you must be from the north southern white women in the memphis civil rights movement

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You Must Be From The North

Author : Kimberly K. Little
ISBN : 1604733519
Genre : African Americans
File Size : 43. 56 MB
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You must be from the North, was a common, derogatory reaction to the activities of white women throughout the South, well-meaning wives and mothers who joined together to improve schools or local sanitation but found their efforts decried as more troublesome civil rights agitation. You Must Be from the North: Southern White Women in the Memphis Civil Rights Movement focuses on a generation of white women in Memphis, Tennessee, born between the two World Wars and typically omitted from the history of the civil rights movement. The women for the most part did not jeopardize their lives by participating alongside black activists in sit-ins and freedom rides. Instead, they began their journey into civil rights activism as a result of their commitment to traditional female roles through such organizations as the Junior League. What originated as a way to do charitable work, however, evolved into more substantive political action. While involvement with groups devoted to feeding schoolchildren and expanding Bible study sessions seemed benign, these white women's growing awareness of racial disparities in Memphis and elsewhere caused them to question the South's hierarchies in ways many of their peers did not. Ultimately, they found themselves challenging segregation more directly, found themselves ostracized as a result, and discovered they were often distrusted by a justifiably suspicious black community. Their newly discovered commitment to civil rights contributed to the success of the city's sanitation workers' strike of 1968. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s death during the strike resonated so deeply that for many of these women it became a defining moment. In the long term, these women proved to be a persistent and progressive influence upon the attitudes of the white population of Memphis, and particularly on the city's elite.

Historical Dictionary Of The Civil Rights Movement

Author : Christopher M. Richardson
ISBN : 9780810880375
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 56. 4 MB
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The second edition of Historical Dictionary of the Civil Rights Movement is a guide to the history of the African-American struggle for equal rights in the United States. This dictionary has over 500 cross-referenced entries on important personalities, significant legal cases, local struggles, forgotten heroes, and prominent women in the Movement.

Hazel Brannon Smith

Author : Jeffery B. Howell
ISBN : 9781496810809
Genre : Biography & Autobiography
File Size : 89. 29 MB
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Hazel Brannon Smith (1914–1994) stood out as a prominent white newspaper owner in Mississippi before, during, and after the civil rights movement. As early as the mid-1940s, she earned state and national headlines by fighting bootleggers and corrupt politicians. Her career was marked by a progressive ethic, and she wrote almost fifty years of columns with the goal of promoting the health of her community. In the first half of her career, she strongly supported Jim Crow segregation. Yet, in the 1950s, she refused to back the economic intimidation and covert violence of groups such as the Citizens’ Council. The subsequent backlash led her to being deemed a social pariah, and the economic pressure bankrupted her once-flourishing newspaper empire in Holmes County. Rejected by the white establishment, she became an ally of the black struggle for social justice. Smith’s biography reveals how many historians have miscast white moderates of this period. Her peers considered her a liberal, but her actions revealed the firm limits of white activism in the rural South during the civil rights era. While historians have shown that the civil rights movement emerged mostly from the grass roots, Smith’s trajectory was decidedly different. She never fully escaped her white paternalistic sentiments, yet during the 1950s and 1960s she spoke out consistently against racial extremism. This book complicates the narrative of the white media and business people responding to the movement’s challenging call for racial justice.

Women In American Politics History And Milestones

Author : Doris Weatherford
ISBN : 9781608710072
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 58. 93 MB
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Women in American Politics is a new reference detailing the milestones and trends in women's political participation in the United States. This two-volume work provides much needed perspective and background on the events and situations that have surrounded women's political activities. It offers insightful analysis on women's political achievements in the United States, including such topics as the campaign to secure nation-wide suffrage; pioneer women state officeholders; women first elected to U.S. Congress, governorships, mayoralties, and other offices; and women first appointed as Cabinet officials, judges, and ambassadors. It also includes profiles of the women who have run for vice president and president. Women in American Politics is organized in a framework both logical and useful to readers and researchers. Original material offers students, scholars, teachers, and other professionals a guide to understanding the complex struggle in women's progress toward achieving political parity with men in the United States. Each chapter is structured in three parts: - part one features graphic information-tables, lists, charts, or maps-detailing the historical record with data not compiled anywhere else, on women officeholders. - part two offers insightful narrative analysis describing how women achieved what they did, examines the complex and sometimes contradictory trends behind the facts of women's political milestones, and explores how social and economic contexts affected the progress of their accomplishments. - part three presents biographical entries describing in more personal terms women's struggle for political equality. Sidebars in each chapter illuminate the drama of political life and consider the evolving female electorate, exploring how women voters have impacted particular issues, specific elections, or other key turning points, and the tradition of appointing widows to open seats. The final chapter uniquely looks at women's political history and differences in achievement from a state and regional perspective. Entries on each state (as well as on District of Columbia and Puerto Rico) highlight milestones and provide insight into the unique aspects of each state.

To The Promised Land Martin Luther King And The Fight For Economic Justice

Author : Michael K. Honey
ISBN : 9780393651270
Genre : History
File Size : 50. 18 MB
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“To the Promised Land helps us to remember King as a prophet for poor and working-class people, as we carry on that campaign against racism and poverty in our own times. A terrific book.” —Timothy B. Tyson, author of The Blood of Emmett Till Fifty years ago, a single bullet robbed us of one of the world’s most eloquent voices for human rights and justice. To the Promised Land goes beyond the iconic view of Martin Luther King Jr. as an advocate of racial harmony, to explore his profound commitment to the poor and working class and his call for “nonviolent resistance” to all forms of oppression—including the economic injustice that “takes necessities from the masses to give luxuries to the classes.” Phase one of King’s agenda led to the Civil Rights and Voting Rights Acts. But King also questioned what good it does a man to “eat at an integrated lunch counter if he doesn’t earn enough money to buy a hamburger and a cup of coffee?” In phase two of his activism, King organized poor people and demonstrated for union rights, while also seeking a “moral revolution” to replace the self-seeking individualism of the rich along with an overriding concern for the common good. “Either we go up together or we go down together,” King cautioned, a message just as urgent in America today as then. To the Promised Land challenges us to think about what it would mean to truly fulfill King’s legacy and move toward his vision of “the Promised Land” in our own time.

Dissertation Abstracts International

Author :
ISBN : STANFORD:36105121649094
Genre : Humanities
File Size : 22. 38 MB
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Labour History Review

Author :
ISBN : NWU:35556037819133
Genre : Great Britain
File Size : 86. 79 MB
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America History And Life

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ISBN : STANFORD:36105131533668
Genre : Canada
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Article abstracts and citations of reviews and dissertations covering the United States and Canada.

New Books On Women Gender And Feminism

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ISBN : UCR:31210024308650
Genre : Feminism
File Size : 71. 34 MB
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How Race Is Made

Author : Mark M. Smith
ISBN : 0807877271
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 78. 8 MB
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For at least two centuries, argues Mark Smith, white southerners used all of their senses--not just their eyes--to construct racial difference and define race. His provocative analysis, extending from the colonial period to the mid-twentieth century, shows how whites of all classes used the artificial binary of "black" and "white" to justify slavery and erect the political, legal, and social structure of segregation. Based on painstaking research, How Race Is Made is a highly original, always frank, and often disturbing book. After enslaved Africans were initially brought to America, the offspring of black and white sexual relationships (consensual and forced) complicated the purely visual sense of racial typing. As mixed-race people became more and more common and as antebellum race-based slavery and then postbellum racial segregation became central to southern society, white southerners asserted that they could rely on their other senses--touch, smell, sound, and taste--to identify who was "white" and who was not. Sensory racial stereotypes were invented and irrational, but at every turn, Smith shows, these constructions of race, immune to logic, signified difference and perpetuated inequality. Smith argues that the history of southern race relations and the construction of racial difference on which that history is built cannot be understood fully on the basis of sight alone. In order to come to terms with the South's past and present, Smith says, we must explore the sensory dynamics underpinning the deeply emotional construction of race. How Race Is Made takes a bold step toward that understanding.

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