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Bio Mechanisms Of Swimming And Flying

Author : N. Kato
ISBN : 9784431539513
Genre : Science
File Size : 69. 46 MB
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Tens of thousands of different animal species live on this planet, having survived for millions of years through adaptation and evolution, which has given them a vast variety of structures and functions. Biomechanical studies of animals swimming and flying can aid understanding of the mechanisms that enable them to move effectively and efficiently in fluids . Based on such understandings and analyses, we can aim to develop environmentally friendly machines that emulate these natu ral movements. The Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 agreed major treaties on biological diversity, addressing the comb ined issues of environmental protection and fair and equitable economic development. With regard to coastal environments, increasing biological diversity has begun to play an important role in reestablishing stable and sustainable ecosystems. This approach has begun to influence research into the behavior of aquatic species, as an understanding of the history of an individual aquatic species is indispensable in constructing an environmental assessment mod el that includes the physical, chemical, and biological effects of that species . From an engineering viewpoint, studying nature's biological diversity is an opportunity to reconsider mechanical systems that were systematically constructed in the wake of the Industrial Revolution. We have been accumulating knowledge of the sys tems inherent in biological creatures and using that knowledge to create new, envi ronmentally friendly technologies.

Mechanics Of Swimming And Flying

Author : Stephen Childress
ISBN : 0521280710
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 72. 87 MB
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Provides a summary of the fluid dynamics of the locomotion of living organisms. Describes biological phenomena in detail from the swimming of bacteria and fish to the flying of insects and birds.

Redesign Of The Micromechanical Flying Insect In A Power Density Context

Author : Erik Edward Steltz
ISBN : UCAL:C3544562
Genre :
File Size : 44. 63 MB
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Indian Science Abstracts

Author :
ISBN : CHI:37341716
Genre : Science
File Size : 37. 7 MB
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Journal Of Experimental Biology

Author :
ISBN : NWU:35558004621153
Genre : Biology
File Size : 30. 22 MB
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Journal Of Applied Mechanics

Author :
ISBN : UCSD:31822017828419
Genre : Mechanics, Applied
File Size : 81. 88 MB
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Animal Locomotion

Author : Andrew A. Biewener
ISBN : 019850022X
Genre : Science
File Size : 37. 7 MB
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This book provides a clear foundation, based on physical biology and biomechanics, for understanding the underlying mechanisms by which animals have evolved to move in their physical environment. It integrates the biomechanics of animal movement with the physiology of animal energetics and the neural control of locomotion. The author also communicates a sense of the awe and fascination that comes from watching the grace, speed, and power of animals in motion. Movement is a fundamental distinguishing feature of animal life, and a variety of extremely effective mechanical and physiological designs have evolved. Common themes are observed for the ways in which animals successfully contend with the properties of a given physical environment across diversity of life forms and varying locomotor modes. Understanding the common principles of design that span a diverse array of animals requires a broad comparative and integrative approach to their study. This theme persists throughout the book, as various modes and mechanisms of animal locomotion are covered. Since an animal's size is equally critical to its functional design, the effects of scale on locomotor energetics and mechanics are also discussed. Biewener begins by examining the underlying machinery for movement: skeletal muscles used for force generation, skeletons used for force transmission, and spring-like elements used for energy savings. He then describes the basic mechanisms that animals have evolved to move over land, in and on the surface of the water, and in the air. Common fluid dynamic principles are discussed as background to both swimming and flight. In addition to discussing the locomotor mechanisms of complex animals, the locomotor movement of single cells is also covered. Common biochemical features of cellular metabolism are then reviewed before discussing the energetic aspects of various locomotor modes. Strategies for conserving energy and moving economically are again highlighted in this section of the book. Emphasis is placed on comparisons of energetic features across locomotor modes. The book concludes with a discussion of the neural control of animal locomotion. The basic neurosensory and motor elements common to vertebrates and arthropods are discussed, and features of sensori-motor organization and function are highlighted. These are then examined in the context of specific examples of how animals control the rhythmic patterns of limb and body movement that underlie locomotor function and stability.

Swimming And Flying In Nature Swimming Of Larger Animals Flight Of Birds And Insects

Author : Theodore Yao-tsu Wu
ISBN : UOM:39015049076022
Genre : Animal flight
File Size : 49. 24 MB
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The Biokinetics Of Flying And Swimming

Author : Akira Azuma
ISBN : UVA:X004897646
Genre : Science
File Size : 50. 55 MB
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"Every creature has body shape and uses mode of locomotion that is most economical for the way of life it has developed through natural selection in response to severe environmental conditions." --Akira Azuma Through study of locomotion of living creatures, Akira Azuma has come to the conclusion that every creature is made and moves in a manner that is best suited to their environmental conditions. Thus, one purpose of this book is to shed light on the physical relationships among habitat, form, way of life, and mode of movement in living creatures. The text also reviews results of theoretical and empirical research carried out by various scientists over the years. Each of the two main parts of the book, Flying Dynamics and Swimming Dynamics, is written from the viewpoint of mechanics, specifically fluid dynamics, rather than from the viewpoint of physiology and ecology. Thus the chapters and sections are organized according to mechanical, not biological principles. The book will be useful not only to engineers working and studying fluid and flight dynamics, but also for biologists using mechanical analyses to gain a better understanding of the behavior of animals and the mechanical functions of the body parts in relation to their forms and modes of locomotion.

Mechanics In Engineering

Author : Rajendra Narain Dubey
ISBN : 0888980132
Genre : Biomechanics Congresses
File Size : 56. 97 MB
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The Journal Of Experimental Biology

Author :
ISBN : NWU:35558005630591
Genre : Biology
File Size : 25. 24 MB
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Swimming And Flying In Nature

Author : Theodore Wu
ISBN : UCSD:31822022003289
Genre : Science
File Size : 81. 53 MB
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The Symposium on Swimming and Flying in Nature which was held at the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California from July 8-12, 1974 was conceived with the objective of providing an interdisciplinary forum for the discussion of funda mental biological and fluid mechanical aspects of these forms of natura110comotion. It was the earnest hope of all concerned in the organization of the Symposium that the exchange of knowledge and interaction of ideas from the disciplines involved would stimu late new research in this developing field. If the liveliness of the discussion generated among the 250 or so participants is any measure, then this objective was fulfilled to a significant degree. These two companion volumes contain the manuscripts of the papers presented during the Symposium. It is hoped that this permanent record will serve to perpetuate the enthusiasm and active thought generated during those days in Pasadena. The first volume contains the proceedings of the first two days of the confer ence (Sessions I to IV) which concentrated on the locomotion of micro-organisms. The second volume (Sessions V to VIII) deals with the propulsion of larger fish, insects and birds. Professor Sir James Lighthill's Special Invited Lecture which opened the Symposium is contained in the second volume, rather than the first, since it deals with natural flight.

Aiaa Journal

Author : American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics
ISBN : UCSD:31822036051662
Genre : Aeronautics
File Size : 47. 26 MB
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International Journal Of Fluid Mechanics Research

Author :
ISBN : UOM:39015058889851
Genre : Fluid mechanics
File Size : 45. 28 MB
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Principles Of Animal Locomotion

Author : R. McNeill Alexander
ISBN : 0691086788
Genre : Science
File Size : 24. 15 MB
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How can geckoes walk on the ceiling and basilisk lizards run over water? What are the aerodynamic effects that enable small insects to fly? What are the relative merits of squids' jet-propelled swimming and fishes' tail-powered swimming? Why do horses change gait as they increase speed? What determines our own vertical leap? Recent technical advances have greatly increased researchers' ability to answer these questions with certainty and in detail. This text provides an up-to-date overview of how animals run, walk, jump, crawl, swim, soar, hover, and fly. Excluding only the tiny creatures that use cilia, it covers all animals that power their movements with muscle--from roundworms to whales, clams to elephants, and gnats to albatrosses. The introduction sets out the general rules governing all modes of animal locomotion and considers the performance criteria--such as speed, endurance, and economy--that have shaped their selection. It introduces energetics and optimality as basic principles. The text then tackles each of the major modes by which animals move on land, in water, and through air. It explains the mechanisms involved and the physical and biological forces shaping those mechanisms, paying particular attention to energy costs. Focusing on general principles but extensively discussing a wide variety of individual cases, this is a superb synthesis of current knowledge about animal locomotion. It will be enormously useful to advanced undergraduates, graduate students, and a range of professional biologists, physicists, and engineers.

Psychology

Author : Behavioral and Social Sciences Survey. Psychology Panel
ISBN : UOM:39015008884713
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 28. 49 MB
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The Aeronautical Journal

Author :
ISBN : STANFORD:36105001431951
Genre : Aeronautics
File Size : 27. 27 MB
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Proceedings

Author :
ISBN : UOM:39015051264417
Genre : Biology
File Size : 51. 26 MB
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Biolocomotion

Author : Aurelio Cappozzo
ISBN : UOM:39015061740125
Genre : Biomechanics
File Size : 73. 16 MB
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People S Lobby Bulletin

Author :
ISBN : UOM:39015008731732
Genre : United States
File Size : 29. 8 MB
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