# einstein-a-to-z

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## Einstein Hilbert And The Theory Of Gravitation

**Author :**Jagdish Mehra

**ISBN :**9789401021944

**Genre :**Science

**File Size :**84. 22 MB

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Some time ago I published a small piece * dealing with a charming little essay on 'the state of ether in magnetic fields', which the sixteen-year-old Einstein had written while he was awaiting admission to the E. T. H. in Zurich. This paper sought to trace the continuity between Einstein's early interest in electrodynamics and his later work on the special and general relativity theories. On reading this paper, Professor Eugene Wigner asked me whether David Hilbert had not independently discovered the field equations of gravitation. ** His impression from his stay in Gottingen (where Wigner had been Hilbert's assistant for one year in the late nineteen-twenties) was that Hilbert had indeed done so, and he asked me if it was true. I replied to Professor Wigner about Hilbert's contribution to the theory of gravitation. t He kindly encouraged me to expand my account to deal with the intricate and exciting details of the early years in the formulation of the general relativity theory of gravitation. This is what I have sought to do in this study. Albert Einstein created the general relativity theory of gravitation and dominated its development through the rest of his life. His early work on the theory of gravitation, from 1912 to 1916, had the drama of high adventure. It culminated in the establishment of its foundations which have remained unassailed by the theoretical and experimental work of succeeding decades.

## Handbook Of Pseudo Riemannian Geometry And Supersymmetry

**Author :**Vicente Cortés

**ISBN :**3037190795

**Genre :**Mathematics

**File Size :**70. 18 MB

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The purpose of this handbook is to give an overview of some recent developments in differential geometry related to supersymmetric field theories. The main themes covered are: Special geometry and supersymmetry Generalized geometry Geometries with torsion Para-geometries Holonomy theory Symmetric spaces and spaces of constant curvature Conformal geometry Wave equations on Lorentzian manifolds D-branes and K-theory The intended audience consists of advanced students and researchers working in differential geometry, string theory, and related areas. The emphasis is on geometrical structures occurring on target spaces of supersymmetric field theories. Some of these structures can be fully described in the classical framework of pseudo-Riemannian geometry. Others lead to new concepts relating various fields of research, such as special Kahler geometry or generalized geometry.

## Einstein S Miraculous Year

**Author :**Albert Einstein

**ISBN :**9781400818211

**Genre :**Science

**File Size :**74. 15 MB

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Five extraordinary papers by Albert Einstein that transformed physics, edited and introduced by John Stachel and with a foreword by Nobel laureate Roger Penrose After 1905, Einstein's miraculous year, physics would never be the same again. In those twelve months, Einstein shattered many cherished scientific beliefs with five extraordinary papers that would establish him as the world's leading physicist. This book brings those papers together in an accessible format. The best-known papers are the two that founded special relativity: On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies and Does the Inertia of a Body Depend on Its Energy Content? In the former, Einstein showed that absolute time had to be replaced by a new absolute: the speed of light. In the second, he asserted the equivalence of mass and energy, which would lead to the famous formula E = mc2 . The book also includes On a Heuristic Point of View Concerning the Production and Transformation of Light, in which Einstein challenged the wave theory of light, suggesting that light could also be regarded as a collection of particles. This helped to open the door to a whole new world—that of quantum physics. For ideas in this paper, he won the Nobel Prize in 1921. The fourth paper also led to a Nobel Prize, although for another scientist, Jean Perrin. On the Movement of Small Particles Suspended in Stationary Liquids Required by the Molecular-Kinetic Theory of Heat concerns the Brownian motion of such particles. With profound insight, Einstein blended ideas from kinetic theory and classical hydrodynamics to derive an equation for the mean free path of such particles as a function of the time, which Perrin confirmed experimentally. The fifth paper, A New Determination of Molecular Dimensions, was Einstein's doctoral dissertation, and remains among his most cited articles. It shows how to calculate Avogadro's number and the size of molecules. These papers, presented in a modern English translation, are essential reading for any physicist, mathematician, or astrophysicist. Far more than just a collection of scientific articles, this book presents work that is among the high points of human achievement and marks a watershed in the history of science. Coinciding with the 100th anniversary of the miraculous year, this new paperback edition includes an introduction by John Stachel, which focuses on the personal aspects of Einstein's youth that facilitated and led up to the miraculous year.

## Universal Themes Of Bose Einstein Condensation

**Author :**Nick P. Proukakis

**ISBN :**9781107085695

**Genre :**Science

**File Size :**27. 69 MB

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Covering general theoretical concepts and the research to date, this book demonstrates that Bose-Einstein condensation is a truly universal phenomenon.

## Einstein S Theory Of Unified Fields

**Author :**Marie Antoinette Tonnelat

**ISBN :**9781317698807

**Genre :**History

**File Size :**81. 51 MB

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First published in1966, here is presented a comprehensive overview of one of the most elusive scientific speculations by the pre-eminent genius of the 20th century. The theory is viewed by some scientists with deep suspicion, by others with optimism, but all agree that it represents an extreme challenge. As the author herself affirms, this work is not intended to be a complete treatise or ‘didactic exposition’ of the theory of unified fields, but rather a tool for further study, both by students and professional physicists. Dealing with all the major areas of research which together comprise the development of a working model, the author ranges over conservation equations, variational principles, solutions of spherical symmetry, and treats a wide selection of Einstein’s own equations. The final chapter indicates problems associated with the unified field theory, in particular the energy-momentum tensor and geodesics.

## Bose Einstein Condensation In Dilute Gases

**Author :**C. J. Pethick

**ISBN :**9781139811088

**Genre :**Science

**File Size :**49. 68 MB

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Since an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate, predicted by Einstein in 1925, was first produced in the laboratory in 1995, the study of ultracold Bose and Fermi gases has become one of the most active areas in contemporary physics. This book explains phenomena in ultracold gases from basic principles, without assuming a detailed knowledge of atomic, condensed matter, and nuclear physics. This new edition has been revised and updated, and includes new chapters on optical lattices, low dimensions, and strongly-interacting Fermi systems. This book provides a unified introduction to the physics of ultracold atomic Bose and Fermi gases for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, as well as experimentalists and theorists. Chapters cover the statistical physics of trapped gases, atomic properties, cooling and trapping atoms, interatomic interactions, structure of trapped condensates, collective modes, rotating condensates, superfluidity, interference phenomena, and trapped Fermi gases. Problems are included at the end of each chapter.

## The Foundations Of Einstein S Theory Of Gravitation

**Author :**Erwin Freundlich

**ISBN :**

**Genre :**

**File Size :**74. 46 MB

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## Understanding Space Time

**Author :**Robert DiSalle

**ISBN :**1139452665

**Genre :**Science

**File Size :**56. 57 MB

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Presenting the history of space-time physics, from Newton to Einstein, as a philosophical development DiSalle reflects our increasing understanding of the connections between ideas of space and time and our physical knowledge. He suggests that philosophy's greatest impact on physics has come about, less by the influence of philosophical hypotheses, than by the philosophical analysis of concepts of space, time and motion, and the roles they play in our assumptions about physical objects and physical measurements. This way of thinking leads to interpretations of the work of Newton and Einstein and the connections between them. It also offers ways of looking at old questions about a priori knowledge, the physical interpretation of mathematics, and the nature of conceptual change. Understanding Space-Time will interest readers in philosophy, history and philosophy of science, and physics, as well as readers interested in the relations between physics and philosophy.

## Einstein S Field Equations And Their Physical Implications

**Author :**Bernd G. Schmidt

**ISBN :**9783540465805

**Genre :**Mathematics

**File Size :**78. 58 MB

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This book serves two purposes. The authors present important aspects of modern research on the mathematical structure of Einstein's field equations and they show how to extract their physical content from them by mathematically exact methods. The essays are devoted to exact solutions and to the Cauchy problem of the field equations as well as to post-Newtonian approximations that have direct physical implications. Further topics concern quantum gravity and optics in gravitational fields. The book addresses researchers in relativity and differential geometry but can also be used as additional reading material for graduate students.

## Bananaworld

**Author :**Jeffrey Bub

**ISBN :**9780198718536

**Genre :**Science

**File Size :**36. 36 MB

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What on earth do bananas have to do with quantum mechanics? From a modern perspective, quantum mechanics is about strangely counterintuitive correlations between separated systems, which can be exploited in feats like quantum teleportation, unbreakable cryptographic schemes, and computers with enormously enhanced computing power. Schro'dinger coined the term "entanglement" to describe these bizarre correlations. Bananaworld -- an imaginary island with "entangled" bananas -- brings to life the fascinating discoveries of the new field of quantum information without the mathematical machinery of quantum mechanics. The connection with quantum correlations is fully explained in sections written for the non-physicist reader with a serious interest in understanding the mysteries of the quantum world. The result is a subversive but entertaining book that is accessible and interesting to a wide range of readers, with the novel thesis that quantum mechanics is about the structure of information. What we have discovered is that the possibilities for representing, manipulating, and communicating information are very different than we thought.

## General Relativity For Mathematicians

**Author :**R.K. Sachs

**ISBN :**9781461299035

**Genre :**Mathematics

**File Size :**21. 75 MB

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This is a book about physics, written for mathematicians. The readers we have in mind can be roughly described as those who: I. are mathematics graduate students with some knowledge of global differential geometry 2. have had the equivalent of freshman physics, and find popular accounts of astrophysics and cosmology interesting 3. appreciate mathematical elarity, but are willing to accept physical motiva tions for the mathematics in place of mathematical ones 4. are willing to spend time and effort mastering certain technical details, such as those in Section 1. 1. Each book disappoints so me readers. This one will disappoint: 1. physicists who want to use this book as a first course on differential geometry 2. mathematicians who think Lorentzian manifolds are wholly similar to Riemannian ones, or that, given a sufficiently good mathematical back ground, the essentials of a subject !ike cosmology can be learned without so me hard work on boring detaiis 3. those who believe vague philosophical arguments have more than historical and heuristic significance, that general relativity should somehow be "proved," or that axiomatization of this subject is useful 4. those who want an encyclopedic treatment (the books by Hawking-Ellis [1], Penrose [1], Weinberg [1], and Misner-Thorne-Wheeler [I] go further into the subject than we do; see also the survey article, Sachs-Wu [1]). 5. mathematicians who want to learn quantum physics or unified fieId theory (unfortunateIy, quantum physics texts all seem either to be for physicists, or merely concerned with formaI mathematics).

## A Gyrovector Space Approach To Hyperbolic Geometry

**Author :**Abraham Ungar

**ISBN :**9783031023965

**Genre :**Mathematics

**File Size :**72. 90 MB

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The mere mention of hyperbolic geometry is enough to strike fear in the heart of the undergraduate mathematics and physics student. Some regard themselves as excluded from the profound insights of hyperbolic geometry so that this enormous portion of human achievement is a closed door to them. The mission of this book is to open that door by making the hyperbolic geometry of Bolyai and Lobachevsky, as well as the special relativity theory of Einstein that it regulates, accessible to a wider audience in terms of novel analogies that the modern and unknown share with the classical and familiar. These novel analogies that this book captures stem from Thomas gyration, which is the mathematical abstraction of the relativistic effect known as Thomas precession. Remarkably, the mere introduction of Thomas gyration turns Euclidean geometry into hyperbolic geometry, and reveals mystique analogies that the two geometries share. Accordingly, Thomas gyration gives rise to the prefix "gyro" that is extensively used in the gyrolanguage of this book, giving rise to terms like gyrocommutative and gyroassociative binary operations in gyrogroups, and gyrovectors in gyrovector spaces. Of particular importance is the introduction of gyrovectors into hyperbolic geometry, where they are equivalence classes that add according to the gyroparallelogram law in full analogy with vectors, which are equivalence classes that add according to the parallelogram law. A gyroparallelogram, in turn, is a gyroquadrilateral the two gyrodiagonals of which intersect at their gyromidpoints in full analogy with a parallelogram, which is a quadrilateral the two diagonals of which intersect at their midpoints. Table of Contents: Gyrogroups / Gyrocommutative Gyrogroups / Gyrovector Spaces / Gyrotrigonometry

## Meson 2002

**Author :**Lucjan Jarczyk

**ISBN :**9789812381606

**Genre :**Science

**File Size :**48. 14 MB

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This volume deals with both the experimental and theoretical aspects of meson physics; in particular, it presents new results. The main topics are: hadronic and electromagnetic meson production in various reactions; meson interaction with mesons, nucleons and nuclei; the structure of hadrons; mesons and fundamental symmetries; exotic systems. The book provides an overview of the current status of these areas, as well as of new developments, besides giving a preview of the forthcoming investigations.

## Einstein S Jury

**Author :**Jeffrey Crelinsten

**ISBN :**9780691171074

**Genre :**Science

**File Size :**71. 98 MB

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Einstein's Jury is the dramatic story of how astronomers in Germany, England, and America competed to test Einstein's developing theory of relativity. Weaving a rich narrative based on extensive archival research, Jeffrey Crelinsten shows how these early scientific debates shaped cultural attitudes we hold today. The book examines Einstein's theory of general relativity through the eyes of astronomers, many of whom were not convinced of the legitimacy of Einstein's startling breakthrough. These were individuals with international reputations to uphold and benefactors and shareholders to please, yet few of them understood the new theory coming from the pen of Germany's up-and-coming theoretical physicist, Albert Einstein. Some tried to test his theory early in its development but got no results. Others--through toil and hardship, great expense, and perseverance--concluded that it was wrong. A tale of international competition and intrigue, Einstein's Jury brims with detail gleaned from Crelinsten's far-reaching inquiry into the history and development of relativity. Crelinsten concludes that the well-known British eclipse expedition of 1919 that made Einstein famous had less to do with the scientific acceptance of his theory than with his burgeoning public fame. It was not until the 1920s, when the center of gravity of astronomy and physics shifted from Europe to America, that the work of prestigious American observatories legitimized Einstein's work. As Crelinsten so expertly shows, the glow that now surrounds the famous scientist had its beginnings in these early debates among professional scientists working in the glare of the public spotlight.

## A Primer On Quantum Fluids

**Author :**Carlo F. Barenghi

**ISBN :**9783319424767

**Genre :**Science

**File Size :**34. 88 MB

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The aim of this primer is to cover the essential theoretical information, quickly and concisely, in order to enable senior undergraduate and beginning graduate students to tackle projects in topical research areas of quantum fluids, for example, solitons, vortices and collective modes. The selection of the material, both regarding the content and level of presentation, draws on the authors analysis of the success of relevant research projects with newcomers to the field, as well as of the students feedback from many taught and self-study courses on the subject matter. Starting with a brief historical overview, this text covers particle statistics, weakly interacting condensates and their dynamics and finally superfluid helium and quantum turbulence. At the end of each chapter (apart from the first) there are some exercises. Detailed solutions can be made available to instructors upon request to the authors.

## The Making Of Modern Physics In Colonial India

**Author :**Somaditya Banerjee

**ISBN :**9781317024705

**Genre :**History

**File Size :**61. 88 MB

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This monograph offers a cultural history of the development of physics in India during the first half of the twentieth century, focusing on Indian physicists Satyendranath Bose (1894-1974), Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman (1888-1970) and Meghnad Saha (1893-1956). The analytical category "bhadralok physics" is introduced to explore how it became possible for a highly successful brand of modern science to develop in a country that was still under colonial domination. The term Bhadralok refers to the then emerging group of native intelligentsia, who were identified by academic pursuits and manners. Exploring the forms of life of this social group allows a better understanding of the specific character of Indian modernity that, as exemplified by the work of bhadralok physicists, combined modern science with indigenous knowledge in an original program of scientific research. The three scientists achieved the most significant scientific successes in the new revolutionary field of quantum physics, with such internationally recognized accomplishments as the Saha ionization equation (1921), the famous Bose-Einstein statistics (1924), and the Raman Effect (1928), the latter discovery having led to the first ever Nobel Prize awarded to a scientist from Asia. This book analyzes the responses by Indian scientists to the radical concept of the light quantum, and their further development of this approach outside the purview of European authorities. The outlook of bhadralok physicists is characterized here as "cosmopolitan nationalism," which allows us to analyze how the group pursued modern science in conjunction with, and as an instrument of Indian national liberation.

## General Physics Relativity Astronomy And Mathematical Physics And Methods

**Author :**

**ISBN :**UCSD:31822016044083

**Genre :**Nuclear physics

**File Size :**35. 87 MB

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## Precision Cosmology

**Author :**

**ISBN :**9780521554336

**Genre :**

**File Size :**20. 6 MB

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## Symposium On The Foundations Of Modern Physics 1987 The Copenhagen Interpretation 60 Years After The Como Lecture

**Author :**Pekka Lahti

**ISBN :**9789813201705

**Genre :**Science

**File Size :**58. 21 MB

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## Knowledge In A Social World

**Author :**Alvin I. Goldman

**ISBN :**9780191519284

**Genre :**Philosophy

**File Size :**36. 87 MB

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Knowledge in a Social World offers a philosophy for the information age. Alvin Goldman explores new frontiers by creating a thoroughgoing social epistemology, moving beyond the traditional focus on solitary knowers. Social, cultural, and technological changes present new challenges to our ways of knowing and understanding, and philosophy must face these challenges. Against the tides of postmodernism and social constructionism Goldman defends the integrity of truth and shows how to promote it by well-designed forms of social interaction. He urges that social discourse promises more than the mere politics of consensus, and that suitably norm-governed debate and belief-revision can increase veridical knowledge. Goldman's aims are not just philosophical but practical. From science to education, from law to democracy, he shows why and how public institutions should seek knowledge-enhancing practices. He examines how cyberspace and other technologies expand the scope of communication, and warns of the need to safeguard content quality. He scrutinizes the free marketplace of ideas, the adversary system in the law, and media coverage of political campaigns. The result is a bold, timely, and systematic treatment of the philosophical foundations of an information society.