does eu merger control discriminate against small market companies

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Does Eu Merger Control Discriminate Against Small Market Companies

Author : Mika Oinonen
ISBN : 9789041132611
Genre : Law
File Size : 50. 64 MB
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Although the question posed by the title of this book has generated considerable debate, the essential issue remains open and largely blurred. While some believe that there is no so-called 'small market problem', others discern discrimination against small market companies (i.e., companies with a strong position in their home markets but a modest position in the European and global markets) and a consequent need for changes in competition law. The author of this enormously helpful work here sets the stage for meaningful discussion by analysing the EC Merger Regulation's objectives, economic foundations, and application practice to present a reasoned view of the issues that can be considered relevant for such a discussion. Considering their effect on the 'small market problem', the author scrutinizes such factors as the following: the Commission's methodology for delineating relevant markets in merger assessments; unnecessary prohibition caused by overestimation of the market power of small market mergers; erroneous approval of cases that should actually be prohibited; impact of the so-called 'Harvard' and 'Chicago' schools of competition theory and their key policy implications; process-related alternative views of competition and new synthesizing approaches; relevant criteria for a proper analysis of market power; concentration measures and market shares; barriers to entry; price and profitability analyses; and product definition v. geographic definition of markets. In a final chapter, the author presents some tentative conclusions, normative in nature, concerning the problem and the relevant issues relating to it. As the first in-depth analysis of the issues that are actually involved - with its particular diagnosis of the assessment of market power in considering the relevant issues for the problem - this study brings into salience the terms of the debate on the 'problem', and thus takes a giant step forward towards defining what needs to be done. Competition lawyers, policymakers, and academics in Europe and elsewhere will find the discussion of great value.

Trademarks And Brands In Merger Control

Author : Damiano Canapa
ISBN : 9789041167187
Genre : Law
File Size : 64. 66 MB
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The role of intellectual property rights in merger control procedures has not received the attention it warrants. Most research has focused on the assessment of intellectual property rights in anticompetitive conducts rather than on how a firm can monopolise a market by accumulating such assets. This is despite the fact that access to such assets, whether used or unused, is often a key factor, if not the only one, motivating mergers. This book, the first to address trademarks and brands from the perspective of merger control procedure, studies the legal issues of the topic. It provides a comprehensive response to the question of how European and Swiss competition authorities should consider trademarks and brands when assessing a merger. The author's thorough and critical approach addresses topics such as: - the in-depth assessment of the legal and economic foundations of both trademarks and brands, and merger control; - why trademarks and brands may be relevant to the assessment of mergers, including the distinction between trademarks and brands, the origin of the brands' strength according to marketing sciences, and how and why brands may provide market power to their holder; - the conditions under which the assignment or licence of a trademark may qualify as a concentration under the definition of the European Union Merger Regulation or of the Swiss Cartel Act; - the role played by trademarks and brands in the substantive assessment of a merger, including the definition of the relevant markets, different types of mergers, and the invocation of the failing firm defence; - the provision of detailed guidelines describing the possible influence of trademarks and brands on the outcome of the merger assessment; and - the importance of trademarks and brands in the design and assessment of remedies. At every stage of the study, special attention is given to the decisions of both the European Commission and the Swiss Competition Commission. As the first detailed analysis of the role of trademarks and brands in the assessment of mergers, this book constitutes a deep and illuminating answer to the uncertainties regarding the outcomes of the assessment of mergers that derive from the 'more economic approach' prevailing in European Union Law. It cannot fail but capture the interest of practitioners, businesspeople and academics whose work involves competition and intellectual property.

Merger Control Regimes In Emerging Economies

Author : Marco Botta
ISBN : 9789041134028
Genre : Law
File Size : 71. 47 MB
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When emerging economies draft competition law and begin to enforce it, they usually draw on the EU and US competition law systems. However, significant country-specific legal and practical variations tend to arise quickly, making it imperative for international business lawyers to acquire more than a passing knowledge of competition legislation and relevant case law in these countries. Now for the first time a thoroughly researched book provides an in-depth empirical analysis of the legal problems raised for competition, and especially for merger control and its enforcement, in emerging economies, using a case study approach in the Brazilian and Argentinean contexts to reveal paradigmatic trends. Brazil and Argentina are chosen not only because they are among the major trading jurisdictions in the developing world, but also because they have each established a track record of over a decade in formulating and enforcing a system of merger control. The author describes and analyses all Brazilian and Argentinean legislation in the field of competition law, as well as the main merger decisions adopted by the competition authorities and the judgements held by the courts of these countries. The book thoroughly covers the system of competition law currently enforced in each country, as well as the main innovations of proposed new competition law currently pending in Brazil. In addition, the author draws on field interviews with competition lawyers and officers of competition authorities conducted between April and July 2008 in Buenos Aires, Brasilia, and São Paulo. The analysis considers such issues as the following: y impact of M & As on the level of competition in the markets of developing countries; y enforcement of competition law and the judiciary; y criteria for notification of economic concentrations; y application of econometric tests to define the relevant market and the degree of market concentration.

The Interplay Between European And National Competition Law After Regulation 1 2003

Author : Lúcio Tomé Feteira
ISBN : 9789041156655
Genre : Law
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If we can speak of the European Community's 'economic constitution', we can assert that competition rules, together with free movement rules, form its core. Notably, implementation of the competition rules enshrined in Articles 81 and 82 EC changed radically with the enactment of Regulation 1/2003, which in effect dispensed with mandatory prior notifications and allowed national authorities to apply Article 101(3) TFEU directly. Given that national legislations perceive certain types of unilateral conduct, even if adopted by a non-dominant undertaking, as a potential source of anticompetitive effects, an important question concerns the leeway enjoyed by national authorities under the exception to the convergence rule in Article 3(2) of Regulation 1/2003, and the consequent effect on both legal practice and policy issues. In this lucidly argued book, focusing on national competition provisions in Germany, France, Italy, and the United Kingdom that deal with such conduct, the author provides a detailed examination of how such considerations as the following are affected by Regulation 1/2003: - prohibition of abuse of economic dependence or superior bargaining power; - the particular susceptibility of long-term contracts; - prohibition of resale at a loss or below cost; - prohibition of boycott, unlawful pressures, threats, and other coercive tactics adopted by undertakings; and - the role of unfair competition law. The analysis follows a functional method of comparative legal analysis, reviewing the most relevant norms in the selected jurisdictions, particularly in what concerns their goals and function in the context of their respective legal systems. Special attention is paid to two specific sectors – the motor-vehicle and the retailing industries – which have most often triggered relevant legislation and case law in the jurisdictions covered. Legal scholarship in the field is also drawn upon. In its clarification of the meaning of Regulation 1/2003, this book allows practitioners to fully grasp its scope. The author's thorough, masterful analysis of the statutory framework of Article 3 of the regulation also reveals the variety of reasons why different Member States have different competition policies on the scope of the exception to the rule of convergence, and in this way provides lawyers, policymakers, and academics with welcome insights on how major EU jurisdictions apply European competition law.

The Efficiency Defence And The European System Of Merger Control

Author :
ISBN : MINN:31951D02340304A
Genre : Antitrust law
File Size : 36. 93 MB
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Corporate Finance

Author :
ISBN : CORNELL:31924088632371
Genre : International finance
File Size : 85. 77 MB
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European Economy

Author :
ISBN : NYPL:33433068534464
Genre : European Economic Community countries
File Size : 77. 37 MB
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Wirtschaft Und Wettbewerb

Author :
ISBN : STANFORD:36105063733617
Genre : Trade regulation
File Size : 27. 68 MB
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Implications Of The Ec 1992 Plan For U S Trade Competitiveness And Small Business

Author : United States. Congress. House. Committee on Small Business
ISBN : LOC:00187070922
Genre : Competition, International
File Size : 67. 83 MB
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Eec Merger Control And The Oligopoly

Author : Bruno Dupré
ISBN : UVA:X002437782
Genre : Consolidation and merger of corporations
File Size : 40. 83 MB
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