working minds a practitioner s guide to cognitive task analysis mit press

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Working Minds

Author : Beth Crandall
ISBN : 9780262033510
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 62. 55 MB
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Cognitive Task Analysis (CTA) helps researchers understand how cognitive skills and strategies make it possible for people to act effectively and get things done. CTA can yield information people need -- employers faced with personnel issues, market researchers who want to understand the thought processes of consumers, trainers and others who design instructional systems, health care professionals who want to apply lessons learned from errors and accidents, systems analysts developing user specifications, and many other professionals. CTA can show what makes the workplace work -- and what keeps it from working as well as it might. Working Minds is a true handbook, offering a set of tools for doing CTA: methods for collecting data about cognitive processes and events, analyzing them, and communicating them effectively. It covers both the "why" and the "how" of CTA methods, providing examples, guidance, and stories from the authors' own experiences as CTA practitioners. Because effective use of CTA depends on some conceptual grounding in cognitive theory and research -- on knowing what a cognitive perspective can offer -- the book also offers an overview of current research on cognition. The book provides detailed guidance for planning and carrying out CTA, with chapters on capturing knowledge and capturing the way people reason. It discusses studying cognition in real-world settings and the challenges of rapidly changing technology. And it describes key issues in applying CTA findings in a variety of fields. Working Minds makes the methodology of CTA accessible and the skills involved attainable.

Arbeits Und Organisationspsychologie

Author : Friedemann W. Nerdinger
ISBN : 9783642411304
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 39. 55 MB
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Das beliebte Lehrbuch zum zweitgrößten Anwendungsgebiet der Psychologie – nun in ergänzter und überarbeiteter 3. Auflage: Die Arbeits- und Organisationspsychologie beschäftigt sich mit dem Menschen im Kontext von Wirtschaft, Arbeitstätigkeit und Organisationen. Im Buch abgedeckt werden alle großen Bereiche Organisation, Personal und Arbeit: Wovon hängt es ab, ob jemand zufrieden mit seiner Arbeit ist? Welche Prozesse finden bei Fusionen und Unternehmensübernahmen statt? Wie funktioniert Personalentwicklung? Was ist „organisationale Sozialisation"? U.v.m. – Drei ausgewiesene Experten der AO-Psychologie beantworten diese Fragen fundiert und anschaulich. Neben den Grundlagen steht dabei vor allem der Praxisbezug im Vordergrund. Die Kapitel sind didaktisch optimal für Lernen und Prüfungsvorbereitung aufbereitet. In der 3. Auflage mit zahlreichen Aktualisierungen und erweiterten Materialien auf der Website zum Buch (u.a. Vorlesungsfolien für Dozenten). – Das macht nicht nur Arbeit, sondern Spaß! – Für Psychologie-Studierende und Studierende der Wirtschafts-, Ingenieurs- und Sozialwissenschaften.

Human Factors

Author : Petra Badke-Schaub
ISBN : 3642198864
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 35. 24 MB
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In Branchen wie Luftfahrt, Kernkraft oder Medizin können menschliche Fehler dramatische Konsequenzen haben. Deshalb werden in Risikobranchen Maßnahmen benötigt, die Fehlerquellen minimieren, sicheres Handeln fördern und dabei den „Faktor Mensch“ berücksichtigen. Die Psychologie sicheren Handelns wird im 1. Teil des Standardwerks von Wissenschaftlern erläutert, im 2. Teil stellen erfahrene Praktiker und Wissenschaftler aktuelle Herausforderungen einzelner Branchen vor und präsentieren Lösungsansätze. Mit vielen Fallbeispielen und Praxishinweisen.

The Handbook Of Work Analysis

Author : Mark Alan Wilson
ISBN : 9781136486838
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 48. 52 MB
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This new handbook, with contributions from experts around the world, is the most comprehensive treatise on work design and job analysis practice and research in over 20 years. The handbook, dedicated to Sidney Gael, is the next generation of Gael’s successful Job Analysis Handbook for Business, Industry and Government, published by Wiley in 1988. It consists of four parts: Methods, Systems, Applications and Research/Innovations. Finally, a tightly integrated, user-friendly handbook, of interest to students, practitioners and researchers in the field of Industrial Organizational Psychology and Human Resource Management. Sample Chapter available: Chapter 24, Training Needs Assessment by Eric A. Surface is available for download.

Der Digitale Operationssaal

Author : Wolfgang Niederlag
ISBN : 9783110335620
Genre : Medical
File Size : 60. 36 MB
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Computer-assisted systems have long since penetrated the operating room. Their functions include pre and intraoperative imaging, image processing, modeling, simulation, navigation, and robotics. Computers help run the “surgical cockpit.” They are critical in pre- and intraoperative process optimization, workflow management, and for information integration in the surgical suite.

Perspectives On Cognitive Task Analysis

Author : Robert R. Hoffman
ISBN : 9781136678301
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 82. 66 MB
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This volume is the first comprehensive history of task analysis, charting its origins from the earliest applied psychology through to modern forms of task analysis that focus on the study of cognitive work. Through this detailed historical analysis, it is made apparent how task analysis has always been cognitive. Chapters cover the histories, key ideas, and contributions to methodology of a number of communities of practice, including: Sociotechnics, European Work Analysis, Naturalistic Decision Making, Cognitive Systems Engineering, Ethnography, Human Factors. Further, integrative chapters focus on the purposes of cognitive task analysis. It is shown how all the various communities of practice are living in the same scientific universe, though are in many ways distinctive in terms of their key concerns and main theories. It is a historiography of task analysis, and the people who invented task analysis. It is also an explanatory primer on what cognitive task analysis is all about and what it can do. Perspectives on Cognitive Task Analyis will be of value to professionals in allied disciplines who might come to rely on cognitive task analysis in their system development programs. It will be invaluable to students who need to know what task analysis and cognitive task analysis are really all about. For practitioners of cognitive task analysis, this volume is a major presentation of what their scientific universe is all about.

Resilient Health Care Volume 2

Author : Robert L. Wears
ISBN : 9781472437846
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 64. 55 MB
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Health systems everywhere are expected to meet increasing public and political demands for accessible, high-quality care. Policy-makers, managers, and clinicians use their best efforts to improve efficiency, safety, quality, and economic viability. One solution has been to mimic approaches that have been shown to work in other domains, such as quality management, lean production, and high reliability. In the enthusiasm for such solutions, scant attention has been paid to the fact that health care as a multifaceted system differs significantly from most traditional industries. Solutions based on linear thinking in engineered systems do not work well in complicated, multi-stakeholder non-engineered systems, of which health care is a leading example. A prerequisite for improving health care and making it more resilient is that the nature of everyday clinical work be well understood. Yet the focus of the majority of policy or management solutions, as well as that of accreditation and regulation, is work as it ought to be (also known as ‘work-as-imagined’). The aim of policy-makers and managers, whether the priority is safety, quality, or efficiency, is therefore to make everyday clinical work - or work-as-done - comply with work-as-imagined. This fails to recognise that this normative conception of work is often oversimplified, incomplete, and outdated. There is therefore an urgent need to better understand everyday clinical work as it is done. Despite the common focus on deviations and failures, it is undeniable that clinical work goes right far more often than it goes wrong, and that we only can make it better if we understand how this happens. This second volume of Resilient Health Care continues the line of thinking of the first book, but takes it further through a range of chapters from leading international thinkers on resilience and health care. Where the first book provided the rationale and basic concepts of RHC, the Resilience of Everyday Clinical Work breaks new ground by analysing everyday work situations in primary, secondary, and tertiary care to identify and describe the fundamental strategies that clinicians everywhere have developed and use with a fluency that belies the demands to be resolved and the dilemmas to be balanced. Because everyday clinical work is at the heart of resilience, it is essential to appreciate how it functions, and to understand its characteristics.

Central European Functional Programming School

Author : Viktória Zsók
ISBN : 9783319159409
Genre : Computers
File Size : 86. 29 MB
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This volume presents the revised lecture notes of selected talks given at the Fifth Central European Functional Programming School, CEFP 2013, held in July 2013 in Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The 14 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected. The lectures cover a wide range of distributed and multicore functional programming subjects. The last 5 papers are selected papers of the PhD Workshop organized for the participants of the summer school.

Applications Of Cognitive Work Analysis

Author : Ann M. Bisantz
ISBN : 0805861513
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 47. 33 MB
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Despite continued interest in Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA) techniques for the analysis and design of complex, human-technology systems, few published accounts exist that document all of the five recommended phases of CWA in real world applications. Delineating a work-centered conceptual framework that guides the design of technology, Applications of Cognitive Work Analysisprovides the understanding necessary to apply these robust techniques to real world, large scale system design problems in a variety of domains. The book provides a complete CWA analysis for a complex, simulated air traffic control environment and a three phase analysis of an actual healthcare system. It includes detailed applications of work domain, control tasks, and strategies analysis for systems including military command and control, transportation, and emergency management. The contributors present discussions and examples of techniques drawn from research and design traditions other than CWA that can be used to complement and enrich CWA analyses in areas of social and organization analysis, and knowledge and skills analysis. They emphasize important theoretical and application oriented advances in CWA related to the integration of CWA within a larger system design. The concluding chapter examines the progress of CWA as a cognitive engineering tool, then outlines its theoretical underpinnings and a path for the future of this approach. The book demonstrates how these methods can be applied in complex, real world design contexts, subject to constraints of cost, time, and information. It shows the how, when, and where CWA techniques can be integrated into the systems engineering design process and provides concrete evidence for the value that the CWA approach provides in every domain.

Streetlights And Shadows

Author : Gary A. Klein
ISBN : UCSD:31822037473873
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 55. 29 MB
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An expert explains how the conventional wisdom about decision making can get us into trouble—and why experience can't be replaced by rules, procedures, or analytical methods.

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