cancer genomics

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Cancer Genomics

Author : Robert L. Strausberg
ISBN : 1586032518
Genre : Medical
File Size : 41. 4 MB
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This volume explores the genomics of cancer. Contributions explain how advances in biomedical research in the 1990s launched the genomics era - we are no longer satisfied to study a gene or gene product in isolation, but rather we strive to view each gene within the complex circuitry of a cell. In rapid succession, this mindset has invigorated the analysis of all molecular entities, from the genome, to transcripts (transciptome) and proteins (proteome).

Cancer Genomics

Author : Graham Dellaire
ISBN : 9780123972743
Genre : Medical
File Size : 53. 69 MB
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Cancer Genomics addresses how recent technological advances in genomics are shaping how we diagnose and treat cancer. Built on the historical context of cancer genetics over the past 30 years, the book provides a snapshot of the current issues and state-of-the-art technologies used in cancer genomics. Subsequent chapters highlight how these approaches have informed our understanding of hereditary cancer syndromes and the diagnosis, treatment and outcome in a variety of adult and pediatric solid tumors and hematologic malignancies. The dramatic increase in cancer genomics research and ever-increasing availability of genomic testing are not without significant ethical issues, which are addressed in the context of the return of research results and the legal considerations underlying the commercialization of genomic discoveries. Finally, the book concludes with "Future Directions", examining the next great challenges to face the field of cancer genomics, namely the contribution of non-coding RNAs to disease pathogenesis and the interaction of the human genome with the environment. Tools such as sidebars, key concept summaries, a glossary, and acronym and abbreviation definitions make this book highly accessible to researchers from several fields associated with cancer genomics. Contributions from thought leaders provide valuable historical perspective to relate the advances in the field to current technologies and literature.

Cancer Genomics

Author : Moamen Bydoun
ISBN : 9780128061107
Genre : Medical
File Size : 21. 80 MB
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Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide and the second leading cause of cancer deaths. Although early diagnosis, outcome prediction and treatment options are the ultimate objectives when assessing breast cancer patients, the methodology behind this clinical assessment varies and has gradually evolved from using standard clinical criteria into incorporating high-throughput genome-wide analysis. Early methods involved evaluating tumor size and spread as well as histological assessment (tumor grade). Later, the expression of hormone/growth receptors (ER, PR, and HER2) was added to the standard stratification of breast cancer patients. More recently, molecular approaches, which are based on the expression of a well-defined set of genes, have subdivided patients into five clinically relevant subtypes which not only predict prognosis and dictate treatment choice but also complement standard assessment. The advent of genome-wide analysis has produced the most robust classification system of breast cancers by coupling specific genetic aberrations (single nucleotide mutations and gene copy number variations) with gene expression profiles. Although these genome-wide approaches offer a promising future for breast cancer prognosis and treatment options, they are still not clinically feasible for standard population-based screening. Nonetheless, these approaches are becoming faster and more reliable in understanding the molecular architecture of breast cancer and are slowly paving the way towards personalized treatments which are tailored to individual patients. In the light of a rapidly evolving field of breast cancer genomics, this chapter highlights key standard and upcoming approaches for diagnosis, prognosis and treatment and discusses the feasibility of genome-oriented personalized treatments.

Cancer Genomics

Author : Michael Fraser
ISBN : 9780128061114
Genre : Medical
File Size : 83. 56 MB
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Prostate cancer (CaP) is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy in men in the Western world. In North America, more than 275000 men are diagnosed annually whereby approximately 1 in 6 men will be diagnosed with CaP in their lifetime, and 1 in 34 men will die from castrate-resistant metastatic disease. Unfortunately, current clinical prognostic factors explain only a proportion of the observed variation in clinical outcome from patient to patient. Furthermore, over-treatment of indolent and low-risk cancers leads to inappropriate morbidity following radiotherapy or surgery. As such, better predictors of individualized prognosis and treatment response are urgently needed to triage patients to customized and intensified CaP treatment. Recent developments in next-generation sequencing have made it possible to identify prognostic and predictive signatures based on genomic profiles. Herein, we review the recent genetic data pertaining to prostate cancer carcinogenesis, progression, castrate-resistance and metastases. We discuss the genetic basis of CaP progression from localized to systemic disease (e.g. point mutations, copy number alterations and structural variants) and important considerations for CaP biology including intra- and inter-prostatic heterogeneity, multifocality and multiclonality, TMPRSS2–ERG and other ETS-family gene fusions and the role of the tumor microenvironment (e.g. hypoxia and the contribution of caner-associated stroma). Finally, we focus on the use of genomic markers as prognostic factors for local failure and for systemic disease, as novel risk stratification tools, in triaging patients to existing treatment options and, ultimately, the potential of genomics for the identification of molecular targets for CaP therapy. We conclude by summarizing selected outstanding questions in CaP biology that can be addressed effectively through international cooperation between genome sequencing projects such as The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC).

Cancer Genomics

Author : Hye-Jung E. Chun
ISBN : 9780128060995
Genre : Medical
File Size : 77. 46 MB
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Cancer results from accumulated mutations in the genome. Sequencing is an accurate method to detect mutations. Second-generation sequencing technology, commonly referred to as next-generation sequencing technology, enables rapid, efficient and affordable DNA sequencing, and is transforming the scale and scope of cancer research. The technology is sufficiently flexible and affordable to allow sequencing of many cancer genomes, and thus facilitates both sequencing of samples from large patient cohorts and during disease progression in individual cancer patients. The high depths of redundant sequence coverage that can be obtained using some second-generation sequencing technologies, along with sequencing reads amplified from single DNA molecules, facilitate detection of subclones of cells in tumors. Large-scale genome sequencing of hundreds or even thousands of cancer samples is being conducted by several groups that aim to identify and characterize cancer driver mutations. Goals of such work, previously infeasible with Sanger sequencing instruments, are to use this information to improve cancer prognosis, diagnosis and therapeutic decision-making. The speed of data analysis is rate limiting, and investigators are struggling to accommodate and interpret the data deluge produced by second-generation technologies. In this chapter, we discuss cancer properties that are revealed by sequencing and the implication of such properties in experimental design and data interpretation. We describe past, current and upcoming sequencing technologies and the application of second-generation sequencing technologies in cancer genomics. Finally, we discuss the impact of second-generation sequencing technology in shaping personalized medicine.

Cancer Genomics

Author : Ulrich Pfeffer
ISBN : 9789400758421
Genre : Medical
File Size : 72. 1 MB
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The combination of molecular biology, engineering and bioinformatics has revolutionized our understanding of cancer revealing a tight correlation of the molecular characteristics of the primary tumor in terms of gene expression, structural alterations of the genome, epigenetics and mutations with its propensity to metastasize and to respond to therapy. It is not just one or a few genes, it is the complex alteration of the genome that determines cancer development and progression. Future management of cancer patients will therefore rely on thorough molecular analyses of each single case. Through this book, students, researchers and oncologists will obtain a comprehensive picture of what the first ten years of cancer genomics have revealed. Experts in the field describe, cancer by cancer, the progress made and its implications for diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of cancer. The deep impact on the clinics and the challenge for future translational research become evident.

Cancer Genomics

Author : Amal M EL-Naggar
ISBN : 9780128061190
Genre : Medical
File Size : 20. 17 MB
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Soft tissue sarcomas (STSs) are a diverse group of uncommon mesenchymally derived malignant tumors and commonly present as an asymptomatic mass almost anywhere in the body. The most important steps in the diagnosis and therefore subsequent management of STSs include adequate tumor biopsies for proper histologic evaluation, including immunohistochemical studies, and detection of disease extension, and radiological imaging. Although STSs are relatively uncommon, they are typically high grade and, if diagnosed at an advanced stage, survival rates for such patients are poor. Although important insights into STS pathogenesis and new molecular diagnostic tools have emerged, prognosis for sarcoma patients with metastatic disease has failed to improve. Identifying those factors that contribute to STS metastasis that could be targeted therapeutically would have a tremendous impact on survival in these diseases. Here we summarize characteristics of some of the more common STS subtypes, as well as known molecular alterations and their roles in sarcomatogenesis.

Cancer Genomics

Author :
ISBN : 6000003595
Genre : Cancer
File Size : 66. 11 MB
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This work states that we are no longer satisfied to study a gene or gene product in isolation, but rather we strive to view each gene within the complex circuitry of a cell. It states that as a family of diseases, all cancer results from changes in the genome.

Cancer Genomics For The Clinician

Author : Ramaswamy Govindan, MD
ISBN : 9780826168689
Genre : Medical
File Size : 25. 44 MB
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Cancer Genomics for the Clinician is a practical guide to cancer genomics and its application to cancer diagnosis and care. The book begins with a brief overview of the various types of genetic alterations that are encountered in cancer, followed by accessible and applicable information on next generation sequencing technology and bioinformatics; tumor heterogeneity; whole genome, exome, and transcriptome sequencing; epigenomics; and data analysis and interpretation. Each chapter provides essential explanations of concepts, terminology, and methods. Also included are tips for interpreting and analyzing molecular data, as well as a discussion of molecular predictors for targeted therapies covering hematologic malignancies and solid tumors. The final chapter explains the use of FDA-approved genomic-based targeted therapies for breast cancer, lung cancer, sarcomas, gastrointestinal cancers, urologic cancers, head and neck cancer, thyroid cancer, and many more. Assembled in an accessible format specifically designed for the non-expert, this book provides the clinical oncologist, early career practitioner, and trainee with an essential understanding of the molecular and genetic basis of cancer and the clinical aspects that have led to advancements in diagnosis and treatment. With this resource, physicians and trainees will increase their breadth of knowledge and be better equipped to educate patients and families who want to know more about their genetic predispositions to cancer and the targeted therapies that could be considered and prescribed. Key Features: Describes how cancer genomics and next generation sequencing informs cancer screening, risk factors, therapeutic options, and clinical management across cancer types Explains what mutations are, what tests are needed, and how to interpret the results Provides information on FDA-approved targeted therapies that are being used in the clinic Covers different sequencing platforms and technologies and how they perform in research settings Includes access to the fully searchable eBook

Cancer Genomics

Author : Louise Parker
ISBN : 9780128061237
Genre : Medical
File Size : 85. 4 MB
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The number of people diagnosed with cancer each year will almost double to 21 million cases worldwide by 2030 because of the aging population. Studies of the human genome have demonstrated that as few as 5–10% of adult cancers are due to genetic inheritance. Over 90% of cancers are due to endogenous or exogenous exposure to chemicals and radiation; many of these carcinogenic exposures, to tobacco smoke, for example, are avoidable and thus the consequent disease is preventable. The “exposome” is the concept which captures all carcinogenic exposures across the lifetime, quantified by direct biomarker assessment. Exposomics is in its infancy, but if progress such as has occurred in the Human Genome project occurs in this field, it has the potential greatly to enhance our understanding of the complex interactions and mechanisms of action of environmental exposures. In particular, evidence is increasing that cancer is as much a disease of the epigenome as the genome and that many of these environmental factors act to alter gene expression through changes in the epigenome. Exposomics will enable us better to avoid carcinogenic exposures, to limit the carcinogenic effect of these exposures and to identify potential new targets for developmental therapeutics.

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