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Catalysis At Surfaces

Author : I.M. Campbell
ISBN : 0412318806
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 33. 16 MB
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This text provides a balanced introduction to the principles and techniques of heterogeneous catalysis. Beginning with the basic chemistry and physics of catalysis, the book goes on to pay particular attention to the contribution that surface science is making to our understanding of catalysis. It concludes with chapters devoted to carefully chosen examples of real catalytic systems, including catalytic action by enzymes and industrial processes based on solid catalysis. Looking to the future, the book introduces many novel types of catalysis.

Dynamics Of Surfaces And Reaction Kinetics In Heterogeneous Catalysis

Author : G.F. Froment
ISBN : 0080530621
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 87. 12 MB
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Many processes of the chemical industry are based upon heterogeneous catalysis. Two important items of these processes are the development of the catalyst itself and the design and optimization of the reactor. Both aspects would benefit from rigorous and accurate kinetic modeling, based upon information on the working catalyst gained from classical steady state experimentation, but also from studies using surface science techniques, from quantum chemical calculations providing more insight into possible reaction pathways and from transient experimentation dealing with reactions and reactors. This information is seldom combined into a kinetic model and into a quantitative description of the process. Generally the catalytic aspects are dealt with by chemists and by physicists, while the chemical engineers are called upon for mechanical aspects of the reactor design and its control. The symposium "Dynamics of Surfaces and Reaction Kinetics in Heterogeneous Catalysis" aims at illustrating a more global and concerted approach through a number of prestigious keynote lectures and severely screened oral and poster presentations.

Introduction To Surface Chemistry And Catalysis

Author : Gabor A. Somorjai
ISBN : 9780470508237
Genre : Science
File Size : 51. 29 MB
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Now updated-the current state of development of modern surface science Since the publication of the first edition of this book, molecular surface chemistry and catalysis science have developed rapidly and expanded into fields where atomic scale and molecular information were previously not available. This revised edition of Introduction to Surface Chemistry and Catalysis reflects this increase of information in virtually every chapter. It emphasizes the modern concepts of surface chemistry and catalysis uncovered by breakthroughs in molecular-level studies of surfaces over the past three decades while serving as a reference source for data and concepts related to properties of surfaces and interfaces. The book opens with a brief history of the evolution of surface chemistry and reviews the nature of various surfaces and interfaces encountered in everyday life. New research in two crucial areas-nanomaterials and polymer and biopolymer interfaces-is emphasized, while important applications in tribology and catalysis, producing chemicals and fuels with high turnover and selectivity, are addressed. The basic concepts surrounding various properties of surfaces such as structure, thermodynamics, dynamics, electrical properties, and surface chemical bonds are presented. The techniques of atomic and molecular scale studies of surfaces are listed with references to up-to-date review papers. For advanced readers, this book covers recent developments in in-situ surface analysis such as high- pressure scanning tunneling microscopy, ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG). Tables listing surface structures and data summarizing the kinetics of catalytic reactions over metal surfaces are also included. New to this edition: A discussion of new physical and chemical properties of nanoparticles Ways to utilize new surface science techniques to study properties of polymers, reaction intermediates, and mobility of atoms and molecules at surfaces Molecular-level studies on the origin of the selectivity for several catalytic reactions A microscopic understanding of mechanical properties of surfaces Updated tables of experimental data A new chapter on "soft" surfaces, polymers, and biointerfaces Introduction to Surface Chemistry and Catalysis serves as a textbook for undergraduate and graduate students taking advanced courses in physics, chemistry, engineering, and materials science, as well as researchers in surface science, catalysis science, and their applications.

Surface And Nanomolecular Catalysis

Author : Ryan Richards
ISBN : 9781420015751
Genre : Science
File Size : 79. 28 MB
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Using new instrumentation and experimental techniques that allow scientists to observe chemical reactions and molecular properties at the nanoscale, the authors of Surface and Nanomolecular Catalysis reveal new insights into the surface chemistry of catalysts and the reaction mechanisms that actually occur at a molecular level during catalysis. While each chapter contains the necessary background and explanations to stand alone, the diverse collection of chapters shows how developments from various fields each contributed to our current understanding of nanomolecular catalysis as a whole. The book describes how the size and shape of materials at the nanoscale can change their chemical and physical properties and promote more efficient reactions with fewer by-products. First it highlights the preparation, characterization, and applications of heterogeneous and supported metal catalysts. Then it covers the engineering of catalytic processes, structure and reaction control, and texturological properties of catalytic systems. The authors explain how surface science can elucidate reaction mechanisms and discuss the growing role of high-throughput experimentation and combinatorial approaches in catalysis. From fundamental concepts to future directions, Surface and Nanomolecular Catalysis offers a well-rounded compilation of noteworthy developments which will continue to expand and transform our understanding of catalysis, particularly in the context of clean energy and environmental applications such as fuel cells.

New Developments In Selective Oxidation By Heterogeneous Catalysis

Author : P. Ruiz
ISBN : 0080887139
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 72. 73 MB
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This volume contains invited papers and communications presented at the Third European Workshop Meeting on Selective Oxidation by Heterogeneous Catalysis. The purpose of the meeting was to present recent results and to discuss new aspects of partial oxidation by heterogeneous catalysis. The following topics were discussed: Novel processes for obtaining new fine chemicals by catalytic partial oxidation; selective oxidation and oxidative dehydrogenation of alkanes; new catalysts and advances in preparation methods of oxidation catalysts; new phenomena in partial oxidation and new aspects of surface chemistry in oxide catalysts; new applications of physicochemical methods for characterization of oxide catalysts; oxidation with other agents than oxygen and catalytic oxidation of carbohydrates. This book will provide a valuable set of data on reactions of selective oxidation which will be extremely useful to catalyst and related practitioners, whether fundamentalists or highly applied, and to process engineers who wish to evaluate current findings in this field. The wide-range approach to reactions of selective oxidation will disseminate knowledge in specialized areas of selective oxidation and encourage innovation and creativity.

Surface Science

Author : Kurt W. Kolasinski
ISBN : 9781119546634
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 31. 57 MB
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An updated fourth edition of the text that provides an understanding of chemical transformations and the formation of structures at surfaces The revised and enhanced fourth edition of Surface Science covers all the essential techniques and phenomena that are relevant to the field. The text elucidates the structural, dynamical, thermodynamic and kinetic principles concentrating on gas/solid and liquid/solid interfaces. These principles allow for an understanding of how and why chemical transformations occur at surfaces. The author (a noted expert on in the field) combines the required chemistry, physics and mathematics to create a text that is accessible and comprehensive. The fourth edition incorporates new end-of-chapter exercises, the solutions to which are available on-line to demonstrate how problem solving that is relevant to surface science should be performed. Each chapter begins with simple principles and builds to more advanced ones. The advanced topics provide material beyond the introductory level and highlight some frontier areas of study. This updated new edition: Contains an expanded treatment of STM and AFM as well as super-resolution microscopy Reviews advances in the theoretical basis of catalysis and the use of activity descriptors for rational catalyst design Extends the discussion of two-dimensional solids to reflect remarkable advances in their growth and characterization Delves deeper into the surface science of electrochemistry and charge transfer reactions Updates the “Frontiers and Challenges” sections at the end of each chapter as well as the list of references Written for students, researchers and professionals, the fourth edition of Surface Science offers a revitalized text that contains the tools and a set of principles for understanding the field.

Poisoning And Promotion In Catalysis Based On Surface Science Concepts And Experiments

Author : M.P. Kiskinova
ISBN : 0080887406
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 41. 52 MB
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The topics covered in this book include a variety of adsorption and model reaction studies on clean and modified single crystal metal surfaces obtained by means of properly selected surface sensitive techniques. The accent is on the revelation of the physics and chemistry involved in the effects of various modifiers on the adsorptive and reactivity properties of the surface with respect to different reactants. In this book current information that contributes to the fundamental understanding of the effect of additives is summarized. Some of the additives act as promoters, others as poisons, in a number of important catalytic reactions. A description of single- and double-component systems has been obtained by using surface-sensitive techniques, particularly suited for this purpose. For the benefit of the reader, a short summary of the main surface science techniques has been given in Chapter 2. Three general and interrelated topics are reviewed. The first concerns the interaction of electronegative (Cl, S, Se, C, N, O, P) and electropositive (alkali metals) atoms with metal surfaces (Chapter 4). The second topic covers the chemisorptive properties of metal surfaces modified by varying amounts of additives with respect to different reactants (CO, NO, N2, O2, H2, CO2, NH3, H2O and hydrocarbons) (Chapters 5 and 6). In particular the adsorption kinetics and energetics, and the electronic, structural and reactive properties of the coadsorbate systems are considered, whereby particular attention is given to recent surface science studies with well-characterized, single crystal, metal surfaces. In these chapters, special attention is paid to showing the contribution of different factors (the nature and adsorption state of the modifier and the coadsorbed molecule, the structure of the adsorbed layer, the type of interactions in the mixed overlayers, etc.) to the modifier effects. In the discussion of the third topic, model studies of several important catalytic reactions (Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, ammonia synthesis, CO oxidation, water-gas shift synthesis) on modified metal surfaces (Chapter 8) are considered. The book will be particularly useful to scientists who are interested in adsorption phenomena, surface properties and catalysis. It should also prove invaluable to those addressing the questions of condensed matter (surfaces and interfaces), materials science (e.g. corrosion of metals) and electrochemistry.

The Chemical Physics Of Solid Surfaces And Heterogeneous Catalysis

Author : D. A. King
ISBN : 0444421785
Genre : Science
File Size : 57. 2 MB
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This series of volumes is a unique summary of the present state of understanding of solid surfaces. The physical basis of chemisorption and heterogeneous catalysis is presented as a well-developed science with contributions from an international panel of chemists, physicists and metallurgists. The books are destined to become a fundamental and indispensable reference source for all those studying the nature of solid surfaces and catalysis.

Design Of Heterogeneous Catalysts

Author : Umit S. Ozkan
ISBN : 9783527625338
Genre : Science
File Size : 60. 79 MB
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This long-awaited reference source is the first book to focus on this important and hot topic. As such, it provides examples from a wide array of fields where catalyst design has been based on new insights and understanding, presenting such modern and important topics as self-assembly, nature-inspired catalysis, nano-scale architecture of surfaces and theoretical methods. With its inclusion of all the useful and powerful tools for the rational design of catalysts, this is a true "must have" book for every researcher in the field.

Catalysis And Electrocatalysis At Nanoparticle Surfaces

Author : Andrzej Wieckowski
ISBN : 9780203912713
Genre : Science
File Size : 88. 80 MB
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Illustrating developments in electrochemical nanotechnology, heterogeneous catalysis, surface science and theoretical modelling, this reference describes the manipulation, characterization, control, and application of nanoparticles for enhanced catalytic activity and selectivity. It also offers experimental and synthetic strategies in nanoscale surface science. This standard-setting work clariefies several practical methods used to control the size, shape, crystal structure, and composition of nanoparticles; simulate metal-support interactions; predict nanoparticle behavior; enhance catalytic rates in gas phases; and examine catalytic functions on wet and dry surfaces.

Advances In Catalysis

Author : Bruce C. Gates
ISBN : 0122772512
Genre : Science
File Size : 63. 45 MB
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Since 1948, this series has filled the gap between the papers that report on and the textbooks that teach in the diverse areas of catalysis research. The editors of and contributors to Advances in Catalysis are dedicated to recording progress in this area. Each volume of Advances in Catalysis contains articles covering a subject of broad interest. Advances in Catalysis 45 is dedicated to a single theme: the impact of surface science on catalysis. COVERAGE INCLUDES: · Dynamics of reactions at surfaces on time scales ranging from 10-13s to 103s · Density functional theory of adsorption and surface chemical reactions · Catalysts in action: atomic-resolution STM images elucidating elementary reactions on surfaces · Adsorption energetics and bonding: femtomole calorimetry and first-principles theory · Active sites on oxide catalysts: from single crystals to powders · Model supported catalysts: metal particles on well-ordered oxide layers · Vibrational spectra of reaction intermediates on catalyst surfaces by sum frequency generation

Electro Catalysis At Chemically Modified Solid Surfaces

Author : Simonet Jacques
ISBN : 9781786342454
Genre : Science
File Size : 46. 69 MB
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This book documents Professor Jacques Simonet's contribution to building new electrode materials and their related catalytic reactions. Research includes synthesis of new alloys of palladium, discovery of new composite electrodes (including gold- and silver-graphene) and the creation of new materials through judicious cathodic or anodic doping. Additionally, studies demonstrate the malleability and reactivity of previously unused precious and semi-precious metals for the creation of 2D and 3D catalytic materials. Studies key to innovative research show how transition metals may reversibly cathodically insert small size electro-active molecules such as CO2 and O2, and be applied to methods of depollution brought by carbon and nitrogen oxides. Written for practical use, Simonet has provided both theory and tools needed for those aiming to recreate and develop his experiments in electrochemical catalysis and surface modifications. This full publication of research gives graduate and post-graduate students of chemistry, electrochemistry and catalysis an in-depth insight into key historical and modern developments in the field.

Spillover And Mobility Of Species On Solid Surfaces

Author : A. Guerrero-Ruiz
ISBN : 0080539742
Genre : Science
File Size : 76. 69 MB
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"Spillover and Mobility of Species and Solid Surfaces" collects the papers which were presented at the Fifth International Conference Spillover, either as oral or poster contributions, as well as the summaries of the invited lectures. This congress and its publication in the Studies on Surface Science and Catalysis series follow the tradition of previous conferences on spillover, initiated in Lyon, 1983, and continued in Leipzig, 1989, Kyoto 1993 and Dalian, 1997. For the fifth conference, held in S.L. el Escorial (Madrid), the organising committee has attempted to compile representative contributions which illustrate the advances in understanding the spillover phenomenon since 1997. Spillover is a process taking place during the interface of gas reactant molecules (mainly hydrogen and oxygen) on solid surfaces. However, different contributions to the more general area of the chemistry at surfaces, related with the mobility and migration of species, diffusion through membranes, fuel cell catalysts, etc., have also been included. In fact the title of the present volume summarizes this attempt to extend the conference topics towards dynamics at surfaces. Among the 70 contributions received, the 56 accepted papers were selected on the basis of the reports of at least two international reviewers, according to standards comparable to those applied for other specialised journals. These papers are from 21 different countries.

Chemical Physics Of Surfaces Catalysis And Membranes

Author : Per-Olov Löwdin
ISBN : STANFORD:36105031608537
Genre : Catalysis
File Size : 88. 11 MB
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Heterogeneous Catalytic Materials

Author : Guido Busca
ISBN : 9780444595218
Genre : Science
File Size : 31. 70 MB
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Heterogeneous Catalytic Materials discusses experimental methods and the latest developments in three areas of research: heterogeneous catalysis; surface chemistry; and the chemistry of catalysts. Catalytic materials are those solids that allow the chemical reaction to occur efficiently and cost-effectively. This book provides you with all necessary information to synthesize, characterize, and relate the properties of a catalyst to its behavior, enabling you to select the appropriate catalyst for the process and reactor system. Oxides (used both as catalysts and as supports for catalysts), mixed and complex oxides and salts, halides, sulfides, carbides, and unsupported and supported metals are all considered. The book encompasses applications in industrial chemistry, refinery, petrochemistry, biomass conversion, energy production, and environmental protection technologies. Provides a systematic and clear approach of the synthesis, solid state chemistry and surface chemistry of all solid state catalysts Covers widely used instrumental techniques for catalyst characterization, such as x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and more Includes characterization methods and lists all catalytic behavior of the solid state catalysts Discusses new developments in nanocatalysts and their advantages over conventional catalysts

Scanning Tunneling Microscopy In Surface Science Nanoscience And Catalysis

Author : Michael Bowker
ISBN : 3527628835
Genre : Science
File Size : 23. 65 MB
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Here, top international authors in the field of STM and surface science present first-class contributions on this hot topic, bringing the reader up to date with the latest developments in this rapidly advancing field. The focus is on the nanoscale, particularly in relation to catalysis, involving developments in our understanding of the nature of the surfaces of oxides and nanoparticulate materials, as well as adsorption, and includes in-situ studies of catalysis on such model materials. Of high interest to practitioners of surface science, nanoscience, STM and catalysis.

Catalysis And Surface Characterisation

Author : T. J. Dines
ISBN : UCAL:B4477267
Genre : Science
File Size : 30. 49 MB
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Catalysis and Surface Characterisation documents the latest research in the field within the UK and EC and focuses mainly on spectroscopic methods, although other techniques are included. The book reports many novel investigations and as such represents the state-of-the-art in catalyst characterisation. In the past three decades heterogeneous catalysis has developed from methodology largely relying upon trial and error into a science embracing diverse aspects of chemistry and physics. Central to this progress have been the advances in spectroscopic and other techniques, which have led to a better understanding of surfaces. Industrial applications have provided the major impetus for the improved understanding of catalysts that has resulted from surface characterisation; thus most of the catalysts described in this book are of current industrial importance. Catalysis and Surface Characterisation brings together in a single volume a broad cross section of the current activity in the field and is the first book to be published on the subject in the UK for some years. It is a must for researchers in both industry and academia, and will bring them up-to-date on this topic of major industrial concern.

Catalysts And Surfaces

Author : B. Viswanathan
ISBN : 1842653156
Genre : Science
File Size : 23. 36 MB
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Surfaces have always been fascinating for scientists, since nearly all chemical and biological transformations occur at the interface. In the last four decades or so, a variety of surface analytical techniques have been developed to examine both static and dynamic aspects of surfaces and interfaces. The information that could be obtained by employing these techniques can be varied, but can reach the limit of directly observing even in visual mode (by suitable microscopy) the interactions and morphologies up to molecular level resolution or deducing the nature of transformations at molecular level by appropriate electron, ion, photon induced spectroscopic techniques. There are also a variety of techniques based on thermal input. It is clear that all these analytical tools have changed our ability to examine the surfaces and surface induced transformations to a high degree of molecular resolution and the present book considers some of them with appropriate case studies.

Surface And Interfacial Organometallic Chemistry And Catalysis

Author : C. Copéret
ISBN : 3540264965
Genre : Science
File Size : 39. 60 MB
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With contributions by numerous experts

Catalysis And Surface Properties Of Liquid Metals And Alloys

Author : Yoshisada Ogino
ISBN : 9781000146912
Genre : Science
File Size : 54. 41 MB
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This book presents up-to-date information about the catalysis and surface properties of liquid metals and liquid alloys. It is intended for use by chemical engineers and researchers in catalysis, surface science, liquid metals, and chemical process technologies.

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