working minds a practitioner s guide to cognitive task analysis mit press

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Working Minds

Author : Beth Crandall
ISBN : 9780262033510
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 56. 34 MB
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Cognitive Task Analysis (CTA) helps researchers understand how cognitive skills and strategies make it possible for people to act effectively and get things done. CTA can yield information people need -- employers faced with personnel issues, market researchers who want to understand the thought processes of consumers, trainers and others who design instructional systems, health care professionals who want to apply lessons learned from errors and accidents, systems analysts developing user specifications, and many other professionals. CTA can show what makes the workplace work -- and what keeps it from working as well as it might. Working Minds is a true handbook, offering a set of tools for doing CTA: methods for collecting data about cognitive processes and events, analyzing them, and communicating them effectively. It covers both the "why" and the "how" of CTA methods, providing examples, guidance, and stories from the authors' own experiences as CTA practitioners. Because effective use of CTA depends on some conceptual grounding in cognitive theory and research -- on knowing what a cognitive perspective can offer -- the book also offers an overview of current research on cognition. The book provides detailed guidance for planning and carrying out CTA, with chapters on capturing knowledge and capturing the way people reason. It discusses studying cognition in real-world settings and the challenges of rapidly changing technology. And it describes key issues in applying CTA findings in a variety of fields. Working Minds makes the methodology of CTA accessible and the skills involved attainable.

Cognitive Task Analysis

Author : Jan Maarten Schraagen
ISBN : 9781135665296
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 76. 10 MB
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Cognitive task analysis is a broad area consisting of tools and techniques for describing the knowledge and strategies required for task performance. Cognitive task analysis has implications for the development of expert systems, training and instructional design, expert decision making and policymaking. It has been applied in a wide range of settings, with different purposes, for instance: specifying user requirements in system design or specifying training requirements in training needs analysis. The topics to be covered by this work include: general approaches to cognitive task analysis, system design, instruction, and cognitive task analysis for teams. The work settings to which the tools and techniques described in this work have been applied include: 911 dispatching, faultfinding on board naval ships, design aircraft, and various support systems. The editors' goal in this book is to present in a single source a comprehensive, in-depth introduction to the field of cognitive task analysis. They have attempted to include as many examples as possible in the book, making it highly suitable for those wishing to undertake a cognitive task analysis themselves. The book also contains a historical introduction to the field and an annotated bibliography, making it an excellent guide to additional resources.

Sources Of Power

Author : Gary A. Klein
ISBN : 0262260867
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 39. 55 MB
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Anyone who watches the television news has seen images of firefighters rescuing people from burning buildings and paramedics treating bombing victims. How do these individuals make the split-second decisions that save lives? Most studies of decision making, based on artificial tasks assigned in laboratory settings, view people as biased and unskilled. Gary Klein is one of the developers of the naturalistic decision making approach, which views people as inherently skilled and experienced. It documents human strengths and capabilities that so far have been downplayed or ignored.Since 1985, Klein has conducted fieldwork to find out how people tackle challenges in difficult, nonroutine situations. Sources of Power is based on observations of humans acting under such real-life constraints as time pressure, high stakes, personal responsibility, and shifting conditions. The professionals studied include firefighters, critical care nurses, pilots, nuclear power plant operators, battle planners, and chess masters. Each chapter builds on key incidents and examples to make the description of the methodology and phenomena more vivid. In addition to providing information that can be used by professionals in management, psychology, engineering, and other fields, the book presents an overview of the research approach of naturalistic decision making and expands our knowledge of the strengths people bring to difficult tasks.

Cognitive Work Analysis

Author : Kim J. Vicente
ISBN : 9781410603036
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 29. 12 MB
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This book describes, for the first time in pedagogical form, an approach to computer-based work in complex sociotechnical systems developed over the last 30 years by Jens Rasmussen and his colleagues at Risø National Laboratory in Roskilde, Denmark. This approach is represented by a framework called cognitive work analysis. Its goal is to help designers of complex sociotechnical systems create computer-based information support that helps workers adapt to the unexpected and changing demands of their jobs. In short, cognitive work analysis is about designing for adaptation. The book is divided into four parts. Part I provides a motivation by introducing three themes that tie the book together--safety, productivity, and worker health. The ecological approach that serves as the conceptual basis behind the book is also described. In addition, a glossary of terms is provided. Part II situates the ideas in the book in a broader intellectual context by reviewing alternative approaches to work analysis. The limitations of normative and descriptive approaches are outlined, and the rationale behind the formative approach advocated in this book is explored. Part III describes the concepts that comprise the cognitive work analysis framework in detail. Each concept is illustrated by a case study, and the implications of the framework for design and research are illustrated by example. Part IV unifies the themes of safety, productivity, and health, and shows why the need for the concepts in this book will only increase in the future. In addition, a historical addendum briefly describes the origins of the ideas described in the book.

The Handbook Of Work Analysis

Author : Mark Alan Wilson
ISBN : 9781136486838
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 52. 30 MB
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This new handbook, with contributions from experts around the world, is the most comprehensive treatise on work design and job analysis practice and research in over 20 years. The handbook, dedicated to Sidney Gael, is the next generation of Gael’s successful Job Analysis Handbook for Business, Industry and Government, published by Wiley in 1988. It consists of four parts: Methods, Systems, Applications and Research/Innovations. Finally, a tightly integrated, user-friendly handbook, of interest to students, practitioners and researchers in the field of Industrial Organizational Psychology and Human Resource Management. Sample Chapter available: Chapter 24, Training Needs Assessment by Eric A. Surface is available for download.

Seeing What Others Don T

Author : Gary Klein
ISBN : 9781857889437
Genre : Self-Help
File Size : 20. 89 MB
Format : PDF
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Insights—like Darwin’s understanding of the way evolution actually works, and Watson and Crick’s breakthrough discoveries about the structure of DNA—can change the world. We also need insights into the everyday things that frustrate and confuse us so that we can more effectively solve problems and get things done. Yet we know very little about when, why, or how insights are formed—or what blocks them. In Seeing What Others Don’t, renowned cognitive psychologist Gary Klein unravels the mystery. Klein is a keen observer of people in their natural settings—scientists, businesspeople, firefighters, police officers, soldiers, family members, friends, himself—and uses a marvelous variety of stories to illuminate his research into what insights are and how they happen. What, for example, enabled Harry Markopolos to put the finger on Bernie Madoff? How did Dr. Michael Gottlieb make the connections between different patients that allowed him to publish the first announcement of the AIDS epidemic? What did Admiral Yamamoto see (and what did the Americans miss) in a 1940 British attack on the Italian fleet that enabled him to develop the strategy of attack at Pearl Harbor? How did a “smokejumper” see that setting another fire would save his life, while those who ignored his insight perished? How did Martin Chalfie come up with a million-dollar idea (and a Nobel Prize) for a natural flashlight that enabled researchers to look inside living organisms to watch biological processes in action? Klein also dissects impediments to insight, such as when organizations claim to value employee creativity and to encourage breakthroughs but in reality block disruptive ideas and prioritize avoidance of mistakes. Or when information technology systems are “dumb by design” and block potential discoveries. Both scientifically sophisticated and fun to read, in Seeing What Others Don’t insight is revealed as not just a “eureka!” moment but a whole new way of understanding.

Business Process Change

Author : Paul Harmon
ISBN : 9780128005224
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 65. 20 MB
Format : PDF, ePub
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Business Process Change, 3rd Edition provides a balanced view of the field of business process change. Bestselling author Paul Harmon offers concepts, methods, cases for all aspects and phases of successful business process improvement. Updated and added for this edition is new material on the development of business models and business process architecture development, on integrating decision management models and business rules, on service processes and on dynamic case management, and on integrating various approaches in a broad business process management approach. New to this edition: How to develop business models and business process architecture How to integrate decision management models and business rules New material on service processes and on dynamic case management Learn to integrate various approaches in a broad business process management approach Extensive revision and update addresses Business Process Management Systems, and the integration of process redesign and Six Sigma Learn how all the different process elements fit together in this best first book on business process, now completely updated Tailor the presented methodology, which is based on best practices, to your organization’s specific needs Understand the human aspects of process redesign Benefit from all new detailed case studies showing how these methods are implemented

Design Recommendations For Intelligent Tutoring Systems Volume 4 Domain Modeling

Author : Robert A. Sottilare
ISBN : 9780989392396
Genre : Education
File Size : 88. 44 MB
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Design Recommendations for Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs) explores the impact of intelligent tutoring system design on education and training. Specifically, this volume examines “Domain Modeling”. The “Design Recommendations book series examines tools and methods to reduce the time and skill required to develop Intelligent Tutoring Systems with the goal of improving the Generalized Intelligent Framework for Tutoring (GIFT). GIFT is a modular, service-oriented architecture developed to capture simplified authoring techniques, promote reuse and standardization of ITSs along with automated instructional techniques and effectiveness evaluation capabilities for adaptive tutoring tools and methods.

Foundations For Tracing Intuition

Author : Andreas Glöckner
ISBN : 9781135181468
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 87. 91 MB
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This book provides the basis for exploring "intuition" by introducing the different methods and their applications in a step-by-step manner.

Handbook Of Improving Performance In The Workplace Instructional Design And Training Delivery

Author : Kenneth H. Silber
ISBN : 0470525061
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 57. 28 MB
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With the contributions from leading national and international scholars and practitioners, this volume provides a "state-of-the-art" look at ID, addressing the major changes that have occurred in nearly every aspect of ID in the past decade and provides both theory and "how-to" information for ID and performance improvement practitioners practitioners who must stay current in their field. This volume goes beyond other ID references in its approach: it is useful to students and practitioners at all levels; it is grounded in the most current research and theory; and it provides up-to-the-minute coverage of topics not found in any other ID book. It addresses timely topics such as cognitive task analysis, instructional strategies based on cognitive research, data collection methods, games, higher-order problem-solving and expertise, psychomotor learning, project management, partnering with clients, and managing a training function. It also provides a new way of looking at what ID is, and the most comprehensive history of ID ever published. Sponsored by International Society for Performance Improvement (ISPI), the Handbook of Improving Performance in the Workplace, three-volume reference, covers three core areas of interest including Instructional Design and Training Delivery, Selecting and Implementing Performance Interventions, and Measurement and Evaluation.

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