codes of the underworld

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Codes Of The Underworld

Author : Diego Gambetta
ISBN : 9781400833610
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 25. 36 MB
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How do criminals communicate with each other? Unlike the rest of us, people planning crimes can't freely advertise their goods and services, nor can they rely on formal institutions to settle disputes and certify quality. They face uniquely intense dilemmas as they grapple with the basic problems of whom to trust, how to make themselves trusted, and how to handle information without being detected by rivals or police. In this book, one of the world's leading scholars of the mafia ranges from ancient Rome to the gangs of modern Japan, from the prisons of Western countries to terrorist and pedophile rings, to explain how despite these constraints, many criminals successfully stay in business. Diego Gambetta shows that as villains balance the lure of criminal reward against the fear of dire punishment, they are inspired to unexpected feats of subtlety and ingenuity in communication. He uncovers the logic of the often bizarre ways in which inveterate and occasional criminals solve their dilemmas, such as why the tattoos and scars etched on a criminal's body function as lines on a professional résumé, why inmates resort to violence to establish their position in the prison pecking order, and why mobsters are partial to nicknames and imitate the behavior they see in mafia movies. Even deliberate self-harm and the disclosure of their crimes are strategically employed by criminals to convey important messages. By deciphering how criminals signal to each other in a lawless universe, this gruesomely entertaining and incisive book provides a quantum leap in our ability to make sense of their actions.

The Mayan Code

Author : Barbara Hand Clow
ISBN : 9781591439998
Genre : Body, Mind & Spirit
File Size : 78. 34 MB
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Bestselling author Barbara Hand Clow shows how the Mayan Calendar is a bridge to galactic wisdom that fosters personal growth and human evolution • Unearths the meaning behind the calendar, its message for modern civilization, and what will happen when the calendar ends • Reveals how time acceleration is a manifestation of the acceleration of consciousness • By the author of The Pleiadian Agenda The Mayan Code is a deep exploration of how, as we approach the end of the Mayan Calendar, time and consciousness are accelerating, giving us a new understanding of the universe. Using Carl Johan Calleman’s research, as well as the ideas of other Mayan Calendar scholars, Barbara Hand Clow examines 16.4 billion years of evolution to decode the creative patterns of Earth--the World Mind. These great patterns culminate in 2011, and then during 2012 major astrological influences will inspire us to attain oneness and enlightenment. The Mayan Code shows how the time cycles of the Calendar match important periods in the evolutionary data banks of Earth and the Milky Way Galaxy. These stages of evolution are converging during the final stage of the Calendar, the period between 1999 and 2011. War and territoriality, resource management and separation from nature, are all part of daily events we must process during these few short years: evidence of the tightening spiral of time that we experience as time speeding up. Barbara Hand Clow counsels that our own personal healing is the most important factor as we prepare to make this critical leap in human evolution--now referred to as the awakening of the World Mind.

The Social Order Of The Underworld

Author : David Skarbek
ISBN : 9780199328505
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 59. 48 MB
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This book challenges the widely held view that inmates create prison gangs to promote racism and violence. On the contrary, gangs form to create order. Most people assume that violent inmates left to themselves will descend into a chaotic anarchy, but that's not necessarily the case. This book studies the hidden order of the prison underworld to understand how order arises among outlaws. It uses economics to explore the secret world of the convict culture, inmate hierarchy, and prison gang politics. Inmates engaged in illegal activity cannot rely entirely on state-based governance institutions, such as courts of law and the police, to create order. Correctional officers will not resolve a dispute over a heroin deal gone wrong or help kill a predatory rapist. Yet, the inmate social system is relatively orderly and underground markets flourish. In today's prisons, gangs play a pivotal role in protecting inmates and facilitating illicit commerce. They have sophisticated internal structures and often rely on elaborate written constitutions. To maintain social order, gangs adjudicate conflicts and orchestrate strategic acts of violence to negotiate the competing demands of inmates, gang members, and correctional officers. This book uses economics to explain why prison gangs form, how formal institutions affect them, and why they have a powerful influence even over crime beyond prison walls. Economics explains the seemingly irrational, truly astonishing, and often tragic world of life among the society of captives.

The Book Of Codes

Author : Paul Lunde
ISBN : 0520260139
Genre : History
File Size : 84. 29 MB
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Looks at the history of a variety of signs, symbols, ciphers, and codes in all areas of society, discussing their development, how codes were broken, and how codes were used in secret societies.

Engineers Of Jihad

Author : Diego Gambetta
ISBN : 9781400888122
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 29. 94 MB
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The violent actions of a few extremists can alter the course of history, yet there persists a yawning gap between the potential impact of these individuals and what we understand about them. In Engineers of Jihad, Diego Gambetta and Steffen Hertog uncover two unexpected facts, which they imaginatively leverage to narrow that gap: they find that a disproportionate share of Islamist radicals come from an engineering background, and that Islamist and right-wing extremism have more in common than either does with left-wing extremism, in which engineers are absent while social scientists and humanities students are prominent. Searching for an explanation, they tackle four general questions about extremism: Under which socioeconomic conditions do people join extremist groups? Does the profile of extremists reflect how they self-select into extremism or how groups recruit them? Does ideology matter in sorting who joins which group? Lastly, is there a mindset susceptible to certain types of extremism? Using rigorous methods and several new datasets, they explain the link between educational discipline and type of radicalism by looking at two key factors: the social mobility (or lack thereof) for engineers in the Muslim world, and a particular mindset seeking order and hierarchy that is found more frequently among engineers. Engineers' presence in some extremist groups and not others, the authors argue, is a proxy for individual traits that may account for the much larger question of selective recruitment to radical activism. Opening up markedly new perspectives on the motivations of political violence, Engineers of Jihad yields unexpected answers about the nature and emergence of extremism.

Liars And Outliers

Author : Bruce Schneier
ISBN : 9781118239018
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 41. 2 MB
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In today's hyper-connected society, understanding the mechanisms of trust is crucial. Issues of trust are critical to solving problems as diverse as corporate responsibility, global warming, and the political system. In this insightful and entertaining book, Schneier weaves together ideas from across the social and biological sciences to explain how society induces trust. He shows the unique role of trust in facilitating and stabilizing human society. He discusses why and how trust has evolved, why it works the way it does, and the ways the information society is changing everything.

The Paradox Of Self Harm In Prison Psychopathy Or An Evolved Coping Strategy

Author : Julia Griller
ISBN : 9783954896615
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 21. 32 MB
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Deliberate self-harm (DSH) refers to intentionally self-inflicted injuries, and is mainly explained by abuse or neglect, severe psychopathy or at least a trait of a mental disorder. Most functions of DSH serve intrapersonal motives but interpersonal reasons are also found. These range from seeking for attention, pity and sympathy, to benefits like care, help or avoidance of unpleasant tasks or persons. To the latter belongs the deterrence of assaulters, a benefit, especially desirable for prisoners due to the hostile and brutal environment of prisons. This book scrutinizes two hypotheses of avoidance of attacks in prisons by the use of episodes of DSH as costly signals building upon the signaling theory developed in economics and biology. The first hypothesis is that DSH is an honest signal of fearlessness intended to repel other inmates from attacking. The second deals with the avoidance of assaulters by signaling madness via DSH to achieve relocation into an asylum. The underlying motive in this case is the need of protection, and thus, DSH serves as a cry for help to prison authorities. All necessary requirements of both hypotheses are examined, provided with evidence from existing research and analyzed with the help of mathematical models.

Little Boy Blue

Author : Edward Bunker
ISBN : 9781466841659
Genre : Fiction
File Size : 90. 59 MB
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Raised within the confines of a system that has done nothing but provide him with pain, Alex Hamilton's frustration and anger are completely natural--and inherently dangerous. Since his parents split up, Alex has been constantly running from foster homes and institutions, yearning to be with his father, a broken man who cannot give his son the home he desperately needs. The only constant in Alex's life is no-good, criminally-minded peers, who are all too ready to plant illegal ideas in an intelligent mind. Bunker writes, "His unique potential would develop into unique destructiveness."

The Animal Factory

Author : Edward Bunker
ISBN : 9781466852976
Genre : Fiction
File Size : 30. 96 MB
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The Animal Factory goes deep into San Quentin, a world of violence and paranoia, where territory and status are ever-changing and possibly fatal commodities. Ron Decker is a newbie, a drug dealer whose shot at a short two-year stint in the can is threatened from inside and outside. He's got to keep a spotless record or it's ten to life. But at San Quentin, no man can steer clear of the Brotherhoods, the race wars, the relentlessness. It soon becomes clear that some inmates are more equal than others; Earl Copen is one of them, an old-timer who has learned not just to survive but to thrive behind bars. Not much can surprise him-but the bond he forms with Ron startles them both; it's a true education of a felon.

Policing Transnational Organized Crime And Corruption

Author : M. Congram
ISBN : 9781137333797
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 65. 28 MB
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Examining the role of communication interception technology (CIT) in the investigation of transnational organised crime, the authors demonstrate that a proactive intelligence-led policing framework and a re-evaluation of the constraints of CIT are required to combat the international issue of corruption.

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