ecotoxicology ecological risk assessment and multiple stressors nato security through science series c

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Ecotoxicology Ecological Risk Assessment And Multiple Stressors

Author : Gerassimos Arapis
ISBN : 9781402044762
Genre : Science
File Size : 28. 69 MB
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The science of ecotoxicology and the practice of ecological risk assessment are evolving rapidly. Ecotoxicology as a subject area came into prominence in the 1960s after the publication of Rachel Carson's book on the impact of pesticides on the environment. The rise of public and scientific concern for the effects of chemical pollutants on the environment in the 1960s and 1970s led to the development of the discipline of ecotoxicology, a science that takes into account the effects of chemicals in the context of ecology. Until the early 1980s, in spite of public concern and interest among scientists, the assessment of ecological risks associated with natural or synthetic pollutants was not considered a priority issue by most government. However, as the years passed, a better understanding of the importance of ecotoxicology emerged and with it, in some countries, the progressive formalization of an ecological risk assessment process. Ecological risk assessment is a conceptual tool for organizing and analyzing data and information to evaluate the likelihood that one or more stressors are causing or will cause adverse ecological effects. Ecological risk assessment allows risk managers to consider available scientific information when selecting a course of action, in addition to other factors that may affect their decision (e. g. , social, legal, political, or economic). Ecological risk assessment includes three phases (problem formulation, analysis, and risk characterization).

The British National Bibliography

Author : Arthur James Wells
ISBN : UOM:39015066099238
Genre : English literature
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Risk Informed Management Of European River Basins

Author : Jos Brils
ISBN : 9783642385988
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 61. 74 MB
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The growing impacts of economic activities and climate change on the conditions of rivers throughout the world, require a new, integrated approach towards river basin management, an approach that can also cope with an uncertain future. In this volume, leading European scientists and representatives of major stakeholder groups present risk-informed management as this new approach, as developed in the European Commission-funded project RISKBASE. It aims to improve the ecological quality of river basins and thus to sustain the goods and services they provide for the benefit of society. Risk-informed management involves the integrated application of three key-principles: · Being well informed · Managing adaptively · Pursuing a participatory approach The authors explain and underpin these principles in detail, offer inspiring examples from practice and connect them to the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). This book is intended for scientists, consultants and practitioners concerned about river basins, world-wide, as well as the drafters and implementers of the WFD River Basin Management Plans.

Multiple Stressors A Challenge For The Future

Author : Carmel Mothersill
ISBN : 1402063334
Genre : Science
File Size : 37. 53 MB
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Ecotoxiclogical risk from multiple stressors covers any situation where org- isms are exposed to a combination of environmental stressors. These include physical and chemical pollutants as well as other stressors such as parasites and environmental impact (e. g. , climate change or habitat loss). The combi- tion of stressors can result in increased risk to organisms (either additive or synergistic effects) or decreased effects (protective or antagonistic effects). The multiple stressor challenge is an international, multi-disciplinary problem requiring an international, multi-disciplinary approach. The c- rent approach to multiple stressors is to examine one stressor at a time and assume additivity. Little work has been done on combinations of stressors such that potential interactions can be determined. The problem is very complex. Multiple stressors pose a whole spectrum of challenges that range from basic science to regulation, policy and gove- ance. The challenges raise fundamental questions about our understanding of the basic biological response to stressors, as well as the implications of those uncertainties in environmental risk assessment and management. In addition to the great breadth, there is also great depth in the research ch- lenges, largely due to the complexity of the issues. From a basic science point of view, many of the mechanisms and processes under investigation are at the cutting edge of science — involving new paradigms such as genomic ins- bility and bystander effects.

Equidosimetry

Author : F. Bréchignac
ISBN : 1402036485
Genre : Nature
File Size : 59. 13 MB
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Considerable experience with radioecological and related ecological research on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems has been achieved, especially after the Chernobyl accident. The combined effects of the radiation, chemical and biological factors, after a contamination of the environment and during its remediation have shown an interactive complexity that highlights the need for equidosimetrical evaluations of the influence of the various stressors and the need for their ecological normalization. In radioecology and radiation protection, methods of radiation dosimetry are key for dose assessment. It is therefore highly desirable to develop a clear theoretical approach as well as a practical method of equidosimetry that would allow for an ecological normalization of the different stressors in unified uniform units, especially for comparison purposes.

F Hrung Innovation Und Wandel

Author : Lutz Becker
ISBN : 9783939707059
Genre :
File Size : 42. 30 MB
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Refuge And Reality

Author : Pól Ó Dochartaigh
ISBN : 9789042019454
Genre : Literary Criticism
File Size : 55. 22 MB
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This volume brings together papers by scholars from Germany, the USA, France, England and Ireland given at the first International Feuchtwanger Conference, held in Los Angeles in 2003. Some of Lion Feuchtwanger's novels from his exile in the United States are analyzed here, as are the lives of Lion and Marta Feuchtwanger and their contacts in the German émigré world in California. In addition, two papers focus on aspects of Bertolt Brecht's and Alfred Döblin's lives as emigrants in California. This volume is of interest to students of exile studies, of German refuge in the USA and of modern German literature.

Mensch Und Tier In Der Antike

Author : Annetta Alexandridis
ISBN : UOM:39015079267541
Genre : History
File Size : 48. 15 MB
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English summary: These conference proceedings explore the encounter of human and animal nature from a philological, historical and archaeological perspective in areas such as the body, myth, religion and cult, politics and philosophy. Ancient texts and images present a broad variety of approaches to the question of how, if at all, to define the boundaries between both species. At the same time it becomes evident, how strongly the conception of both humans and animals were shaped by anthropomorphism, so that a distinction between both is in the end impossible. German description: Dieser Kongressband untersucht aus philologischer, historischer und archaologischer Perspektive verschiedene Bereiche der Antike, in denen Mensch und Tier, oder auch menschliche und tierische Naturen, aufeinandertreffen. Antike Texte und Bilder aus Religion und Kult, Mythos, Politik und Philosophie zeigen ein weites Spektrum an Moglichkeiten, wie die Grenzen zwischen Mensch und Tier gezogen oder aber auch aufgelost werden konnen. Die Vorstellungen, die sich in Sprache, Texten und Bildern manifestierten, sind allerdings so stark von Anthropomorphismus gepragt, dass eine konzeptionelle Trennung von Mensch und Tier kaum moglich ist.

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