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Biomarkers For Disease Progression In Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis

Author : Elisabeth Maria Gerarda Vries
ISBN : 9402803807
Genre :
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"Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a puzzling, chronic, cholestatic liver disease. Inflammation of the intra-and/or extrahepatic bile ducts leads to the formation of fibro-sclerotic strictures interspersed with dilatations. Destruction of the biliary tree results in cholestasis, biliary cirrhosis, and eventually liver failure. Despite over two decades of research in PSC, to date, there are no medical therapies that can alter the natural disease course. To find an adequate treatment, a measurable treatment effect is important. The most reliable way to measure treatment effect is by means of clinical - solid - endpoints, such as survival and liver transplantation. However, using such endpoints can be inefficient, and an indirect measurement (a biomarker) as a surrogate for clinical response can reduce the size, duration, and costs of clinical studies. In addition, biomarkers for disease progression in PSC may be used for risk stratification - identification of patients that would potentially have the most benefit of treatment with a novel therapy. The importance of risk stratification in PSC is not restricted to clinical trials, and can be extrapolated to patient care where stratification of patients into low versus high risk of poor outcome can resulting in a more patient tailored counselling, and treatment. In this thesis the prognostic value of several potential biomarkers for disease progression in PSC have been studied. This concerns biochemical biomarkers (alkaline phosphatase, enhanced liver fibrosis test), liver histology, and the identification of a genetic marker for disease progression PSC. Ultimately, clinical and biochemical biomarkers for disease progression have been integrated to establish a novel prognostic model for PSC."--Samenvatting auteur.

Biomarkers Of Disease

Author : Andrew K. Trull
ISBN : 1139437933
Genre : Medical
File Size : 57. 29 MB
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This publication takes a critical, evidence-based look at the efficacy of diagnostic tests which are increasingly being used to evaluate organ damage and dysfunction. The use of biomarkers is growing, with a steady stream of products being brought out by the pharmaceutical industry. Some of these assist in diagnosis, others provide a means of monitoring the state of progression of disease and the effectiveness of therapeutic options. However, in many cases the evidence which supports the use of these methods as opposed to traditional biochemical tests has not yet been demonstrated, and it is intended that this volume will help clarify the strengths and weaknesses of using these biomarkers across a wide range of applications and in the various organs of the body. This approach will provide pathologists, clinical biochemists and medical laboratory scientists with an invaluable overview of the diverse applications of biomarkers in medicine.

Biomarkers In Renal Disease

Author : Mitchell H. Rosner
ISBN : 1604561130
Genre : Medical
File Size : 43. 35 MB
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Advances in long-term improvement and outcomes of patients with kidney disease will require the use of novel biomarkers to identify patients at high risk for kidney disease and to diagnose kidney disease early for effective treatment. A biomarker is a substance found in the blood, body fluids or tissues that provides a measure of normal biological or pathological processes or response to pharmacological compounds or drugs. There are a wide variety of biomarkers including but not limited to mRNA, proteins and peptides, and lipid molecules. In AKI, important pathophysiological processes such as inflammation, apoptotic and necrotic cell death and, tubule regeneration may be reflected in blood or urine. An array of candidate markers along with clinical information in long-term clinical studies with appropriate analytical methodologies will likely provide prognostic information. Despite well-known limitations, currently the most widely used biomarkers for the early diagnosis of CKD and AKI are proteinuria, serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. Most clinicians are aware that serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen are poor biomarkers due to inherent characteristics of these molecules and handling by the kidney. Creatinine is secreted and urea nitrogen is reabsorbed by the renal tubules. Many endogenous substances interfere in the assay for creatinine. Serum creatinine and urea appear late after acute kidney injury and the serum levels in part depend on the generation (large or small body mass). Acute kidney injury is a non steady state condition thus serum creatinine and urea nitrogen will lag behind kidney injury. For these reasons new biomarkers are imperative. With knowledge of these limitations in use of current biomarkers and the lack of progress in reducing the mortality and morbidity from kidney disease, there has been a great surge of interest in identifying novel biomarkers with a particular emphasis on the early diagnosis of kidney disease. A variety of methods have been employed including transcriptomics, proteomics, gene arrays and lipidomics. Currently, candidate biomarkers have been found in different disorders and have been tested in humans and many candidate biomarkers have yet to be identified. Most studies to date are preliminary and require validation in large multicentre studies followed by commercial assay development validation and testing. This new book outlines the rapid advances made in the field of biomarker development for kidney disease in which a variety of novel molecules have been identified and studied in humans.

Evaluation Of Biomarkers And Surrogate Endpoints In Chronic Disease

Author : Institute of Medicine
ISBN : 9780309157278
Genre : Medical
File Size : 37. 91 MB
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Many people naturally assume that the claims made for foods and nutritional supplements have the same degree of scientific grounding as those for medication, but that is not always the case. The IOM recommends that the FDA adopt a consistent scientific framework for biomarker evaluation in order to achieve a rigorous and transparent process.

Atlas Of Biomarkers For Alzheimer S Disease

Author : Manuel Menéndez González
ISBN : 9783319079899
Genre : Medical
File Size : 74. 88 MB
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A lot of research on biomarkers for Alzheimer is being done in the last few decades. The aim of these studies is to find some method to ease the diagnosis of Alzheimers as early as possible. Such methods are a range of blood or CSF tests on one hand and several types of neuroimaging scans on the other. Many of the images coming both from laboratory and neuroimaging are very visual and illustrative. These images, accompanied by a short description, can perfectly explain the main results and usefulness of every biomarker. The objective of this book would be to summarize the most important studies made in this field. Few publications have systematically compiled results on this topic and only one as an atlas. Readers would be interested in this publication because it allows reviewing the current status of research by handily visualizing the results.

Development And Application Of Biomarkers

Author : Roger L. Lundblad
ISBN : 1439819807
Genre : Medical
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First introduced to biomedical research in 1980, the term biomarker has taken on a life of its own in recent years and has come to mean a number of things. In biomedical science, biomarker has evolved to most commonly mean a characteristic that can be used either as a diagnostic or a prognostic, but most significantly as a screening indicator for pathologies that tend to be somewhat silent prior to overt clinical display. Applying scientific rigor, as well as a disciplined approach to nomenclature, Roger Lundblad’s Development and Application of Biomarkers rationalizes the current enthusiasm for biomarkers with the use of well-established clinical laboratory analytes in clinical medicine. Highly respected for his work as both a classical protein scientist and as a pioneer in proteomics, Dr. Lundblad catalogs various biomarkers recognized in clinical medicine and, where possible, matches the expectations for advances in screening technologies with the realities of statistical analysis. More specifically, this important reference: Details an extensive list of biomarkers for various stages of a number of cancer types including ovarian, pancreatic, prostate, and breast cancer Looks at how proteomics is used for the discovery and validation of biomarkers Explores the use of microarray technology, ultra-high performance liquid chromatography, and computational bioinformatic approaches for the discovery and use of biomarkers Examines the use of cells and cell fragments as more complex biomarkers Organizes a host of significant biomarkers and essential research by type and use in a series of readily accessible tables Throughout this volume, Dr. Lundblad encourages consideration of biomarkers more as a concept than as laboratory analytes, emphasizing the relation between the discovery of a biomarker and the biology underlying its production. Ultimately, it is a thorough understanding of that underlying biology that will lead to the development of assays that are robust and reproducible, as well as clinically significant.

Cancer Biomarkers

Author : S. Srivastava
ISBN : 1586034596
Genre : Medical
File Size : 79. 6 MB
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This special book edition of the journal Disease Markers concentrates on molecular biomarkers in cancer research. The main subjects of this book are: Prognostic and predictive markers in cancer; Statistical considerations in combining biomarkers for disease classification; Blood and urine markers for ovarian cancer; Use of markers for the detection and treatment of lung cancer; The promise of biomarkers in colorectal cancer detection; Development tracks for cancer prevention markers; Molecular markers for early detection of cervical neoplasia and Markers of prostate cancer detection, diagnosis and prognosis. This book contains contributions by an international board of experts on the topic.

Biomarkers Of Kidney Disease

Author : Charles L. Edelstein
ISBN : 0123756731
Genre : Medical
File Size : 62. 47 MB
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A biomarker is a molecule that is measured as a marker of normal biological processes, disease processes or the response to a diagnostic or therapeutic intervention. Kidney diseases like acute kidney injury, chronic kidney disease, diabetic nephropathy, glomerular disease, renal cancer and preeclampsia still have a high morbidity. Measurement of biomarkers in the blood or urine that detect patients at risk of kidney diseases or that detect kidney diseases in the earliest stage may ultimately result in preventative or earlier or more effective treatments for kidney diseases. Biomarkers of Kidney Disease reviews the basic and clinical research on biomarkers of the common kidney diseases including acute kidney injury, chronic kidney disease, renal cancer, diabetic nephropathy, glomerular disease and preeclampsia. The characteristics of an ideal biomarker of kidney diseases and statistical analysis of biomarker studies is detailed. The latest techniques for biomarker detection like metabolomics and proteomics is covered in the book. This comprehensive book details the latest advances made in the field of biomarker research and development in kidney diseases. The book is an ideal companion for those interested in biomarker research and development, proteomics and metabolomics, kidney diseases, statistical analysis, transplantation and preeclampsia. Presents a comprehensive, translational source for all aspects of renal biomarkers in one reference work Experts in renal disease biomarkers (from all areas of academic and medical research) take readers from the bench research (cellular and molecular mechanism) to new therapeutic approaches

Biochemical Biomarkers In Alzheimer S Disease

Author : Samuel Barrack
ISBN : 9781492274469
Genre : Health & Fitness
File Size : 71. 75 MB
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In view of the growing prevalence of AD worldwide, there is an urgent need for the development of better diagnostic tools and more effective therapeutic interventions. Indeed, much work in this field has been done during last decades. As such, a major goal of current clinical research in AD is to improve early detection of disease and presymptomatic detection of neuronal dysfunction, concurrently with the development of better tools to assess disease progression in this group of disorders. All these putative correlates are commonly referred to as AD-related biomarkers. The ideal biomarker should be easy to quantify and measure, reproducible, not subject to wide variation in the general population and unaffected by co- morbid factors. For evaluation of therapies, a biomarker needs to change linearly with disease progression and closely correlate with established clinico-pathological parameters of the disease. There is growing evidence that the use of biomarkers will increase our ability to better indentify the underlying biology of AD, especially in its early stages. These biomarkers will improve the detection of the patients suitable for research studies and drug trials, and they will contribute to a better management of the disease in the clinical practice. Indeed, much work in this field has been done during last decades. The vast number of important applications, combined with the untamed diversity of already identified biomarkers, show that there is a pressing need to structure the research made on AD biomarkers into a solid, comprehensive and easy to use tool to de deployed in clinical settings. To date there are few publications compiling results on this topic. That is why when I was asked to address this task I accepted inmediately. I am happy to present you a bundle of the best articles published about biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease in recent times.

Neuroimaging Biomarkers In Alzheimer S Disease

Author : Samuel Barrack
ISBN : 9781492274421
Genre : Health & Fitness
File Size : 87. 89 MB
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In view of the growing prevalence of AD worldwide, there is an urgent need for the development of better diagnostic tools and more effective therapeutic interventions. Indeed, much work in this field has been done during last decades. As such, a major goal of current clinical research in AD is to improve early detection of disease and presymptomatic detection of neuronal dysfunction, concurrently with the development of better tools to assess disease progression in this group of disorders. All these putative correlates are commonly referred to as AD-related biomarkers. The ideal biomarker should be easy to quantify and measure, reproducible, not subject to wide variation in the general population and unaffected by co- morbid factors. For evaluation of therapies, a biomarker needs to change linearly with disease progression and closely correlate with established clinico-pathological parameters of the disease. There is growing evidence that the use of biomarkers will increase our ability to better indentify the underlying biology of AD, especially in its early stages. These biomarkers will improve the detection of the patients suitable for research studies and drug trials, and they will contribute to a better management of the disease in the clinical practice. Indeed, much work in this field has been done during last decades. The vast number of important applications, combined with the untamed diversity of already identified biomarkers, show that there is a pressing need to structure the research made on AD biomarkers into a solid, comprehensive and easy to use tool to de deployed in clinical settings. To date there are few publications compiling results on this topic. That is why when I was asked to address this task I accepted inmediately. I am happy to present you a bundle of the best articles published about biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease in recent times.

Biomarkers In Cardiovascular Disease

Author : Vijay Nambi
ISBN : 9780323548366
Genre : Medical
File Size : 84. 96 MB
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Get a quick, expert overview of the ways in which biomarkers can be used to assess and guide the management of cardiovascular disease in the clinical setting. This concise, clinically-focused resource by Dr. Vijay Nambi consolidates today’s available information on this rapidly changing topic into one convenient resource, making it an ideal, easy-to-digest reference for cardiology practitioners, fellows, and residents. Covers lab standards and statistical interpretation of biomarkers with a clinical focus. Discusses relevant conditions such as hypertension and diabetes as key markers of injury and prognosis. Includes current information on biomarkers to assess and guide the management of heart failure, acute coronary syndrome, chest pain, shortness of breath, and more. Concludes the book with a timely chapter on how biomarkers may guide cardiologists in the future.

Biomarkers In Heart Disease

Author : James de Lemos
ISBN : 9781444300215
Genre : Medical
File Size : 67. 64 MB
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Biomarkers in Heart Disease is the first title in the AHAClinical Series and is aimed at meeting the needs of clinicians,providing cardiologists, internists, emergency physicians,laboratorians, and other healthcare providers with a clearunderstanding of the role of biomarkers in contemporarycardiovascular medicine. The book covers both the strengths and pitfalls of currentlyavailable markers, and provides information on the most promisingbiomarkers that are likely to impact practice in the next fewyears. It is divided into four parts, organized around clinicalscenarios rather than individual biomarkers. This book will help the practicing physician decide whichbiomarkers to measure, when to measure them, how to interpret theresults and how to make decisions based on the test result.

Biomarkers In Ovarian Disease

Author : M. J. Birrer
ISBN : 1586038079
Genre : Medical
File Size : 35. 54 MB
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Contains a series of articles by experts in the ovarian cancer field, who present developments in the identification and understanding of biomarkers for this tumor. This title discusses hypotheses on the molecular development of ovarian cancer, SP markers of risk, and biomarkers and approaches for the early detection of ovarian cancer.

Huntington S Disease

Author : Gillian Bates
ISBN : 9780199370474
Genre : Medical
File Size : 56. 55 MB
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This fourth edition of Huntington's Disease presents a comprehensive summary of the current knowledge of this disease, including the major scientific and clinical advances that have occurred since publication of the third edition in 2002. Completely updated and expanded, chapters in this volume are organized in five sections: · Clinical aspects of Huntington's disease, including updated chapters on historical perspectives, neurological, neuropsychiatric, and neuropsychological aspects, and new chapters on juvenile Huntington's and the premanifest and early stages · The genetics of Huntington's disease, including new information on its epidemiology discussions of new testing guidelines · Neurobiology, including recent insights into correlations between pathology and symptoms and a new chapter on neuronal circuitry · The molecular biology of Huntington's disease, including new chapters on the normal function of huntingtin, the molecular pathogenesis of Huntington's disease and the peripheral pathology of the disorder, and an extensively updated chapter on its structural biology · An updated description of the comprehensive care for Huntington's disease, featureing a new chapter on preclinical therapeutics and a completely rewritten chapter on the state of the art of experimental therapeutics and clinical trials.

Biomarkers Of Neurological And Psychiatric Disease

Author : Sabine Bahn
ISBN : 9780123877185
Genre : Medical
File Size : 81. 35 MB
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Published since 1959, International Review of Neurobiology is a well-known series appealing to neuroscientists, clinicians, psychologists, physiologists, and pharmacologists. Led by an internationally renowned editorial board, this important serial publishes both eclectic volumes made up of timely reviews and thematic volumes that focus on recent progress in a specific area of neurobiology research. This volume reviews existing theories and current research surrounding the movement disorder Dyskinesia. Leading authors review state-of-the-art in their field of investigation and provide their views and perspectives for future research Chapters are extensively referenced to provide readers with a comprehensive list of resources on the topics covered All chapters include comprehensive background information and are written in a clear form that is also accessible to the non-specialist

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Author : George C. Tsokos
ISBN : 9780323044349
Genre : Medical
File Size : 32. 20 MB
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This new companion to Hochberg et al.'s Rheumatology masterwork provides new insights into the causes, detection and therapy of this challenging disease. In this state-of-the-art resource, you'll find 'one stop' coverage of all the latest scientific and clinical developments in SLE: new concepts in epidemiology, disease activity measures and outcomes; new concepts in immunoregulation, genetic and pathogenic mechanisms; new understanding and novel presentation of the processes of tissue/organ damage; comprehensive coverage of clinical features; and the very latest concepts in treatment. Provides the very latest understanding of the pathogenesis of SLE. Distills current understanding of the cellular, molecular, genetic and environmental factors that instigate and drive the disease. Includes comprehensive coverage of clinical features, including fatigue, organ system manifestations, overlap syndromes, infections, and more. Conveys the very latest understanding of mechanisms of tissue damage, including immune complexes, antibodies, and other mechanisms that lead to organ damage. Contains expert discussion of processes that are responsible for tissue injury - a hallmark of this text. Incorporates the latest treatment modalities, including steroids and non-steroidals, cytotoxic drug treatment, PAP's, and therapies on the horizon. Discusses the latest treatment options on disease modifying or disease controlling agents.

Biomarkers In Rare Genetic Diseases

Author : Chiara Scotton
ISBN : OCLC:1154176012
Genre : Medicine
File Size : 37. 24 MB
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Biomarkers offer a way to speed up medical research by shedding light on the physiopathological mechanisms of disease. Furthermore, biomarkers are considered invaluable tools for monitoring disease progression, prognosis, and response to drugs, especially in clinical trials, where they can be used to assess the efficacy, efficiency, and side effects of novel drugs.

Biomarkers Of Environmentally Associated Disease

Author : Samuel H. Wilson
ISBN : 9781420032208
Genre : Science
File Size : 38. 23 MB
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The end of the 20th century brought with it a revolution in molecular biology that culminated in advances such as the completion of the human genome. This has brought optimism to the fields of toxicology and environmental health, and the anticipation that molecular biomarkers might soon come of age and have a major impact on human and environmental health. Biomarker research is an area of current interest to scientists in a number of fields that are concerned with environmental exposure to pollutants and environmentally associated disease. Biomarkers of Environmentally Associated Disease: Technologies, Concepts, and Perspectives provides comprehensive coverage of the current status and future prospects of a field that will play a key role in emerging areas of public health and medicine. It focuses on the risk to human and environmental health of exposure to persistent organic pollutants, heavy metals, airborne toxics, environmental estrogens, and other environmental pollutants. This material will aid researchers in understanding, treating, and preventing environmentally induced disease. Validated molecular biomarkers have long been recognized as invaluable tools for identifying and preventing human disease. As biomarkers begin to be applied more widely, it is also important to assure that they are implemented ethically, with attention to the social and legal issues associated with their use. Biomarkers of Environmentally Associated Disease is an outstanding resource providing state-of-the-art information for the fields that encompass molecular biomarkers.

New Advances On Disease Biomarkers And Molecular Targets In Biomedicine

Author : Nikki P. Lee
ISBN : 9781627034562
Genre : Science
File Size : 66. 86 MB
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Rising occurrences of various diseases and epidemics have pressurized the already-burdened health system across the globe, and this imposes an unprecedented challenge on our current research in identifying disease-specific biomarkers and molecular targets, in particular for cancers, neurological disorders and unexplained infertility. Despite decades of efforts in deciphering the fundamental biology underlying various diseases at discrete levels using an array of advanced technologies, attempts to identify reliable and disease-indicating markers for detection and biomolecules or cellular structures for targeting are still in vain. This monograph describes and discusses the updated findings in this field with a specific aim to compile prior and recent literature and from there to acquire some insights to facilitate future research to expand options of understanding, detecting and treating diseases. Among the many possible areas of biomedical research, this content comprises two themes: disease biomarkers and molecular targets. The book also covers topics that are more advanced in development to emerging scientific discoveries. In particular, this monograph includes concepts on the renovated use of oncofetal molecules in cancer prediction and treatment, the evolving development in cancer biology at the cellular and molecular levels and the recent involvement on new classes of molecules in diseases. This book renews established concepts in the field, and at the same time leads to important insights for research and development of drugs, diagnostics, and interventions for managing diseases of unmet medical needs.

Motor Neuron Disease In Adults

Author : Mark Bromberg
ISBN : 9780190202262
Genre : Medical
File Size : 74. 49 MB
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Motor Neuron Disease in Adults reviews new information as it applies to all aspects of motor neuron disease (ALS, PLS, PMA). The choice of articles is for those that use evidence-based methods to ensure that the new information is solid and advances the topic or issue. The book can be used by anyone who provides any type of care to ALS patients. In particular, neurologists will find the latest information on diagnosis and management, as well as new information on genetics and frontotemporal lobe involvement. Allied health providers will find useful information for their discipline. Patients will also find both specific and general information to help understand what they are experiencing and how to help manage their symptoms.

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