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Reasons And Persons

Author : Derek Parfit
ISBN : 9780191622441
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 66. 57 MB
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This book challenges, with several powerful arguments, some of our deepest beliefs about rationality, morality, and personal identity. The author claims that we have a false view of our own nature; that it is often rational to act against our own best interests; that most of us have moral views that are directly self-defeating; and that, when we consider future generations the conclusions will often be disturbing. He concludes that moral non-religious moral philosophy is a young subject, with a promising but unpredictable future.

Derek Parfit S Reasons And Persons

Author : Andrea Sauchelli
ISBN : 0429488459
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 29. 43 MB
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"Derek Parfit (1942-2017) is widely considered to be one of the most important moral philosophers of the Twentieth Century. Reasons and Persons is arguably the most influential of the two books published in his lifetime and hailed as a classic work of ethics and personal identity. Derek Parfit's Reasons and Persons: An Introduction and Critical Inquiry is an outstanding introduction to and assessment of Parfit's book, with chapters by leading scholars of ethics, metaphysics and of Parfit's work. Part One provides a much-needed introduction to key topics and themes in Reasons and Persons that will be useful for those new to Parfit's complex work. These include Parfit's idea of self-defeating theories, rationality and time, personal identity, future generations, and well-being. Part Two explores various debates generated by Reasons and Persons, including its connections with Buddhism, metaethics, theory of rationality, transformative choices and further developments in personal identity and metaphysics such as conativism. Combining clear exposition of the major topics and arguments in Reasons and Persons with scholarly perspectives on more advanced themes, this book is ideal for students of ethics, metaethics, metaphysics and anyone interested in Derek Parfit's philosophy"--


Author : Antonia LoLordo
ISBN : 9780190634384
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 61. 36 MB
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What is a person? Why do we count certain beings as persons and others not? How is the concept of a person distinct from the concept of a human being, or from the concept of the self? When and why did the concept of a person come into existence? What is the relationship between moral personhood and metaphysical personhood? How has their relationship changed over the last two millennia? This volume presents a genealogy of the concept of a person. It demonstrates how personhood--like the other central concepts of philosophy, law, and everyday life--has gained its significance not through definition but through the accretion of layers of meaning over centuries. We can only fully understand the concept by knowing its history. Essays show further how the concept of a person has five main strands: persons are particulars, roles, entities with special moral significance, rational beings, and selves. Thus, to count someone or something as a person is simultaneously to describe it--as a particular, a role, a rational being, and a self--and to prescribe certain norms concerning how it may act and how others may act towards it. A group of distinguished thinkers and philosophers here untangle these and other insights about personhood, asking us to reconsider our most fundamental assumptions of the self.

It Keeps Me Seeking

Author : Andrew Steane
ISBN : 9780198808282
Genre :
File Size : 88. 16 MB
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Here is a fresh look at how science contributes to the bigger picture of human flourishing, through a collage of science and philosophy, richly illustrated by the authors' own experience and personal reflection. They survey the territory of fundamental physics, machine learning, philosophy of human identity, evolutionary biology, miracles, arguments from design, naturalism, the history of ideas, and more. The natural world can be appreciated not only for itself, but also as an eloquent gesture, a narrative and a pointer beyond itself. Our human journey is not to a theorem or a treatise, but to a meeting which encompasses all our capacities. In this meeting, science is the way to find out about the structure of the physical world of which we are a part, not a means to reduce ourselves and our fellow human beings to mere objects of scrutiny, and still less to attempt the utterly futile exercise of trying to do that to God. We have intellectual permission to be open to the notion that God can be trusted and known. The material world encourages an open-hearted reaching out to something more, with a freedom to seek and to be received by what lies beyond the scope of purely impersonal descriptions and attitudes.

Making Human Dignity Central To International Human Rights Law

Author : Matthew McManus
ISBN : 9781786834652
Genre : Law
File Size : 55. 61 MB
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In recent years, there has been an explosion of writing on the topic of human dignity across a plethora of different academic disciplines. Despite this explosion of interest, there is one group – critical legal scholars – that has devoted little if any attention to human dignity. This book argues that these scholars should attend to human dignity, a concept rich enough to support a whole range of progressive ambitions, particularly in the field of international law. It synthesizes certain liberal arguments about the good of self-authorship with the critical legal philosophy of Roberto Unger and the capabilities approach to agency of Amartya Sen, to formulate a unique conception of human dignity. The author argues how human dignity flows from an individual’s capacity for self-authorship as defined by the set of expressive capabilities s/he possesses, and the book demonstrates how this conception can enrich our understanding of international human rights law by making the amplification of human dignity its fundamental orientation.

Facing Up To Scarcity

Author : Barbara Fried
ISBN : 9780198847878
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 76. 91 MB
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Facing Up to Scarcity offers a powerful critique of the nonconsequentialist approaches that have been dominant in Anglophone moral and political thought over the last fifty years. In these essays Barbara H. Fried examines the leading schools of contemporary nonconsequentialist thought, including Rawlsianism, Kantianism, libertarianism, and social contractarianism. In the realm of moral philosophy, she argues that nonconsequentialist theories grounded in the sanctity of "individual reasons" cannot solve the most important problems taken to be within their domain. Those problems, which arise from irreducible conflicts among legitimate (and often identical) individual interests, can be resolved only through large-scale interpersonal trade-offs of the sort that nonconsequentialism foundationally rejects. In addition to scrutinizing the internal logic of nonconsequentialist thought, Fried considers the disastrous social consequences when nonconsequentialist intuitions are allowed to drive public policy. In the realm of political philosophy, she looks at the treatment of distributive justice in leading nonconsequentialist theories. Here one can design distributive schemes roughly along the lines of the outcomes favoured--but those outcomes are not logically entailed by the normative premises from which they are ostensibly derived, and some are extraordinarily strained interpretations of those premises. Fried concludes, as a result, that contemporary nonconsequentialist political philosophy has to date relied on weak justifications for some very strong conclusions.

On What Matters

Author : Derek Parfit
ISBN : 9780191084379
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 43. 78 MB
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Derek Parfit presents the third volume of On What Matters, his landmark work of moral philosophy. Parfit develops further his influential treatment of reasons, normativity, the meaning of moral discourse, and the status of morality. He engages with his critics, and shows the way to resolution of their differences. This volume is partly about what it is for things to matter, in the sense that we all have reasons to care about these things. Much of the book discusses three of the main kinds of meta-ethical theory: Normative Naturalism, Quasi-Realist Expressivism, and Non-Metaphysical Non-Naturalism, which Derek Parfit now calls Non-Realist Cognitivism. This third theory claims that, if we use the word 'reality' in an ontologically weighty sense, irreducibly normative truths have no mysterious or incredible ontological implications. If instead we use 'reality' in a wide sense, according to which all truths are truths about reality, this theory claims that some non-empirically discoverable truths-such as logical, mathematical, modal, and some normative truths-raise no difficult ontological questions. Parfit discusses these theories partly by commenting on the views of some of the contributors to Peter Singer's collection Does Anything Really Matter? Parfit on Objectivity. Though Peter Railton is a Naturalist, he has widened his view by accepting some further claims, and he has suggested that this wider version of Naturalism could be combined with Non-Realist Cognitivism. Parfit argues that Railton is right, since these theories no longer deeply disagree. Though Allan Gibbard is a Quasi-Realist Expressivist, he has suggested that the best version of his view could be combined with Non-Realist Cognitivism. Parfit argues that Gibbard is right, since Gibbard and he now accept the other's main meta-ethical claim. It is rare for three such different philosophical theories to be able to be widened in ways that resolve their deepest disagreements. This happy convergence supports the view that these meta-ethical theories are true. Parfit also discusses the views of several other philosophers, and some other meta-ethical and normative questions.

Morality By Degrees

Author : Alastair Norcross
ISBN : 9780198844990
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 32. 34 MB
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In Morality by Degrees, Alastair Norcross articulates and defends a radical new approach to ethical theory. Consequentialist theories of the right connect the rightness and wrongness (and related notions) of actions with the intrinsic goodness and badness of states of affairs consequential on those actions. The most popular such theory is maximization, which is said to demand of agents that they maximize the good, that they do the best they can, at all times. Thus it may seem that consequentialist theories are overly demanding, and, relatedly, that they cannot accommodate the phenomenon of going above and beyond the demands of duty. However, a clear understanding of consequentialism leaves no room for a theory of the right, at least not at the fundamental level of the theory. A consequentialist theory, such as utilitarianism, is a theory of how to rank outcomes, and derivatively actions, which provides reasons for choosing some actions over others. It is thus a purely scalar theory, with no demands that certain actions be performed, and no fundamental classification of actions as right or wrong. However, such notions may have pragmatic benefits at the level of application, since many people find it easier to guide their conduct by simple commands, rather than to think in terms of reasons of varying strength to do one thing rather than another. A contextualist semantics for various terms, such as "right", "permissible", "harm", when combined with the scalar approach to consequentialism, allows for the expression of truth-apt propositions with sentences containing such terms.

The Persistence Of Reality

Author : Joseph Margolis
ISBN : MINN:31951D000937644
Genre : Realism
File Size : 61. 89 MB
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Kentucky Law Journal

Author :
ISBN : OSU:32437121100511
Genre : Law reviews
File Size : 79. 6 MB
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Reason Papers

Author :
ISBN : NWU:35556018385278
Genre : Social sciences
File Size : 32. 79 MB
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Law And Religion

Author : Richard O'Dair
ISBN : STANFORD:36105060991978
Genre : Law
File Size : 52. 88 MB
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'Law and Religion' is a comprehensive treatment of an area that will stimulate and enlighten anyone interested in law and religion. Both common and civil law jurisdictions and a wide variety of cultural contexts are represented.

Human Genome Research And The Challenge Of Contingent Future Persons

Author : Jan Christian Heller
ISBN : UVA:X004100647
Genre : Science
File Size : 57. 16 MB
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This text provides an investigation into how the Human Genome Project (HGP) is likely to affect future generations. It examines the implications these effects hold for evaluating HGP and other research efforts like it.

Self And Personal Identity In Indian Buddhist Scholasticism

Author : Matthew Kapstein
ISBN : STANFORD:36105043016372
Genre : Buddhism
File Size : 74. 57 MB
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Author :
ISBN : UOM:39015034357643
Genre : Human reproduction
File Size : 46. 95 MB
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Author : Michael Krausz
ISBN : UOM:39015014325438
Genre : Cultural relativism.
File Size : 49. 96 MB
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Recent years have seen a vigorous revival of interest in relativism - both in support and in opposition. This collection of 21 essays, 16 of which appear in print here for the first time, advances the discussion found in an earlier volume, Relativism: Cognitive and Moral. These present selections focus on philosophical and methodological issues of relativism by exhibiting its varieties and by rehearsing its virtues and vices. The contributions concern relativism in a wide range of practices in the human studies.

What Does Our Legal System Owe Future Generations?

Author :
ISBN : STANFORD:36105063784883
Genre : Environmental law
File Size : 39. 27 MB
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Genetic Choice Disability And Regret

Author : Eileen A. Palmer
ISBN : WISC:89059094110
Genre : Eugenics
File Size : 63. 11 MB
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Persons And Valuable Worlds

Author : Eliot Deutsch
ISBN : UOM:39015054168227
Genre : Religion
File Size : 55. 44 MB
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Convinced that the crisis in contemporary Western philosophy rises from the sundering of moral or value considerations from notions of rationality and the nature of reality, Deutsch (philosophy, U. of Hawai'i) advocates a kind of pluralistic but not relativistic philosophical anthropology, ontology, ethics, and epistemology in a cross-cultural context. Annotation copyrighted by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR.

Logos Santa Clara Calif

Author :
ISBN : STANFORD:36105008393105
Genre : Christianity
File Size : 44. 43 MB
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