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Distant Hybridization Of Crop Plants

Author : G. Kalloo
ISBN : 9783642843068
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 84. 28 MB
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Wild taxa are invaluable sources of resistance to diseases, insects/ pests, nematodes, temperature extremes, salinity and alkalinity stresses, and also of nutritional quality; adaptation; genetic diversity and new species. Utilization of wild relatives of a crop depends largely upon its crossability relations with cultivated varieties. Sev eral wild species are not crossable with the commercial cultivars due to various isolation barriers. Furthermore, in a few cases, hybridiza tion is possible only in one direction and reciprocal crosses are not successful, thus depriving the utilization of desired cytoplasm of many species. However, techniques have been developed to over come many barriers and hybrid plants are produced. New crop species have been developed by overcoming the F 1 sterility and producing amphidiploids and such crops are commercially being grown in the field. The segregation pattern ofF 1 hybrids produced by distant hybridization in segregating generations are different from the intervarietal hybrids. In former cases, generally, unidirectional segregation takes place in early generations and accordingly, selec tion procedures are adopted. In most of the cases, backcross or modified backcross methods have been followed to utilize wild species, and thus numerous types of resistance and other economical attributes have been transferred in the recurrent parents. Protoplast fusion has been amply demonstrated in a number of cases where sexual hybridization was not possible and, as a result, hybrids have been produced.

Distant Hybridization Of Crop Plants

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ISBN : 0387531734
Genre : Crops
File Size : 84. 3 MB
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Essentials Of Plant Breeding

Author : K. V. Mohanan
ISBN : 9788120339682
Genre : Plant breeding
File Size : 47. 80 MB
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Alien Gene Transfer In Crop Plants Volume 1

Author : Aditya Pratap
ISBN : 1461485843
Genre : Science
File Size : 49. 40 MB
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Genetic engineering and biotechnology along with conventional breeding have played an important role in developing superior cultivars by transferring economically important traits from distant, wild and even unrelated species to the cultivated varieties which otherwise could not have been possible with conventional breeding. There is a vast amount of literature pertaining to the genetic improvement of crops over last few decades. However, the wonderful results achieved by crop scientists in food legumes’ research and development over the years are scattered in different journals of the World. The two volumes in the series ‘Alien Gene Transfer in Crop Plants’ address this issue and offer a comprehensive reference on the developments made in major food crops of the world. These volumes aim at bringing the contributions from globally renowned scientists at one platform in a reader-friendly manner. The 1st volume entitled, ‘Alien Gene Transfer in Crop Plants: Innovations, Methods and Risk Assessment” will deal exclusively with the process and methodology. The contents of this volume have been designed to appraise the readers with all the theoretical and practical aspects of wide hybridization and gene transfer like processes and methods of gene transfer, role of biotechnology with special reference to embryo rescue, genetic transformation, protoplast fusion and molecular marker technology, problems such as cross incompatibility and barriers to distant hybridization and solutions to overcome them. Since wild and weedy relatives of crop plants may have negative traits associated with them, there are always possibilities of linkage drag while transferring alien alleles. Therefore, problems and limitations of alien gene transfer from these species will also be discussed in this series. Further, the associated risks with this and assessment of risks will also be given due weightage.

Hybridization Of Crop Plants

Author : Walter R. Fehr
ISBN : UOM:39015010069279
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 26. 12 MB
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Introduction To Plant Breeding

Author : Fred N. Briggs
ISBN : WISC:89030610372
Genre : Plant breeding
File Size : 45. 98 MB
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Perspectives in plant breeding. The evolution of cultivated plants. Plant introductions. Mode of reproduction in relation to plant-breeding methods. Variability in plants. Genes and qualitative characters. Genes and qualitative characters. Quantitative inheritance. Role of the environment in plant breeding. Selection in self-pollinated crops. Hybridization and gene combinations. Breeding self-pollinated crops by hybridization and pedigree selection. Bulk population method of breeding self-pollinated plants. The backcross method of breeding. Cross-pollinated crops. Control of cross-pollination. Selection in cross-pollinated crops. Inbreeding and heterosis. Hybrid varieties. Recurrent selection. Synthetic varieties. Autoploidy in plant breeding. Alloploidy.Aneuploids. Mutagens and crop improvement. Interspecific hybridization. Interspecific transfer of characters. Genetics of resistance to diseases and insects. Breeding for resistance to diseases and insects. Maintenance and distribution of varieties. Field-plot technique and experimental design.

Distant Hybridization In Horticultural Crops

Author : M. R. Dinesh
ISBN : 938661569X
Genre : TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING
File Size : 89. 93 MB
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Global climate is considered to be biggest challenge to the agricultural/horticultural scientists because of the need for development of climate resilient crop varieties. It has also been felt that there is a need to double the present production of fruits and vegetables to over 500 million by 2050 and to meet the growing demand of all other horticultural commodities. The presence of narrow genetic base in cultivated species is one of the major impediments for the plant breeder to develop variety/varieties for wide adaptability and yield. Hence, the utilization of wild relatives and land races in breeding programmes is the need of hour as the reservoirs of potential genes, which can be transferred to the cultivated species through hybridization. Several studies have proved that there is pre and post fertilization barriers which can be overcome through techniques such as embryo rescue, protoplast fusion, alien addition lines, alien substitution lines and ploidy manipulations, etc. The wide hybridization has been proved to be a potential method for developing many stable varieties, which can withstand various biotic and abiotic stresses. Developed and commercialized several intergeneric and interspecific hybrids in fruits, vegetables, flowers, plantation crops medicinal and aromatic plants across the globe. This book would be a valuable documents to the policy makers, researchers and more precisely to the students who are interested in pursuing the higher studies in the field of distant hybridization in horticultural crops.

Polyploidy And Hybridization For Crop Improvement

Author : Annaliese S. Mason
ISBN : 9781315352268
Genre : Science
File Size : 57. 34 MB
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Many of our current agricultural crops are natural or agricultural hybrids (between two or more species), or polyploids (containing more than one genome or set of chromosomes). These include potato, oats, cotton, oilseed rape, wheat, strawberries, kiwifruit, banana, seedless watermelon, triticale and many others. Polyploidy and hybridization can also be used for crop improvement: for example, to introgress disease resistance from wild species into crops, to produce seedless fruits for human consumption, or even to create entirely new crop types. Some crop genera have hundreds of years of interspecific hybridization and ploidy manipulation behind them, while in other genera use of these evolutionary processes for crop improvement is still at the theoretical stage. This book brings together stories and examples by expert researchers and breeders working in diverse crop genera, and details how polyploidy and hybridization processes have shaped our current crops, how these processes have been utilized for crop improvement in the past, and how polyploidy and interspecific hybridization can be used for crop improvement in the future.

Somatic Hybridization In Crop Improvement Ii

Author : Toshiyuki Nagata
ISBN : 9783642567582
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 87. 49 MB
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This richly illustrated volume describes how somatic hybrids can contribute to the improvement of crops. It comprises 24 chapters dealing with interspecific and intergeneric somatic hybridization and cybridization, providing valuable tools for plant breeders.

Proceedings Of The Summer Institute Of Parasexual Mechanisms And Distant Hybridization In Crop Improvement Held In The Department Of Genetics Haryana Agricultural University Hissar From 3rd To 30th June 1977

Author :
ISBN : CHI:26836411
Genre : Crops
File Size : 40. 87 MB
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Plant Biology And Biotechnology

Author : Bir Bahadur
ISBN : 9788132222835
Genre : Science
File Size : 58. 16 MB
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Plant genomics and biotechnology have recently made enormous strides, and hold the potential to benefit agriculture, the environment and various other dimensions of the human endeavor. It is no exaggeration to claim that the twenty-first century belongs to biotechnology. Knowledge generation in this field is growing at a frenetic pace, and keeping abreast of the latest advances and calls on us to double our efforts. Volume II of this two-part series addresses cutting-edge aspects of plant genomics and biotechnology. It includes 37 chapters contributed by over 70 researchers, each of which is an expert in his/her own field of research. Biotechnology has helped to solve many conundrums of plant life that had long remained a mystery to mankind. This volume opens with an exhaustive chapter on the role played by thale cress, Arabidopsis thaliana, which is believed to be the Drosophila of the plant kingdom and an invaluable model plant for understanding basic concepts in plant biology. This is followed by chapters on bioremediation, biofuels and biofertilizers through microalgal manipulation, making it a commercializable prospect; discerning finer details of biotic stress with plant-fungal interactions; and the dynamics of abiotic and biotic stresses, which also figure elsewhere in the book. Breeding crop plants for desirable traits has long been an endeavor of biotechnologists. The significance of molecular markers, marker assisted selection and techniques are covered in a dedicated chapter, as are comprehensive reviews on plant molecular biology, DNA fingerprinting techniques, genomic structure and functional genomics. A chapter dedicated to organellar genomes provides extensive information on this important aspect. Elsewhere in the book, the newly emerging area of epigenetics is presented as seen through the lens of biotechnology, showcasing the pivotal role of DNA methylation in effecting permanent and transient changes to the genome. Exclusive chapters deal with bioinformatics and systems biology. Handy tools for practical applications such as somatic embryogenesis and micropropagation are included to provide frontline information to entrepreneurs, as is a chapter on somaclonal variation. Overcoming barriers to sexual incompatibility has also long been a focus of biotechnology, and is addressed in chapters on wide hybridization and hybrid embryo rescue. Another area of accomplishing triploids through endosperm culture is included as a non-conventional breeding strategy. Secondary metabolite production through tissue cultures, which is of importance to industrial scientists, is also covered. Worldwide exchange of plant genetic material is currently an essential topic, as is conserving natural resources in situ. Chapters on in vitro conservation of extant, threatened and other valuable germplasms, gene banking and related issues are included, along with an extensive account of the biotechnology of spices – the low-volume, high-value crops. Metabolic engineering is another emerging field that provides commercial opportunities. As is well known, there is widespread concern over genetically modified crops among the public. GM crops are covered, as are genetic engineering strategies for combating biotic and abiotic stresses where no other solutions are in sight. RNAi- and micro RNA- based strategies for crop improvement have proved to offer novel alternatives to the existing non-conventional techniques, and detailed information on these aspects is also included. The book’s last five chapters are devoted to presenting the various aspects of environmental, marine, desert and rural biotechnology. The state-of-the-art coverage on a wide range of plant genomics and biotechnology topics will be of great interest to post-graduate students and researchers, including the employees of seed and biotechnology companies, and to instructors in the fields of plant genetics, breeding and biotechnology.

Horticultural Plant Breeding

Author : Thomas J. Orton
ISBN : 9780128155707
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 74. 50 MB
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Horticultural Plant Breeding is a complete and comprehensive resource for the development of new cultivars or clones of horticultural crops. It covers the basic theories that underpin plant breeding and applies Mendelian, quantitative and population inheritance practices in smaller populations where the individual plant has high value. Specific traditional breeding methods are also covered, with an emphasis on how these methods are adapted for horticultural species. In addition, the integration of biotechnologies with traditional breeding methodologies is explored, with an emphasis on specific applications for fruits, vegetables and ornamental crop species. Presented in focused sections, Horticultural Plant Breeding addresses historical perspectives and context, and genetics as a critical foundation of plant breeding. It highlights treatments of the various components of breeding programs, such as breeding objectives, germplasm, population engineering, mating systems, enhanced selection methods, established breeding methods applicable to inbreeding and outcrossing situations, and post-breeding activities. Provides a complete and comprehensive resource for those involved in the development of new cultivars or clones of horticultural crops Guides readers to the most appropriate breeding strategy including potential integration of traditional and biotechnology strategies that will best achieve a cost-effective outcome Will include access to 20 narrated slide sets to facilitate additional understanding

Gene Manipulation In Plant Improvement

Author : J. Perry Gustafson
ISBN : 9781461324294
Genre : Science
File Size : 27. 76 MB
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The results obtained to date involving the use of in ~ methods to facilitate wide hybridization in plants are voluminous and impressive. The techniques of embryo culture, ovule culture, and in~ pollination and fertilization represent an extension of the normal sexual hybridization process. Successes recorded in obtaining hybrids stem largely from circumventing prezygotic or postzygotic hybridization barriers. Numerous recent successful hybridizations were possible because of the development of improved tissue and cell culture systems for crop plants and attention given to genotypes used in hybridization attempts. Interspecific and intergeneric hybridization utilizing the process of protoplast fusion will bypass the limits set by all sexual me'thods. In addition to combining complete genomes from two different species through protoplast fusion, this system affords unique opportunities for creating novel cytoplasmic combinations, transfer of individual chromosomes, transfer of cytoplasmic organelles, manipulation of male sterility, and for single gene transfer. Some caution must be noted with regard to the extent of hybridization possible between distantly related species. Although practically no limit exists to the physical fusion of protoplasts from widely divergent species, the restrictions imposed by somatic incompatibility have not been adequately addressed. Regeneration of plants from the protoplast or single heterokaryon level is still a major hurdle for many important crop species before somatic cell fusion can be exploited to produce interspecific and intergeneric hybrids. Identification and selection of hybrids is also a limitation to the efficient application of cell fusion methods.

Transgenic Organisms

Author : J. Tomiuk
ISBN : 9783034891776
Genre : Science
File Size : 53. 15 MB
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This selected collection of contributions focuses on the modification of organisms through genetic manipulation. Scientists from various disciplines assess the quality of our knowledge on which risk assessment of gene technology methods is currently based. Molecular biology and ecology, but also aspects of evolutionary and population genetics, human genetics and genetically modified food are among the topics covered. The book analyzes the impetus behind, and progress in, research methods which have been introduced into gene-technology risk assessment procedures over the last three years, and, in so doing, reveals gaps in our understanding of evolutionary processes. The history of risk assessment and ethical implications with respect to the deliberate release of GMOs are considered. Finally, the transfer of knowledge from the laboratory to the public, and the role of the media in this process are discussed. This monograph will be of great interest to all those concerned with the risk assessment of genetechnology methods.

Biology And Breeding Of Food Legumes

Author : Aditya Pratap
ISBN : 9781845937669
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 83. 65 MB
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Food legumes are important constituents of the human diet and animal feed where they are crucial to a balanced diet, supplying high quality proteins. These crops also play an important role in low-input agricultural production systems by fixing atmospheric nitrogen. Despite systematic and continuous breeding efforts through conventional methods, substantial genetic gains have not been achieved. With the rise in demand for food legumes/pulses and increased market value of these crops, research has focused on increasing production and improving the quality of pulses for both edible and industrial purposes. "Biology and Breeding of Food Legumes" covers the history, origin and evolution, botany, breeding objectives and procedures, nutritional improvement, industrial uses and post-harvest technology and also recent developments made through biotechnological intervention.

Alien Gene Transfer In Crop Plants Volume 1

Author : Aditya Pratap
ISBN : 9781461485858
Genre : Science
File Size : 41. 33 MB
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Genetic engineering and biotechnology along with conventional breeding have played an important role in developing superior cultivars by transferring economically important traits from distant, wild and even unrelated species to the cultivated varieties which otherwise could not have been possible with conventional breeding. There is a vast amount of literature pertaining to the genetic improvement of crops over last few decades. However, the wonderful results achieved by crop scientists in food legumes’ research and development over the years are scattered in different journals of the World. The two volumes in the series ‘Alien Gene Transfer in Crop Plants’ address this issue and offer a comprehensive reference on the developments made in major food crops of the world. These volumes aim at bringing the contributions from globally renowned scientists at one platform in a reader-friendly manner. The 1st volume entitled, ‘Alien Gene Transfer in Crop Plants: Innovations, Methods and Risk Assessment” will deal exclusively with the process and methodology. The contents of this volume have been designed to appraise the readers with all the theoretical and practical aspects of wide hybridization and gene transfer like processes and methods of gene transfer, role of biotechnology with special reference to embryo rescue, genetic transformation, protoplast fusion and molecular marker technology, problems such as cross incompatibility and barriers to distant hybridization and solutions to overcome them. Since wild and weedy relatives of crop plants may have negative traits associated with them, there are always possibilities of linkage drag while transferring alien alleles. Therefore, problems and limitations of alien gene transfer from these species will also be discussed in this series. Further, the associated risks with this and assessment of risks will also be given due weightage.

Allium Crop Science

Author : Haim D. Rabinowitch
ISBN : 9780851995106
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 22. 61 MB
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The Alliums are some of the most ancient cultivated crops and include onions, garlic, leeks and other related plants. This book provides an up-to-date review of Allium science for postgraduates and researchers. It contains commissioned chapters on topics that have shown major advances particularly in the last ten years such as molecular biology, floriculture and biofertilizers.

Somatic Hybridization In Crop Improvement I

Author : Y. P. S. Bajaj
ISBN : 9783642579455
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 84. 8 MB
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Thirty-five chapters on various aspects of fusion of plant protoplasts and somatic hybridization deal with the regeneration of interspecific and intergeneric somatic hybrids and cybrids in various plants: cereals, grasses, legumes, potato, tomato, eggplant, lettuce, Brassica, Datura, Hyoscyamus, Nicotiana, Catharanthus, Rauwolfia, Citrus, Poncirus, Prunus, Pyrus, Populus, algae, bryophytes, and ferns. The implications of somatic hybridization in gene transfer in wide crosses and for the induction of genetic variability in various crops are discussed. The book is an invaluable source of information for advanced students, teachers, and research scientists in the field of plant breeding, genetic engineering, plant tissue culture, and general plant biotechnology.

Plant Improvement And Somatic Cell Genetics

Author : Indra Asil
ISBN : 9780323156509
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 43. 27 MB
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Plant Improvement and Somatic Cell Genetics includes all but one of the papers presented at two symposia held during the XIII International Botanical Congress in Sydney, Australia, on August 21-28, 1981. ""Frontiers in Plant Breeding"" and ""Cell Culture and Somatic Cell Genetics in Plant Biology"" highlight the ways in which plant breeding techniques can improve crops. The book explores the potentials as well as the limitations of plant breeding, and cellular and molecular techniques in plant improvement. Comprised of 14 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the potential applications of exotic germplasm for tomato and cereal crop improvement. It continues with a discussion of multiline breeding, breeding of crop plants that can tolerate soil stresses, combining genomes by means of conventional methods, use of embryo culture in interspecific hybridization, use of haploids in plant improvement, and somaclonal variation and somatic hybridization as new techniques for plant improvement. The reader is also introduced to plant cell culture, as well as somatic cell genetics of cereals and grasses, somatic cell fusion for inducing cytoplasmic exchange, uses of cell culture mutants, genetic transformation of plant cells by experimental procedures in the context of plant genetic engineering, and use of molecular biology techniques for recognition and modification of crop plant genotypes. This book will be a useful resource for scientists and plant breeders interested in applying somatic cell genetics for crop improvement.

Plant Breeding Classical To Modern

Author : P. M. Priyadarshan
ISBN : 9789811370953
Genre : Science
File Size : 29. 52 MB
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This book offers a detailed overview of both conventional and modern approaches to plant breeding. In 25 chapters, it explores various aspects of conventional and modern means of plant breeding, including: history, objective, activities, centres of origin, plant introduction, reproduction, incompatibility, sterility, biometrics, selection, hybridization, methods of breeding both self- and cross- pollinated crops, heterosis, synthetic varieties, induced mutations and polyploidy, distant hybridization, quality breeding, ideotype breeding, resistance breeding, breeding for stress resistance, G x E interactions, tissue culture, genetic engineering, molecular breeding, genomics, gene action and varietal release. The book’s content addresses the needs of students worldwide. Modern methods like molecular breeding and genomics are dealt with extensively so as to provide a firm foundation and equip readers to read further advanced books. Each chapter discusses the respective subject as comprehensively as possible, and includes a section on further reading at the end. Info-boxes highlight the latest advances, and care has been taken to include nearly all topics required under the curricula of MS programs. As such, the book provides a much-needed reference guide for MS students around the globe.

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