why intelligence fails lessons from the iranian revolution and the iraq war cornell studies in security affairs

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Why Intelligence Fails

Author : Robert Jervis
ISBN : 9780801457616
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 69. 86 MB
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The U.S. government spends enormous resources each year on the gathering and analysis of intelligence, yet the history of American foreign policy is littered with missteps and misunderstandings that have resulted from intelligence failures. In Why Intelligence Fails, Robert Jervis examines the politics and psychology of two of the more spectacular intelligence failures in recent memory: the mistaken belief that the regime of the Shah in Iran was secure and stable in 1978, and the claim that Iraq had active WMD programs in 2002. The Iran case is based on a recently declassified report Jervis was commissioned to undertake by CIA thirty years ago and includes memoranda written by CIA officials in response to Jervis's findings. The Iraq case, also grounded in a review of the intelligence community's performance, is based on close readings of both classified and declassified documents, though Jervis's conclusions are entirely supported by evidence that has been declassified. In both cases, Jervis finds not only that intelligence was badly flawed but also that later explanations-analysts were bowing to political pressure and telling the White House what it wanted to hear or were willfully blind-were also incorrect. Proponents of these explanations claimed that initial errors were compounded by groupthink, lack of coordination within the government, and failure to share information. Policy prescriptions, including the recent establishment of a Director of National Intelligence, were supposed to remedy the situation. In Jervis's estimation, neither the explanations nor the prescriptions are adequate. The inferences that intelligence drew were actually quite plausible given the information available. Errors arose, he concludes, from insufficient attention to the ways in which information should be gathered and interpreted, a lack of self-awareness about the factors that led to the judgments, and an organizational culture that failed to probe for weaknesses and explore alternatives. Evaluating the inherent tensions between the methods and aims of intelligence personnel and policymakers from a unique insider's perspective, Jervis forcefully criticizes recent proposals for improving the performance of the intelligence community and discusses ways in which future analysis can be improved.

Cybersecurity Best Practices

Author : Michael Bartsch
ISBN : 9783658216559
Genre : Computers
File Size : 83. 69 MB
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Das Thema Cybersecurity ist so aktuell wie nie, denn im Cyberspace lassen sich nur schwer Grenzen in Bezug auf den Zugang zu Informationen, Daten und Redefreiheit setzen. Kriminelle nutzen die Lücken oft zu ihrem Vorteil aus. Die Vielzahl der IT-Systeme, ihre unterschiedlichen Nutzungsarten und ihre Innovations- und Lebenszyklen haben zu hohen Sicherheitsrisiken für Unternehmen und staatliche Einrichtungen geführt. Diese Risiken werden sich auch langfristig nicht so einfach aus der Welt schaffen lassen. Daher müssen Institutionen Strategien und Lösungen zu ihrem Selbstschutz entwickeln. Dieses Buch beschreibt Lösungsansätze und Best Practices aus den unterschiedlichsten Bereichen, die nachweislich zu einer höheren Resilienz gegenüber Cyberangriffen führen. Weltweit renommierte IT-Sicherheitsexperten berichten in 40 Beiträgen, wie sich staatliche Institutionen, unter anderem das Militär (Cyber Defence), Behörden, internationale Organisationen und Unternehmen besser gegen Cyberangriffe schützen und nachhaltige Schutzstrategien entwickeln können. Die Autoren widmen sich den Gründen und Zielen, die ihren jeweiligen Strategien zugrunde liegen, sie berichten, wie Unternehmen auf konkrete Cyberattacken reagiert haben und wie einzelne staatliche Institutionen angesichts nationaler Cyberstrategien agieren. In weiteren Kapiteln zeigen Wissenschaftler auf, was bei der Abwehr von Cyber-Attacken bereits heute möglich ist, welche Entwicklungen in Arbeit sind und wie diese in Zukunft eingesetzt werden können, um die Cyber-Sicherheit zu erhöhen. Im letzten Kapitel berichten Hersteller, Anwenderunternehmen und Dienstleister welche Best Practices sie in ihren Unternehmen eingeführt haben und wie andere Unternehmen ihrem Beispiel folgen können. Das Buch richtet sich an IT-Verantwortliche und -Sicherheitsbeauftragte in Unternehmen und anderen Organisationen, aber auch an Studierende in den verschiedenen IT-Studiengängen.

Dirty Entanglements

Author : Louise I. Shelley
ISBN : 9781139991964
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 84. 29 MB
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The entangled threat of crime, corruption, and terrorism now deserves high-level policy attention because of its growth trajectory. Using lively case studies, this book analyzes the transformation of crime and terrorism and the business logic of terrorism. Louise I. Shelley concludes that corruption, crime, and terrorism will remain important security challenges in the twenty-first century as a result of economic and demographic inequalities in the world, the rise of ethnic and sectarian violence, climate change, the growth of technology, and the failure of nineteenth- and twentieth-century institutions to respond to these challenges when they emerged.

The Oxford Handbook Of International Security

Author : Alexandra Gheciu
ISBN : 9780191083587
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 73. 63 MB
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This Oxford Handbook is the definitive volume on the state of international security and the academic field of security studies. It provides a tour of the most innovative and exciting news areas of research as well as major developments in established lines of inquiry. It presents a comprehensive portrait of an exciting field, with a distinctively forward-looking theme, focusing on the question: what does it mean to think about the future of international security? The key assumption underpinning this volume is that all scholarly claims about international security, both normative and positive, have implications for the future. By examining international security to extract implications for the future, the volume provides clarity about the real meaning and practical implications for those involved in this field. Yet, contributions to this volume are not exclusively forecasts or prognostications, and the volume reflects the fact that, within the field of security studies, there are diverse views on how to think about the future. Readers will find in this volume some of the most influential mainstream (positivist) voices in the field of international security as well as some of the best known scholars representing various branches of critical thinking about security. The topics covered in the Handbook range from conventional international security themes such as arms control, alliances and Great Power politics, to " issues such as global health, the roles of non-state actors, cyber-security, and the power of visual representations in international security. The Oxford Handbooks of International Relations is a twelve-volume set of reference books offering authoritative and innovative engagements with the principal sub-fields of International Relations. The series as a whole is under the General Editorship of Christian Reus-Smith of the University of Queensland and Duncan Snidal of the University of Oxford, with each volume edited by a distinguished pair of specialists in their respective fields. The series both surveys the broad terrain of International Relations scholarship and reshapes it, pushing each sub-field in challenging new directions. Following the example of the original Reus-Smit and Snidal The Oxford Handbook of International Relations, each volume is organized around a strong central thematic by a pair of scholars drawn from alternative perspectives, reading its sub-field in an entirely new way, and pushing scholarship in challenging new directions.

Essentials Of Strategic Intelligence

Author : Loch K. Johnson
ISBN : 9781440832284
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 66. 7 MB
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A highly valuable resource for students of intelligence studies, strategy and security, and foreign policy, this volume provides readers with an accessible and comprehensive exploration of U.S. espionage activities that addresses both the practical and ethical implications that attend the art and science of spying. • Provides a comprehensive, up-to-date examination of all aspects of intelligence by experts in the field, from collection-and-analysis and counterintelligence to covert action and accountability • Probes into how the United States' intelligence agencies attempt to protect the nation from cyberattacks by foreign nations and terrorist groups—and documents the successes and failures • Documents the involvement of the National Security Agency (NSA) in bulk "metadata" collection of information on the telephone records and social media communications of American citizens • Examines the effects that have resulted from major leaks in the U.S. government, from Wikileaks to the NSA Snowden leaks

The Invention Of International Relations Theory

Author : Nicolas Guilhot
ISBN : 9780231526449
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 81. 66 MB
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The 1954 Conference on Theory, sponsored by the Rockefeller Foundation, featured a who's who of scholars and practitioners debating the foundations of international relations theory. Assembling his own team of experts, all of whom have struggled with this legacy, Nicolas Guilhot revisits a seminal event and its odd rejection of scientific rationalism. Far from being a spontaneous development, these essays argue, the emergence of a "realist" approach to international politics, later codified at the conference, was deliberately triggered by the Rockefeller Foundation. The organization was an early advocate of scholars who opposed the idea of a "science" of politics, pursuing, for the sake of disciplinary autonomy, a vision of politics as a prerational and existential dimension that could not be "solved" by scientific means. As a result, this nascent theory was more a rejection of behavioral social science than the birth of one of its specialized branches. The archived conversations reproduced here, along with unpublished papers by Hans Morgenthau, Reinhold Niebuhr, and Paul Nitze, speak to this defensive stance. International relations theory is critically linked to the context of postwar liberalism, and the contributors explore how these origins have played out in political thought and American foreign policy.

Die Cia Und Der 11 September

Author : Andreas von Bülow
ISBN : 9783492951739
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 25. 56 MB
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Vehementwiderspricht Andreas von Bülow der offiziellen Version der Anschläge vom 11. September: Ohne geheimdienstliche Unterstützung war eine solche Operation nicht durchzuführen. Seine brisanten Thesen sind ein Angriff auf die Verlogenheit der CIA. Nur Stunden nach dem Terroranschlag vom 11. September hatte die US-Regierung Fotos und Steckbriefe aller Attentäter, wusste sie Bescheid über alle Drahtzieher und Hintermänner. Und blitzartig war auch Präsident Bushs Strategie gegen die Mächte des Bösen fertig. Zufall? Andreas von Bülow, früherer Bundesminister, zweifelt die offizielle Version vehement an.

Der Irak Seit 1958

Author : Peter Sluglett
ISBN : 3518116614
Genre : Iraq
File Size : 23. 33 MB
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Against All Enemies

Author : Richard A. Clarke
ISBN : 9783455850796
Genre : History
File Size : 60. 76 MB
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"Fast 500.000 verkaufte Exemplare in drei Tagen - die Enthüllung von Bushs ehemaligem Terrorberater Richard Clarke schlägt alle Rekorde" (SPIEGEL ONLINE) Binnen weniger Tage wurde "Against All Enemies" zu einem hochbrisanten Politikum, über das die Medien weltweit berichteten. Was macht die Schlagkraft dieses Buches aus? "Die Bush-Administration hat die Gelegenheit verpasst, Al Qaida zu zerschlagen", schreibt Richard A. Clarke. Sie habe alle Warnungen vor Al Qaida ignoriert, in einem unnötigen Krieg gegen Irak wertvolle Zeit verloren und dem Terrorismus Gelegenheit gegeben, sich neu zu organisieren. Wie kein anderer ist Clarke berechtigt, ein solches Urteil zu fällen. Zwei Jahrzehnte seines Lebens hat er dem Kampf gegen den Terrorismus gewidmet. Er war unter Clinton und Bush Cheforganisator der amerikanischen Anti-Terror-Politik und leitete in den entscheidenden Stunden nach den Anschlägenvom 11. September den Krisenstab im Weißen Haus. Sein Bericht, der sich auf die Entwicklungen vom ersten Golfkrieg bis zu "Bushs Vietnam" im Irak konzentriert, liest sich wie ein autobiografischer Thriller.

Die Geheimnisse Des Fbi

Author : Ronald Kessler
ISBN : 9783864700729
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 26. 63 MB
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Welche Geheimnisse ruhen seit Jahrzehnten in den tiefsten Kellern des FBI? Welche Abenteuer, Blamagen und Skandale verbergen sich in den Aktentresoren der mächtigen US-Bundespolizei? Und welche Indiskretionen über Stars und Sternchen aus Politik, Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft hat die legendäre Behörde im Laufe der Jahrzehnte angesammelt? Nun liegen die Antworten auf diese Fragen in Buchform vor. Ihr Autor: Ronald Kessler, einer der profundesten Kenner der Nachrichtendienst- und Secret-Service-Szene der USA. Gestützt auf seine hervorragenden Kontakte in die Welt der Geheimoperationen führt er den Leser ganz weit hinein in "Die Geheimnisse des FBI".

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