical and intrapersonal factors influence emotional word processing and on the other hand extend emotional word processing to the domains of social context and self-related processing. Finally, future perspectives are outlined including research on emotion and language acquisition, culture and multilingualism. In summary, this textbook offers scientists from different disciplines insight into the neurophysiological, behavioral and subjective mechanisms underlying emotion and language interactions. It gives new impulses to existing theories on the embodiment of language and emotion and provides new ways of looking at emotion-cognition interactions.

The Unfolding Of Language

Author : Guy Deutscher
ISBN : 9781466837836
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 83. 84 MB
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Blending the spirit of Eats, Shoots & Leaves with the science of The Language Instinct, an original inquiry into the development of that most essential-and mysterious-of human creations: Language Language is mankind's greatest invention-except, of course, that it was never invented." So begins linguist Guy Deutscher's enthralling investigation into the genesis and evolution of language. If we started off with rudimentary utterances on the level of "man throw spear," how did we end up with sophisticated grammars, enormous vocabularies, and intricately nuanced degrees of meaning? Drawing on recent groundbreaking discoveries in modern linguistics, Deutscher exposes the elusive forces of creation at work in human communication, giving us fresh insight into how language emerges, evolves, and decays. He traces the evolution of linguistic complexity from an early "Me Tarzan" stage to such elaborate single-word constructions as the Turkish sehirlilestiremediklerimizdensiniz ("you are one of those whom we couldn't turn into a town dweller"). Arguing that destruction and creation in language are intimately entwined, Deutscher shows how these processes are continuously in operation, generating new words, new structures, and new meanings. As entertaining as it is erudite, The Unfolding of Language moves nimbly from ancient Babylonian to American idiom, from the central role of metaphor to the staggering triumph of design that is the Semitic verb, to tell the dramatic story and explain the genius behind a uniquely human faculty.

Say It In English Please

Author : Joseph Charles
ISBN : 9781481763899
Genre : Juvenile Nonfiction
File Size : 53. 73 MB
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“It is much easier to kill them if we can’t understand them. We might begin to like and empathize with them if we do.” That was the opinion of three quarters of an adult college class when faced with the awareness of their deficient linguistic survival skills. They are willing to forego self-preservation for the sake of warfare and annihilation of people that are “different.” Pressing reasons for looking into our world language needs and competencies have risen, but we prefer to bury our heads in the sand while ironically ofttimes entrusting the task of comprehending the outside world with our enemies. It is no wonder, on one hand, that paranoia ensues, for it becomes necessary to resort to dubious helpers in order to survive in hostile environments without the basic local linguistic skills; on the other hand, the author firmly asserts that the world would be a much better place if we became cognizant that we are one species imbued with the same universal feelings and needs. Languages and cultures only constitute a smoke screen. The reader will take a linguistic tour with the author as he shares experiences and opinions on our own language experiences and other cultures.

Reconsidering Social Constructionism

Author : James A. Holstein
ISBN : 0202368513
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 45. 80 MB
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With the impact of social interactionist and ethnographic methodology twenty-five years ago, the research agenda in social problems began to shift its focus, giving rise to the Social Constructionism movement. The present volume and the related shorter text, Constructionist Controversies, review the substantial contributions made by social constructionist theorists over that period, as well as recent debates about the future of the perspective. These contributions redefine the purpose and central questions of social problems theory and articulate a research program for analyzing social problems as social constructions. A generation of theorists has been trained in the constructionist perspective and has extended it through numerous analyses of diverse aspects of contemporary social life. The debates in this volume pose fundamental questions about the major assumptions of the perspective, the ways in which it is practiced, and the purposes of social problems theory. Their point of departure is Ibarra and Kitsuse's essay, cutting new theoretical ground in calling for "investigating vernacular resources, especially rhetorical forms, in the social problems process." Contributors are forceful proponents both within and outside of the social constructionist community, who take a broad array of positions on the current state of social problems theory and on the rhetorical forms that need exploring. They also lay down the general lines for diverse and often competing programs for the future development of the constructionist agenda. James A. Holstein is professor in and chair of the Department of Social and Cultural Sciences, Marquette University. He is the editor of Social Problems. He has published over three-dozen books on topics such as the family, metal health and illness, social problems, the self, and quantitative research methods. Gale Miller is professor of sociology, Marquette University. His recent research focuses on social problems theory, and the social organization and use of language in everyday life, particularly in human service organizations. He has published 24 books and many scholarly articles.

Language Mind And Body

Author : John E. Joseph
ISBN : 9781107149557
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 74. 42 MB
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Where is language? Answers to this have attempted to 'incorporate' language in an 'extended mind', through cognition that is 'embodied', 'distributed', 'situated' or 'ecological'. Behind these concepts is a long history that this book is the first to trace. Extending across linguistics, philosophy, psychology and medicine, as well as literary and religious dimensions of the question of what language is, and where it is located, this book challenges mainstream, mind-based accounts of language. Looking at research from the Middle Ages to the present day, and exploring the work of a range of scholars from Aristotle and Galen to Merleau-Ponty and Chomsky, it assesses raging debates about whether mind and language are centred in heart or brain, brain or nervous-muscular system, and whether they are innate or learned, individual or social. This book will appeal to scholars and advanced students in historical linguistics, cognitive linguistics, language evolution and the philosophy of language.

Thinking Through The Curriculum

Author : Robert Burden
ISBN : 9781134693313
Genre : Education
File Size : 42. 60 MB
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This book tackles the contentious issue of whether and how thinking should be taught in schools. It explores how best to help children become effective thinkers and learners. The book also examines whether there is one set of underlying cognitive skills and strategies which can be applied across all the curriculum subjects and beyond. Its main thrust, however, is a detailed examination of approaches to developing cognitive skills which are specific to the National Curriculum. The book provides chapters from both generalists and subject specialists to illustrate how teachers in different subject areas can benefit from taking a cognitive approach to their subject. It will give teachers a clear understanding of different approaches to teaching thinking and how these fit together.

Psycholinguistics

Author : John Field
ISBN : 0415275997
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 70. 65 MB
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Routledge English Language Introductions cover core areas of language study and are one-stop resources for students. Assuming no prior knowledge, books in the series offer an accessible overview of the subject, with activities, study questions, commentaries and key readings - all in the same volume. The innovative and flexible 'two-dimensional' structure is built around four sections - introduction, development, exploration and extension - which offer self-contained stages for study. Each topic can also be read across these sections, enabling the reader to build gradually on the knowledge gained. Psycholinguistics: is a comprehensive introduction to psycholinguistic theory covers the core areas of psycholinguistics: language as a human attribute, language and the brain, vocabulary storage and use, language and memory, the four skills (writing, reading, listening, speaking), comprehension, language impairment and deprivation draws on a range of real texts, data and examples, including a Radio Four interview, an essay written by a deaf writer, and the transcript of a therapy session addressing stuttering provides classic readings by the key names in the discipline, including Jean Aitchison, Terrence Deacon, Robert Logie, Willem Levelt and Dorothy Bishop. Written by an experienced teacher, this accessible textbook is an essential resource for all students of English language, linguistics and psychology. The accompanying website to this book can be found at http://www.routledge.com/textbooks/0415276004

Language Society And Power

Author : Annabelle Mooney
ISBN : 9781317558231
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 31. 73 MB
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Language, Society and Power is the essential introductory text to studying language in a variety of social contexts. This book examines the ways language functions, how it influences thought and how it varies according to age, ethnicity, class and gender. It considers whether representations of people and their language matter, explores how identity is constructed and performed, and considers the creative potential of language in the media, politics and everyday talk. This fourth edition has been completely revised to include recent developments in theory and research and offers the following features: A range of new and engaging international examples drawn from everyday life – including material from social media and newspapers, cartoons, YouTube and television. Two new chapters which cover Linguistic Landscapes, including signs, graffiti and the internet; and Global Englishes, exploring variation in and attitudes to English around the world Updated and expanded student research projects and further reading sections for each chapter Brand new companion website that includes video and audio clips, links to articles and further reading for students and professors. Language, Society and Power is a must-read for students of English language and linguistics, media, communication, cultural studies, sociology and psychology.

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