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Metternich S Diplomacy At Its Zenith 1820 1823

Author : Paul W. Schroeder
ISBN : 9780292767911
Genre : History
File Size : 36. 24 MB
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What Metiernich wanted at the peak of his career, why he wanted it, and the methods by which he achieved his goals are questions brilliantly answered in this survey and analysis of the Austrian chancellor's diplomacy during the period when he was the pre-eminent figure in European politics. Metternich's single-minded objective during 1820–1823 was to preserve the Austrian hegemony he had gained in Central Europe after long wars, enormous effort, and great sacrifice. If the internal security and international-power position secured by Austria at the Congress of Vienna were to be defended against the impact of widespread revolution in Europe, it was imperative that peace in Europe and the status quo be maintained. This required an unyielding opposition to all political movements that might disturb the equilibrium, especially French chauvinism and the spread of French constitutional ideas. A one-man distillate of the doctrine of absolute monarchy, Metternich was the relentless foe of any cause, just or unjust, that threatened European repose. Hence, when the revolution in Naples seriously menaced Austrian hegemony in Italy, Metternich determined that the constitutional regime in Naples must be overthrown by an Austrian armed force, an absolute monarchy restored, and an Austrian army of occupation kept there. Nor did he scruple to use duplicity, secret negotiation, trickery, or deceit against ally and adversary alike in his effort to enlist them in the common cause of all thrones. At the Congress of Troppau, Metternich succeeded not only in defeating Russian ideas for peaceful intervention and a moderate constitution at Naples, but also in converting Tsar Alexander to thoroughly conservative views, thereby making Russia a powerful supporter of Austrian policies and knowingly alienating England, formerly Austria's closest ally. Paul W. Schroeder brings to this bookexceptional scholarship and an objectivity hard to attain when dealing with a personality. Although Metternich, as Schroeder sees him, doubtless helped to maintain European peace and order, his real greatness consisted not in his European principles, but in his ability to defend Austrian interests under the guise of European principles. The evidence, gathered from documentary material in the Haus Hof- und Staatsarchiv in Vienna, has forced the author to the conclusion that Metternich was no real statesman. The very qualities that distinguished him as a brilliant diplomat—keen vision, cogent analysis, fertility of expedients, farsightedness, flexibility, and firmness of purpose—were converted into those of blindness to reality, superficial analysis, sterility of expedients, dogmatism, and failure of will when confronted with fundamental problems of state and society.

Napoleon

Author : Munro Price
ISBN : 9780199380695
Genre : Biography & Autobiography
File Size : 69. 91 MB
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On April 20, 1814, after a dizzying series of battles, campaigns, and diplomatic intrigues, a defeated Napoleon Bonaparte made his farewell speech to the Old Guard in the courtyard of the Chateau de Fontainebleau and set off for exile on the island of Elba. Napoleonic legend asserts that the Emperor was brought down by foreign powers determined to destroy him and discredit his achievements, with the aid of highly placed domestic traitors. Others argue that once Napoleon's military defeats began in 1812, his fall became inevitable. But in fact, as Munro Price shows in this brilliant new book, Napoleon's fall could have been avoided altogether. Exploring a critical and often neglected period of Napoleonic history between 1812 and 1814, Napoleon: The End of Glory offers a more complete picture of the Emperor's decline and fall than any previous work. Price analyzes the political, military, and diplomatic events of the period, from Napoleon's disastrous invasion of Russia in 1812 to the multiple failed attempts by Austria to broker peace. He illuminates the dynamic relationships between Napoleon and the wily Austrian foreign minister Metternich-whose desire for equilibrium within the European states system clashed with Napoleon's unshakeable belief in hegemony and subjection-and the charming and enigmatic Alexander I of Russia. And he explores the lasting impact of the bloody Terror of the French Revolution on Napoleon's decisions once he came to power. Rejecting the assumption that defeat was unavoidable, Price considers instead why Napoleon failed to explore a compromise peace that could have allowed him to keep his crown, arguing that the answer to this question has powerful implications for our understanding of the Napoleonic wars. Ultimately, Price provides a convincing portrait of the Emperor's decline, exposing his blindness, intransigence and miscalculations; his preference for war and his declining ability to wage it; and his nearly pathological fear of a dishonorable peace. A deeply researched study of the moment of a great man's fall, Napoleon: The End of Glory forces us to reconsider Napoleon's character, motives, and the reasons for his spectacular failure.

The Course Of German Nationalism

Author : Hagen Schulze
ISBN : 0521377595
Genre : History
File Size : 69. 59 MB
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The arduous path from the colorful diversity of the Holy Roman Empire to the Prussian-dominated German nation-state, Bismarck's German Empire of 1871, led through revolutions, wars and economic upheavals, but also through the cultural splendor of German Classicism and Romanticism. Hagen Schulze takes a fresh look at late eighteenth and nineteenth century German history, explaining it as the interaction of revolutionary forces from below and from above, of economics, politics, and culture. None of the results were predetermined, and yet their outcome was of momentous significance for all of Europe, if not the world.

Annales Universitatis Scientiarum Budapestinensis De Rolando E Tv S Nominatae

Author : Eötvös Loránd Tudományegyetem
ISBN : IND:30000116471354
Genre : Austria
File Size : 49. 6 MB
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Italy In The Making

Author : G. F.-H. Berkeley
ISBN :
Genre :
File Size : 80. 14 MB
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Italy In The Making June 1846 To 1 January 1848

Author : G. F.-H. Berkeley
ISBN : 9780521074285
Genre : History
File Size : 90. 94 MB
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This book examines the movement towards Italian nationality and independence during the period between June 1846 and January 1848.

King Hussein And The Challenge Of Arab Radicalism

Author :
ISBN : 9780195361216
Genre : Arab countries
File Size : 48. 73 MB
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The Oxford Dictionary Of Quotations

Author : ed PARTINGTON
ISBN : STANFORD:36105018372073
Genre : Reference
File Size : 85. 98 MB
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Contains more than 17,000 quotations from 2,500 people of all places and time periods and includes sayings of the nineties, popular misquotations, and slogans

Historische Mitteilungen

Author :
ISBN : 09365796
Genre : Germany
File Size : 24. 29 MB
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The Oxford Dictionary Of Quotations

Author : Oxford University Press
ISBN : 0198601735
Genre : Reference
File Size : 89. 61 MB
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More than twenty thousand quotations from every era and location are combined in a comprehensive reference that also encompasses details of the earliest traceable source, birth and death dates, and career briefs for each entry, as well as a thematic and k

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