cognitive-technology-volume-113

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Humane Interfaces

Author : J.P. Marsh
ISBN : 0080552137
Genre : Computers
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Ever since the first successful International Cognitive Technology (CT) Conference in Hong Kong in August 1995, a growing concern about the dehumanising potential of machines, and the machining potential of the human mind, has pervaded the organisers' thinking. When setting up the agenda for the Second International CT Conference in Aizu, Japan, in August of 1997, they were aware that a number of new approaches had seen the light, but that the need to integrate them within a human framework had become more urgent than ever, due to the accelerating pace of technological and commercialised developments in the computer related fields of industry and research What the present book does is re-emphasize the importance of the 'human factor' - not as something that we should 'also' take into account, when doing technology, but as the primary driving force and supreme aim of our technological endeavours. Machining the human should not happen, but humanising the machine should. La Humacha should replace the Hemachine in our thinking about these matters.

Handbook Of Reading Research Volume Iii

Author : Michael L. Kamil
ISBN : 9781351779586
Genre : Education
File Size : 75. 86 MB
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In Volume III, as in Volumes I and II, the classic topics of reading are included--from vocabulary and comprehension to reading instruction in the classroom--and, in addition, each contributor was asked to include a brief history that chronicles the legacies within each of the volume's many topics. However, on the whole, Volume III is not about tradition. Rather, it explores the verges of reading research between the time Volume II was published in 1991 and the research conducted after this date. The editors identified two broad themes as representing the myriad of verges that have emerged since Volumes I and II were published: (1) broadening the definition of reading, and (2) broadening the reading research program. The particulars of these new themes and topics are addressed.

Concise Encyclopedia Of Pragmatics

Author : J.L. Mey
ISBN : 008096298X
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 51. 13 MB
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Concise Encyclopedia of Pragmatics, Second Edition (COPE) is an authoritative single-volume reference resource comprehensively describing the discipline of pragmatics, an important branch of natural language study dealing with the study of language in it's entire user-related theoretical and practical complexity. As a derivative volume from Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, Second Edition, it comprises contributions from the foremost scholars of semantics in their various specializations and draws on 20+ years of development in the parent work in a compact and affordable format. Principally intended for tertiary level inquiry and research, this will be invaluable as a reference work for undergraduate and postgraduate students as well as academics inquiring into the study of meaning and meaning relations within languages. As pragmatics is a centrally important and inherently cross-cutting area within linguistics, it will therefore be relevant not just for meaning specialists, but for most linguistic audiences. Edited by Jacob Mey, a leading pragmatics specialist, and authored by experts The latest trends in the field authoritatively reviewed and interpreted in context of related disciplines Drawn from the richest, most authoritative, comprehensive and internationally acclaimed reference resource in the linguistics area Compact and affordable single volume reference format

Encyclopedia Of Language And Linguistics

Author :
ISBN : 9780080547848
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
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The first edition of ELL (1993, Ron Asher, Editor) was hailed as "the field's standard reference work for a generation". Now the all-new second edition matches ELL's comprehensiveness and high quality, expanded for a new generation, while being the first encyclopedia to really exploit the multimedia potential of linguistics. * The most authoritative, up-to-date, comprehensive, and international reference source in its field * An entirely new work, with new editors, new authors, new topics and newly commissioned articles with a handful of classic articles * The first Encyclopedia to exploit the multimedia potential of linguistics through the online edition * Ground-breaking and International in scope and approach * Alphabetically arranged with extensive cross-referencing * Available in print and online, priced separately. The online version will include updates as subjects develop ELL2 includes: * c. 7,500,000 words * c. 11,000 pages * c. 3,000 articles * c. 1,500 figures: 130 halftones and 150 colour * Supplementary audio, video and text files online * c. 3,500 glossary definitions * c. 39,000 references * Extensive list of commonly used abbreviations * List of languages of the world (including information on no. of speakers, language family, etc.) * Approximately 700 biographical entries (now includes contemporary linguists) * 200 language maps in print and online Also available online via ScienceDirect – featuring extensive browsing, searching, and internal cross-referencing between articles in the work, plus dynamic linking to journal articles and abstract databases, making navigation flexible and easy. For more information, pricing options and availability visit www.info.sciencedirect.com. The first Encyclopedia to exploit the multimedia potential of linguistics Ground-breaking in scope - wider than any predecessor An invaluable resource for researchers, academics, students and professionals in the fields of: linguistics, anthropology, education, psychology, language acquisition, language pathology, cognitive science, sociology, the law, the media, medicine & computer science. The most authoritative, up-to-date, comprehensive, and international reference source in its field

Cognitive Technology

Author : J.L. Mey
ISBN : 0080529313
Genre : Computers
File Size : 74. 28 MB
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In this book the editors have gathered a number of contributions by persons who have been working on problems of Cognitive Technology (CT). The present collection initiates explorations of the human mind via the technologies the mind produces. These explorations take as their point of departure the question What happens when humans produce new technologies? Two interdependent perspectives from which such a production can be approached are adopted: • How and why constructs that have their origins in human mental life are embodied in physical environments when people fabricate their habitat, even to the point of those constructs becoming that very habitat • How and why these fabricated habitats affect, and feed back into, human mental life. The aim of the CT research programme is to determine, in general, which technologies, and in particular, which interactive computer-based technologies, are humane with respect to the cognitive development and evolutionary adaptation of their end users. But what does it really mean to be humane in a technological world? To shed light on this central issue other pertinent questions are raised, e.g. • Why are human minds externalised, i.e., what purpose does the process of externalisation serve? • What can we learn about the human mind by studying how it externalises itself? • How does the use of externalised mental constructs (the objects we call 'tools') change people fundamentally? • To what extent does human interaction with technology serve as an amplification of human cognition, and to what extent does it lead to a atrophy of the human mind? The book calls for a reflection on what a tool is. Strong parallels between CT and environmentalism are drawn: both are seen as trends having originated in our need to understand how we manipulate, by means of the tools we have created, our natural habitat consisting of, on the one hand, the cognitive environment which generates thought and determines action, and on the other hand, the physical environment in which thought and action are realised. Both trends endeavour to protect the human habitat from the unwanted or uncontrolled impact of technology, and are ultimately concerned with the ethics and aesthetics of tool design and tool use. Among the topics selected by the contributors to the book, the following themes emerge (the list is not exhaustive): using technology to empower the cognitively impaired; the ethics versus aesthetics of technology; the externalisation of emotive and affective life and its special dialectic ('mirror') effects; creativity enhancement: cognitive space, problem tractability; externalisation of sensory life and mental imagery; the engineering and modelling aspects of externalised life; externalised communication channels and inner dialogue; externalised learning protocols; relevance analysis as a theoretical framework for cognitive technology.

The Impact Of Ict On Literacy Education

Author : Richard Andrews
ISBN : 9781134446995
Genre : Education
File Size : 68. 96 MB
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This authoritative landmark text examines the highly topical and important issue of ICT in literacy learning. Its distinctive focus on providing a systematic review of research in the field gives the reader an essential, comprehensive overview. As governments worldwide continue to invest heavily in ICT provisions in educational institutions, this book addresses the need to gather and synthesise evidence about the impact of ICT on literacy learning. An expert team of writers draw upon two recent reports by the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development, which highlighted the considerable differences between nations in the access and use of ICT, to take a discursive and expansive look at the subject. Within its wide range and scope, chapters cover areas on: * the history of literacy and ICT * evidence for the effectiveness of ICT on literacy learning * the impact of networked ICT on literacy learning * the relationship between verbal and visual literacies. This book will be an invaluable and informative read with international resonance for student teachers, teachers, academics and researchers worldwide.

Technology Based Learning Environments

Author : Stella Vosniadou
ISBN : 9783642791499
Genre : Computers
File Size : 56. 7 MB
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The present volume contains a large number of the papers contributed to the Advanced Study Institute on the Psychological and Educational Foundations of Technology-Based Learning Environments, which took place in Crete in the summer of 1992. The purpose of the Advanced Study Institute was to bring together a small number of senior lecturers and advanced graduate students to investigate and discuss the psychological and educational foundations of technology-based learning environments and to draw the implications of recent research findings in the area of cognitive science for the development of educational technology. As is apparent from the diverse nature of the contributions included in this volume, the participants at the ASI came from different backgrounds and looked at the construction of technology -based learning environments from rather diverse points of view. Despite the diversity, a surprising degree of overlap and agreement was achieved. Most of the contributors agreed that the kinds of technology-supported learning environments we should construct should stimulate students to be active and constructive in their knowledge-building efforts, embed learning in meaningful and authentic activities, encourage collaboration and social interaction, and take into consideration students' prior knowledge and beliefs.

Discourse Tools And Reasoning

Author : Lauren B. Resnick
ISBN : 9783662033623
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 81. 15 MB
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Not long ago, projections of how office technologies would revolutionize the production of documents in a high-tech future carriedmany promises. The paper less office and the seamless and problem-free sharing of texts and other work materials among co-workers werejust around the corner, we were told. To anyone who has been involved in putting together a volume of the present kind, such forecasts will be met with considerable skepticism, if not outright distrust. The diskette, the email, the fax, the net, and all the other forms of communication that are now around are powerful assets, but they do not in any way reduce the flow of paper or the complexity of coordinating activities involved in producing an artifact such as a book. Instead, the reverse seems to be true. Obviously, the use of such tools requires considerable skill at the center of coordination, to borrow an expression from a chapter in this volume. As editors, we have been fortunate to have Ms. Lotta Strand, Linkoping University, at the center of the distributed activity that producing this volume has required over the last few years. With her considerable skill and patience, Ms. Strand and her work provide a powerful illustration of the main thrust of most of the chapters in this volume: Practice is a coordination of thinking and action, and many things had to be kept in mind during the production of this volume.

Engineering Psychology And Cognitive Ergonomics

Author : Don Harris
ISBN : 9781351568234
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 36. 11 MB
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This is the second of two edited volumes from an international group of researchers and specialists, which together comprise the edited proceedings of the First International Conference on Engineering Psychology and Cognitive Ergonomics, organized by Cranfield College of Aeronautics at Stratford-upon-Avon, England in October 1996. The applications areas include aerospace and other transportation, human-computer interaction, process control and training technology. Topics addressed include: the design of control and display systems; human perception, error, reliability, information processing, and human perception, error, reliability, information processing, and awareness, skill acquisition and retention; techniques for evaluating human-machine systems and the physiological correlates of performance. While Volume one is more clearly focused on the domain of aviation and ground transportation, Volume two is concerned with human factors in job and product design, the basics of decision making and training, with relevance to all industrial domains. Part one opens with a keynote chapter by Ken Eason. It is followed by Part two dealing with learning and training, while Part three reflects the rapidly growing area of medical ergonomics. Part four entitled 'Applied Cognitive Psychology' is biased towards human capabilities, an understanding of which is central to sound human engineering decisions. Part five firmly emphasizes equipment rather than its human operators.

Real Time Computing

Author : Alexander D. Stoyenko
ISBN : 9783642880490
Genre : Computers
File Size : 84. 50 MB
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NATO's Division of Scientific and Environmental Affairs sponsored this Advan ced Study Institute because it was felt to be timely to cover this important and challengjng subject for the first time in the framework of NATO's ASI programme. The significance of real-time systems in everyones' life is rapidly growing. The vast spectrum of these systems can be characterised by just a few examples of increasing complexity: controllers in washing machines, air traffic control systems, control and safety systems of nuclear power plants and, finally, future military systems like the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI). The import ance of such systems for the well-being of people requires considerable efforts in research and development of highly reliable real-time systems. Furthermore, the competitiveness and prosperity of entire nations now depend on the early app lication and efficient utilisation of computer integrated manufacturing systems (CIM), of which real-time systems are an essential and decisive part. Owing to its key significance in computerised defence systems, real-time computing has also a special importance for the Alliance. The early research and development activities in this field in the 1960s and 1970s aimed towards improving the then unsatisfactory software situation. Thus, the first high-level real-time languages were defined and developed: RTL/2, Coral 66, Procol, LTR, and PEARL. In close connection with these language develop ments and with the utilisation of special purpose process control peripherals, the research on real-time operating systems advanced considerably.

Collaborative Dialogue Technologies In Distance Learning

Author : M.Felisa Verdejo
ISBN : 9783642578991
Genre : Education
File Size : 47. 21 MB
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In April 1993, an interdisciplinary NATO Advanced Research Workshop on "Collaborative dialogue technologies in distance learning" was held in Segovia, Spain. The workshop brought together researchers in fields related to distance learning using computer-mediated communication. The statement of justification of the NATO ARW follows hereafter. Justification of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Collaborative Dialogue Technologies in Distance Learning Computer Mediated Communication (CMC) systems have features that reduce some temporal, physical and social constraints on communication. Theories of communication have shifted from viewing communication as a linear transmission of messages by a sender to a receiver, to viewing it as a social paradigm, where individuals are actors in a network of interdependent relationships embedded in organizational and social structures. Recent research focuses on models of information-sharing to support not only the activities of individuals but also the problem-solving activities of groups, such as decision-making, planning or co writing. This area of research is called Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW). The Artificial Intelligence (AI) approach uses knowledge-based systems to enhance and facilitate all these processes, including the possibility of using natural language. The traditional model of distance education places a strong emphasis on indepen dent study, supported by well developed learning materials. This model can be characterized as one-way media. However, the potential of CMC to provide better guidance to the student in Higher Distance Education has been quickly recognized for at least two kind of activities: information sharing and interaction.

Computational Intelligence Soft Computing And Fuzzy Neuro Integration With Applications

Author : Okyay Kaynak
ISBN : 3540640045
Genre : Computers
File Size : 50. 92 MB
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Soft computing is a consortium of computing methodologies that provide a foundation for the conception, design, and deployment of intelligent systems and aims to formalize the human ability to make rational decisions in an environment of uncertainty and imprecision. This book is based on a NATO Advanced Study Institute held in 1996 on soft computing and its applications. The distinguished contributors consider the principal constituents of soft computing, namely fuzzy logic, neurocomputing, genetic computing, and probabilistic reasoning, the relations between them, and their fusion in industrial applications. Two areas emphasized in the book are how to achieve a synergistic combination of the main constituents of soft computing and how the combination can be used to achieve a high Machine Intelligence Quotient.

Safety Science Research

Author : Jean-Christophe Le Coze
ISBN : 9781351190213
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 49. 30 MB
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Safety Science Research: Evolution, Challenges and New Directions provides a unique perspective into the latest developments of safety science by putting together, for the first time, a new generation of authors with some of the pioneers of the field. Forty years ago, research traditions were developed, including, among others, high-reliability organisations, cognitive system engineering or safety regulations. In a fast-changing world, the new generation introduces, in this book, new disciplinary insights, addresses contemporary empirical issues, develops new concepts and models while remaining critical of safety research practical ambitions. Their ideas are then reflected and discussed by some of the pioneers of safety science. Features Allows the reader to discover how contemporary safety issues are currently framed by a new generation of researchers, brought together for the first time Includes an introduction and guide to the development of safety science over the last four decades Features an extraordinary collection of expert contributors, including pioneers of safety research, reflecting the evolution of the discipline and offering insightful commentary on the current and future state of the field Serves as an invaluable reference and guide for safety professionals and students from any established disciplines such as sociology, engineering, psychology, political science or management as well as dedicated safety programmes Some figures in the eBook are in colour

Speech Recognition And Coding

Author : Antonio J. Rubio Ayuso
ISBN : 9783642577451
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 49. 32 MB
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Based on a NATO Advanced Study Institute held in 1993, this book addresses recent advances in automatic speech recognition and speech coding. The book contains contributions by many of the most outstanding researchers from the best laboratories worldwide in the field. The contributions have been grouped into five parts: on acoustic modeling; language modeling; speech processing, analysis and synthesis; speech coding; and vector quantization and neural nets. For each of these topics, some of the best-known researchers were invited to give a lecture. In addition to these lectures, the topics were complemented with discussions and presentations of the work of those attending. Altogether, the reader is given a wide perspective on recent advances in the field and will be able to see the trends for future work.

Advanced Educational Technology Research Issues And Future Potential

Author : Thomas T. Liao
ISBN : 9783642609688
Genre : Education
File Size : 71. 43 MB
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As we approach the 21st century, the need to better link research findings and practical applications of advanced educational technologies (AET) continues to be a priority. During the five-year NATO Special Programme on AET, many advanced study institutes and research workshops focused on building bridges between researchers in and users of educational technology. The organizing committee of the final capstone workshop which took place in September 1993 also chose to focus on this theme. Three position papers, written by members of the AET advisory committee, provided the background and platform for the two-day workshop that was designed to provide guidelines for future AET research and implementation projects. Nicolas Balacheff kicked off the workshop with a philosophical review of the research issues and future research agendas. Herman Bouma and his colleagues at the Institute for Perception Research discussed implementation issues and problems of technology transfer from research laboratories to educational product development.

Advances In Object Oriented Database Systems

Author : Asuman Dogac
ISBN : 9783642579394
Genre : Computers
File Size : 85. 23 MB
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Object-oriented database management systems (OODBMSs) have generated significant excitement in the database community in the last decade. This interest stems from a real need for data management support for what are called "advanced application areas" that are not well-served by relational technology. The case for object-oriented technology has been made on three fronts. First is the data modeling requirements of the new applications. Some of the more important shortcomings of the relational systems in meeting the requirements of these applications include: 1. Relational systems deal with a single object type: a relation. A relation is used to model different real-world objects, but the semantics of this association is not part of the database. Furthermore, the attributes of a relation may come only from simple and fixed data type domains (numeric, character, and, sometimes, date types). Advanced applications require explicit storage and manipulation of more abstract types (e.g., images, design documents) and the ability for the users to define their own application-specific types. Therefore, a rich type system supporting user defined abstract types is required. 2. The relational model structures data in a relatively simple and flat manner. Non traditional applications require more complex object structures with nested objects (e.g., a vehicle object containing an engine object).

Automating Instructional Design Development And Delivery

Author : Robert D. Tennyson
ISBN : 9783642783890
Genre : Computers
File Size : 63. 87 MB
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This workshop was organized and presented by an international group of scholars interested in the advancement of automating instructional design. Although the principal leader for this effort was myself, each of the committee members devoted equally in time and effort in the total preparation and conducting of the workshop. Members of the organizing committee included Dr. Klaus Breuer from disce and the University ofPaderbom (Germany), Dr. Begofia Gros from the University of Barcelona, and Dr. Daniel Muraida and Dr. Michael Spector from the Armstrong Laboratory (USA). Dr. Gros participated as the co-director of the workshop and was directly responsible for the preparation and operation of the workshop in Sitges, Spain. The workshop was held in Sitges, a short distance from Barcelona, March 23-27, 1992. Because of preparations at that time for the 1992 summer Olympic Games in Barcelona, the workshop was moved to a more convenient location. The theme of the workshop included three main topics: planning, production, and implementation. Dr. Peter Goodyear, from the Lancaster University (England), presented the invited keynote address. During the four day workshop, 14 papers were presented and discussed. Following each of the three topic areas, Drs. Gros and Breuer led discussions critiquing the ideas presented.

From Statistics To Neural Networks

Author : Vladimir Cherkassky
ISBN : 9783642791192
Genre : Computers
File Size : 25. 75 MB
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The NATO Advanced Study Institute From Statistics to Neural Networks, Theory and Pattern Recognition Applications took place in Les Arcs, Bourg Saint Maurice, France, from June 21 through July 2, 1993. The meeting brought to gether over 100 participants (including 19 invited lecturers) from 20 countries. The invited lecturers whose contributions appear in this volume are: L. Almeida (INESC, Portugal), G. Carpenter (Boston, USA), V. Cherkassky (Minnesota, USA), F. Fogelman Soulie (LRI, France), W. Freeman (Berkeley, USA), J. Friedman (Stanford, USA), F. Girosi (MIT, USA and IRST, Italy), S. Grossberg (Boston, USA), T. Hastie (AT&T, USA), J. Kittler (Surrey, UK), R. Lippmann (MIT Lincoln Lab, USA), J. Moody (OGI, USA), G. Palm (U1m, Germany), B. Ripley (Oxford, UK), R. Tibshirani (Toronto, Canada), H. Wechsler (GMU, USA), C. Wellekens (Eurecom, France) and H. White (San Diego, USA). The ASI consisted of lectures overviewing major aspects of statistical and neural network learning, their links to biological learning and non-linear dynamics (chaos), and real-life examples of pattern recognition applications. As a result of lively interactions between the participants, the following topics emerged as major themes of the meeting: (1) Unified framework for the study of Predictive Learning in Statistics and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs); (2) Differences and similarities between statistical and ANN methods for non parametric estimation from examples (learning); (3) Fundamental connections between artificial learning systems and biological learning systems.

Proof And Computation

Author : Helmut Schwichtenberg
ISBN : 9783642793615
Genre : Computers
File Size : 81. 39 MB
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Logical concepts and methods are of growing importance in many areas of computer science. The proofs-as-programs paradigm and the wide acceptance of Prolog show this clearly. The logical notion of a formal proof in various constructive systems can be viewed as a very explicit way to describe a computation procedure. Also conversely, the development of logical systems has been influenced by accumulating knowledge on rewriting and unification techniques. This volume contains a series of lectures by leading researchers giving a presentation of new ideas on the impact of the concept of a formal proof on computation theory. The subjects covered are: specification and abstract data types, proving techniques, constructive methods, linear logic, and concurrency and logic.

Fundamentals In Handwriting Recognition

Author : Sebastiano Impedovo
ISBN : 9783642786464
Genre : Computers
File Size : 29. 76 MB
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For many years researchers in the field of Handwriting Recognition were considered to be working in an area of minor importance in Pattern Recog nition. They had only the possibility to present the results of their research at general conferences such as the ICPR or publish their papers in journals such as some of the IEEE series or PR, together with many other papers generally oriented to the more promising areas of Pattern Recognition. The series of International Workshops on Frontiers in Handwriting Recog nition and International Conferences on Document Analysis and Recognition together with some special issues of several journals are now fulfilling the expectations of many researchers who have been attracted to this area and are involving many academic institutions and industrial companies. But in order to facilitate the introduction of young researchers into the field and give them both theoretically and practically powerful tools, it is now time that some high level teaching schools in handwriting recognition be held, also in order to unite the foundations of the field. Therefore it was my pleasure to organize the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Fundamentals in Handwriting Recognition that had its origin in many exchanges among the most important specialists in the field, during the International Workshops on Frontiers in Handwriting Recognition.

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