# approximate-reasoning-by-parts

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## Approximate Reasoning By Parts

**Author :**Lech Polkowski

**ISBN :**9783642222795

**Genre :**Technology & Engineering

**File Size :**79. 2 MB

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The monograph offers a view on Rough Mereology, a tool for reasoning under uncertainty, which goes back to Mereology, formulated in terms of parts by Lesniewski, and borrows from Fuzzy Set Theory and Rough Set Theory ideas of the containment to a degree. The result is a theory based on the notion of a part to a degree. One can invoke here a formula Rough: Rough Mereology : Mereology = Fuzzy Set Theory : Set Theory. As with Mereology, Rough Mereology finds important applications in problems of Spatial Reasoning, illustrated in this monograph with examples from Behavioral Robotics. Due to its involvement with concepts, Rough Mereology offers new approaches to Granular Computing, Classifier and Decision Synthesis, Logics for Information Systems, and are--formulation of well--known ideas of Neural Networks and Many Agent Systems. All these approaches are discussed in this monograph. To make the exposition self--contained, underlying notions of Set Theory, Topology, and Deductive and Reductive Reasoning with emphasis on Rough and Fuzzy Set Theories along with a thorough exposition of Mereology both in Lesniewski and Whitehead--Leonard--Goodman--Clarke versions are discussed at length. It is hoped that the monograph offers researchers in various areas of Artificial Intelligence a new tool to deal with analysis of relations among concepts.

## Case Based Approximate Reasoning

**Author :**Eyke Hüllermeier

**ISBN :**9781402056956

**Genre :**Computers

**File Size :**67. 32 MB

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Making use of different frameworks of approximate reasoning and reasoning under uncertainty, notably probabilistic and fuzzy set-based techniques, this book develops formal models of the above inference principle, which is fundamental to CBR. The case-based approximate reasoning methods thus obtained especially emphasize the heuristic nature of case-based inference and aspects of uncertainty in CBR.

## Fuzzy Sets In Approximate Reasoning And Information Systems

**Author :**J.C. Bezdek

**ISBN :**9781461552437

**Genre :**Mathematics

**File Size :**70. 10 MB

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Approximate reasoning is a key motivation in fuzzy sets and possibility theory. This volume provides a coherent view of this field, and its impact on database research and information retrieval. First, the semantic foundations of approximate reasoning are presented. Special emphasis is given to the representation of fuzzy rules and specialized types of approximate reasoning. Then syntactic aspects of approximate reasoning are surveyed and the algebraic underpinnings of fuzzy consequence relations are presented and explained. The second part of the book is devoted to inductive and neuro-fuzzy methods for learning fuzzy rules. It also contains new material on the application of possibility theory to data fusion. The last part of the book surveys the growing literature on fuzzy information systems. Each chapter contains extensive bibliographical material. Fuzzy Sets in Approximate Reasoning and Information Systems is a major source of information for research scholars and graduate students in computer science and artificial intelligence, interested in human information processing.

## Foundations Of Computational Intelligence Volume 2

**Author :**Aboul-Ella Hassanien

**ISBN :**9783642015328

**Genre :**Mathematics

**File Size :**88. 41 MB

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Foundations of Computational Intelligence Volume 2: Approximation Reasoning: Theoretical Foundations and Applications Human reasoning usually is very approximate and involves various types of - certainties. Approximate reasoning is the computational modelling of any part of the process used by humans to reason about natural phenomena or to solve real world problems. The scope of this book includes fuzzy sets, Dempster-Shafer theory, multi-valued logic, probability, random sets, and rough set, near set and hybrid intelligent systems. Besides research articles and expository papers on t- ory and algorithms of approximation reasoning, papers on numerical experiments and real world applications were also encouraged. This Volume comprises of 12 chapters including an overview chapter providing an up-to-date and state-of-the research on the applications of Computational Intelligence techniques for - proximation reasoning. The Volume is divided into 2 parts: Part-I: Approximate Reasoning – Theoretical Foundations Part-II: Approximate Reasoning – Success Stories and Real World Applications Part I on Approximate Reasoning – Theoretical Foundations contains four ch- ters that describe several approaches of fuzzy and Para consistent annotated logic approximation reasoning. In Chapter 1, “Fuzzy Sets, Near Sets, and Rough Sets for Your Computational Intelligence Toolbox” by Peters considers how a user might utilize fuzzy sets, near sets, and rough sets, taken separately or taken together in hybridizations as part of a computational intelligence toolbox. In multi-criteria decision making, it is necessary to aggregate (combine) utility values corresponding to several criteria (parameters).

## Approximate Reasoning In Expert Systems

**Author :**Madan M. Gupta

**ISBN :**UCAL:B4320007

**Genre :**Expert systems (Computer science).

**File Size :**57. 87 MB

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## Granular Computing In Decision Approximation

**Author :**Lech Polkowski

**ISBN :**9783319128801

**Genre :**Technology & Engineering

**File Size :**56. 75 MB

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This book presents a study in knowledge discovery in data with knowledge understood as a set of relations among objects and their properties. Relations in this case are implicative decision rules and the paradigm in which they are induced is that of computing with granules defined by rough inclusions, the latter introduced and studied within rough mereology, the fuzzified version of mereology. In this book basic classes of rough inclusions are defined and based on them methods for inducing granular structures from data are highlighted. The resulting granular structures are subjected to classifying algorithms, notably k—nearest neighbors and bayesian classifiers. Experimental results are given in detail both in tabular and visualized form for fourteen data sets from UCI data repository. A striking feature of granular classifiers obtained by this approach is that preserving the accuracy of them on original data, they reduce substantially the size of the granulated data set as well as the set of granular decision rules. This feature makes the presented approach attractive in cases where a small number of rules providing a high classification accuracy is desirable. As basic algorithms used throughout the text are explained and illustrated with hand examples, the book may also serve as a textbook.

## Rough Sets

**Author :**Tamás Mihálydeák

**ISBN :**9783030228156

**Genre :**Computers

**File Size :**70. 76 MB

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This LNAI 11499 constitutes the proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Rough Sets, IJCRS 2019, held in Debrecen, Hungary, in June 2019. The 41 full papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 71 submissions. The IJCRS conferences aim at bringing together experts from universities and research centers as well as the industry representing fields of research in which theoretical and applicational aspects of rough set theory already find or may potentially find usage. The papers are grouped in topical sections on core rough set models and methods; related methods and hybridization; areas of application.

## Fuzzy Logic

**Author :**G. Gerla

**ISBN :**0792369416

**Genre :**Computers

**File Size :**83. 88 MB

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The theme of this book is fuzzy logic in a narrow sense, a promising new chapter of fuzzy logic. The basic ideas of formal logic were formulated by Lotfi Zadeh in 1975. The aim of this logic is to investigate the wonderful human capacity of reasoning with vague notions by attempting to formalize the `approximate reasoning' we use in everyday life. A peculiarity of this book is to propose a general framework based on three mathematical tools: the theory of fuzzy closure operators, an extension principle for crisp logics and the theory of recursively enumerable fuzzy subsets. This book is unique in that it treats fuzzy logics which are not truth-functional in nature (as an example, the logic of the necessities, probabilistic logics and similarity-based logics). The book is addressed to people interested in artificial intelligence, fuzzy control, formal logic, and philosophy. It can be used in special post-graduate university studies and in advanced courses. The book is completely self-contained.

## Readings In Fuzzy Sets For Intelligent Systems

**Author :**Didier J. Dubois

**ISBN :**9781483214504

**Genre :**Computers

**File Size :**69. 44 MB

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Readings in Fuzzy Sets for Intelligent Systems is a collection of readings that explore the main facets of fuzzy sets and possibility theory and their use in intelligent systems. Basic notions in fuzzy set theory are discussed, along with fuzzy control and approximate reasoning. Uncertainty and informativeness, information processing, and membership, cognition, neural networks, and learning are also considered. Comprised of eight chapters, this book begins with a historical background on fuzzy sets and possibility theory, citing some forerunners who discussed ideas or formal definitions very close to the basic notions introduced by Lotfi Zadeh (1978). The reader is then introduced to fundamental concepts in fuzzy set theory, including symmetric summation and the setting of fuzzy logic; uncertainty and informativeness; and fuzzy control. Subsequent chapters deal with approximate reasoning; information processing; decision and management sciences; and membership, cognition, neural networks, and learning. Numerical methods for fuzzy clustering are described, and adaptive inference in fuzzy knowledge networks is analyzed. This monograph will be of interest to both students and practitioners in the fields of computer science, information science, applied mathematics, and artificial intelligence.

## Intelligent Techniques And Soft Computing For Nuclear Science And Engineering

**Author :**Da Ruan

**ISBN :**9810243561

**Genre :**Technology & Engineering

**File Size :**85. 80 MB

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This book is divided into three parts. The first part, ?Mathematical Tools and New Developments?, provides basic tools to treat fuzzy set theory, rough set theory, fuzzy control, fuzzy modelling, decision support systems, and related applications. The second part, ?Intelligent Engineering Applications?, reports on engineering problems such as man-machine interface, risk analysis, image processing, robotics, knowledge-based engineering, expert systems, process control integration, diagnosis, measurements and interpretation by intelligent techniques and soft computing used for general engineering applications. The third part, ?Nuclear Engineering Applications?, concentrates on nuclear applications and covers several topics such as nuclear energy, nuclear safety assessment, radioactive waste management, nuclear measurements, nuclear safeguards, nuclear reactor operation, reactor controller design, fuel reload pattern design, signal validation, nuclear power plants, and optimizations in nuclear applications.

## Rough Sets

**Author :**Lech Polkowski

**ISBN :**9783319608372

**Genre :**Computers

**File Size :**78. 28 MB

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This two-volume set LNAI 10313 and LNAI 10314 constitutes the proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Rough Sets, IJCRS 2017, held in Olsztyn, Poland, in July 2017. The 74 revised full papers presented together with 16 short papers and 16 invited talks, were carefully reviewed and selected from 130 submissions. The papers in this two set-volume of IJCRS 2017 follow the track already rutted by RSCTC and JRS conferences which aimed at unification of many facets of rough set theory from theoretical aspects of the rough set idea bordering on theory of concepts and going through algebraic structures, topological structures, logics for uncertain reasoning, decision algorithms, relations to other theories of vagueness and ambiguity, then to extensions of the rough set idea like granular structures, rough mereology, and to applications of the idea in diverse fields of applied science including hybrid methods like rough-fuzzy, neuro-rough, neuro-rough-fuzzy computing. IJCRS 2017 encompasses topics spread among four main tracks: Rough Sets and Data Science (in relation to RSCTC series organized since 1998); Rough Sets and Granular Computing (in relation to RSFDGrC series organized since 1999); Rough Sets and Knowledge Technology (in relation to RSKT series organized since 2006); and Rough Sets and Intelligent Systems (in relation to RSEISP series organized since 2007).

## Fundamentals Of Fuzzy Sets

**Author :**Didier Dubois

**ISBN :**9781461544296

**Genre :**Mathematics

**File Size :**33. 12 MB

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Fundamentals of Fuzzy Sets covers the basic elements of fuzzy set theory. Its four-part organization provides easy referencing of recent as well as older results in the field. The first part discusses the historical emergence of fuzzy sets, and delves into fuzzy set connectives, and the representation and measurement of membership functions. The second part covers fuzzy relations, including orderings, similarity, and relational equations. The third part, devoted to uncertainty modelling, introduces possibility theory, contrasting and relating it with probabilities, and reviews information measures of specificity and fuzziness. The last part concerns fuzzy sets on the real line - computation with fuzzy intervals, metric topology of fuzzy numbers, and the calculus of fuzzy-valued functions. Each chapter is written by one or more recognized specialists and offers a tutorial introduction to the topics, together with an extensive bibliography.

## Eurofuse 2011

**Author :**Bernard De Baets

**ISBN :**9783642240010

**Genre :**Technology & Engineering

**File Size :**83. 25 MB

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This carefully edited book comprises the papers from EUROFUSE 2011 Workshop on Fuzzy Methods for Knowledge-based Systems. EUROFUSE was established in 1998 as the EURO (the Association of European Operational Research Societies) Working Group on Fuzzy Sets, as a successor of the former European Chapter of IFSA (the International Fuzzy Systems Association). The present EUROFUSE 2011 workshop is held at Régua, Portugal, 21-23 September, in the World Heritage Site of the Douro Wine Region and is organised by Pedro Melo-Pinto and Pedro Couto. The workshop is devoted to Fuzzy Methods for Knowledge-based Systems. And has the goal to bring together researchers and practitioners developing and applying fuzzy techniques in preference modelling and decision making in an informal atmosphere. EUROFUSE 2011 has three distinguished invited speakers: Francisco Herrera (Granada, Spain), Radko Mesiar (Bratislava, Slovakia) and Jose Luis Garcia Lapresta (Valladolid, Spain). Next to the invited speakers, the three day program consists of 37 lectures. In total, there are 70 participants from 10 countries. This edited volume contains the final revised manuscripts on the basis of which the program was put together.

## An Ontological And Epistemological Perspective Of Fuzzy Set Theory

**Author :**I. Burhan Türksen

**ISBN :**0080525717

**Genre :**Computers

**File Size :**65. 32 MB

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Fuzzy set and logic theory suggest that all natural language linguistic expressions are imprecise and must be assessed as a matter of degree. But in general membership degree is an imprecise notion which requires that Type 2 membership degrees be considered in most applications related to human decision making schemas. Even if the membership functions are restricted to be Type1, their combinations generate an interval – valued Type 2 membership. This is part of the general result that Classical equivalences breakdown in Fuzzy theory. Thus all classical formulas must be reassessed with an upper and lower expression that are generated by the breakdown of classical formulas. Key features: - Ontological grounding - Epistemological justification - Measurement of Membership - Breakdown of equivalences - FDCF is not equivalent to FCCF - Fuzzy Beliefs - Meta-Linguistic axioms - Ontological grounding - Epistemological justification - Measurement of Membership - Breakdown of equivalences - FDCF is not equivalent to FCCF - Fuzzy Beliefs - Meta-Linguistic axioms

## Data Expert Knowledge And Decisions

**Author :**Wolfgang A. Gaul

**ISBN :**9783642734892

**Genre :**Business & Economics

**File Size :**78. 66 MB

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Cross-disciplinary research on how computer-assisted decision making can be supported by sophisticated data analysis techniques and recent developments in knowledge-based systems research are described in this volume, with emphasis on marketing applications. Aspects dealt with include market-share analysis (spreadsheet based), media planning, stochastic market modelling, marketing data analysis and new product introduction management (all knowledge-based, partly using PROLOG). These contributions emphasize links between decision support, expert knowledge research and marketing. Other application areas are debt and credit management and personnel disposition (KEE based), portfolio management (PROLOG based) and vehicle scheduling. Concrete interconnections between data analysis and marketing can be seen in the contributions on classification and unfolding of market data, market segmentation by forced classification, conjoint analysis applications, ideal point product mapping, MDS in telecommunications pricing and multi-mode marketing data evaluations.

## Uncertainty And Intelligent Information Systems

**Author :**Bernadette Bouchon

**ISBN :**9789812792341

**Genre :**Computers

**File Size :**48. 29 MB

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Intelligent systems are necessary to handle modern computer-based technologies managing information and knowledge. This book discusses the theories required to help provide solutions to difficult problems in the construction of intelligent systems. Particular attention is paid to situations in which the available information and data may be imprecise, uncertain, incomplete or of a linguistic nature. The main aspects of clustering, classification, summarization, decision making and systems modeling are also addressed. Topics covered in the book include fundamental issues in uncertainty, the rapidly emerging discipline of information aggregation, neural networks, Bayesian networks and other network methods, as well as logic-based systems.

## Analysis Of Resource Management In Complex Work Systems

**Author :**Qinglian Lin

**ISBN :**9789811021701

**Genre :**Business & Economics

**File Size :**57. 43 MB

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This book develops and assesses a decision-making model for resource management in complex work systems in line with the “Systems Engineering” method. It applies the Balanced Scorecard to the development of the criteria system for decision-making, and employs fuzzy linguistics theory to evaluate the alternatives. Further, the book assesses the application of this model in a hospital that has to decide whether or not to outsource its sterile goods. The use of the model opens up a diverse range of fields for decision-making in the area of complex work systems.

## Handbook Of Research On Fuzzy Information Processing In Databases

**Author :**Galindo, Jos

**ISBN :**9781599048543

**Genre :**Computers

**File Size :**44. 5 MB

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"This book provides comprehensive coverage and definitions of the most important issues, concepts, trends, and technologies in fuzzy topics applied to databases, discussing current investigation into uncertainty and imprecision management by means of fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic in the field of databases and data mining. It offers a guide to fuzzy information processing in databases"--Provided by publisher.

## 14th International Conference On Theory And Application Of Fuzzy Systems And Soft Computing Icafs 2020

**Author :**Rafik A. Aliev

**ISBN :**9783030640583

**Genre :**Technology & Engineering

**File Size :**43. 92 MB

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This book presents the proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Applications of Fuzzy Systems, Soft Computing, and Artificial Intelligence Tools, ICAFS-2020, held in Budva, Montenegro, on August 27–28, 2020. It includes contributions from diverse areas of fuzzy systems, soft computing, AI tools such as uncertain computation, decision making under imperfect information, deep learning and others. The topics of the papers include theory and application of soft computing, neuro-fuzzy technology, intelligent control, deep learning–machine learning, fuzzy logic in data analytics, evolutionary computing, fuzzy logic and artificial intelligence in engineering, social sciences, business, economics, material sciences and others.

## Soft Computing In Case Based Reasoning

**Author :**Sankar Kumar Pal

**ISBN :**9781447106876

**Genre :**Computers

**File Size :**36. 70 MB

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This text demonstrates how various soft computing tools can be applied to design and develop methodologies and systems with case based reasoning, that is, for real-life decision-making or recognition problems. Comprising contributions from experts, it introduces the basic concepts and theories, and includes many reports on real-life applications. This book is of interest to graduate students and researchers in computer science, electrical engineering and information technology, as well as researchers and practitioners from the fields of systems design, pattern recognition and data mining.