electronics cookbook practical electronic recipes with arduino and raspberry pi

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Electronics Cookbook

Author : Simon Monk
ISBN : 9781491953365
Genre : Computers
File Size : 68. 78 MB
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If you’re among the many hobbyists and designers who came to electronics through Arduino and Raspberry Pi, this cookbook will help you learn and apply the basics of electrical engineering without the need for an EE degree. Through a series of practical recipes, you’ll learn how to solve specific problems while diving into as much or as little theory as you’re comfortable with. Author Simon Monk (Raspberry Pi Cookbook) breaks down this complex subject into several topics, from using the right transistor to building and testing projects and prototypes. With this book, you can quickly search electronics topics and go straight to the recipe you need. It also serves as an ideal reference for experienced electronics makers. This cookbook includes: Theoretical concepts such as Ohm’s law and the relationship between power, voltage, and current The fundamental use of resistors, capacitors and inductors, diodes, transistors and integrated circuits, and switches and relays Recipes on power, sensors and motors, integrated circuits, and radio frequency for designing electronic circuits and devices Advice on using Arduino and Raspberry Pi in electronics projects How to build and use tools, including multimeters, oscilloscopes, simulations software, and unsoldered prototypes

Raspberry Pi Cookbook

Author : Simon Monk
ISBN : 9781449365295
Genre : Computers
File Size : 37. 78 MB
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The world of Raspberry Pi is evolving quickly, with many new interface boards and software libraries becoming available all the time. In this cookbook, prolific hacker and author Simon Monk provides more than 200 practical recipes for running this tiny low-cost computer with Linux, programming it with Python, and hooking up sensors, motors, and other hardware—including Arduino. You’ll also learn basic principles to help you use new technologies with Raspberry Pi as its ecosystem develops. Python and other code examples from the book are available on GitHub. This cookbook is ideal for programmers and hobbyists familiar with the Pi through resources such as Getting Started with Raspberry Pi (O’Reilly). Set up and manage your Raspberry Pi Connect the Pi to a network Work with its Linux-based operating system Use the Pi’s ready-made software Program Raspberry Pi with Python Control hardware through the GPIO connector Use Raspberry Pi to run different types of motors Work with switches, keypads, and other digital inputs Hook up sensors for taking various measurements Attach different displays, such as an LED matrix Create dynamic projects with Raspberry Pi and Arduino Make sure to check out 10 of the over 60 video recipes for this book at: http://razzpisampler.oreilly.com/ You can purchase all recipes at:

Raspberry Pi Zero Cookbook

Author : Edward Snajder
ISBN : 9781786466471
Genre : Computers
File Size : 50. 74 MB
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Over 80 practical and interesting recipes that explore the plethora of functionalities and opportunities available with Raspberry Pi Zero About This Book Deep dive into the components of the small yet powerful Raspberry Pi Zero Get into grips with integrating various hardware, programming, and networking concepts with the so-called “cheapest computer” Explore the functionalities of this $5 chip through practical recipes Who This Book Is For This book is for programmers and hobbyists who are eager to dive deep into the Raspberry Pi Zero. If you have basic or zero knowledge of the Raspberry Pi Zero, or if you looking for examples of ways to utilize the Raspberry Pi's GPIO interface, then this book is ideal for you. Basic knowledge of Python will be beneficial, and experience with circuitry and electronics will be needed for the later chapters in the book. What You Will Learn Set up your Raspberry Pi Zero with the operating system, networking, and different interfaces Get a hands-on introduction to Linux, Python, and shell scripts with the Raspberry Pi Zero Become a master at driving GPIOs and controlling relays, motors, transistors, buzzers, audio, read switches, and interrupts with the Raspberry Pi Zero Control GPIOs using the web interface and Node.js Connect displays, LED matrixes, analog sensors, and digital sensors Hack the Ethernet on the Raspberry Pi Zero Make your Raspberry Pi Zero an IoT-based sensor node and remotely monitor your data In Detail The Raspberry Pi Zero, one of the most inexpensive, fully-functional computers available, is a powerful and revolutionary product developed by the Raspberry Pi Foundation. The Raspberry Pi Zero opens up a new world for the makers out there. This book will give you expertise with the Raspberry Pi Zero, providing all the necessary recipes that will get you up and running. In this book, you will learn how to prepare your own circuits rather than buying the expensive add–ons available in the market. We start by showing you how to set up and manage the Pi Zero and then move on to configuring the hardware, running it with Linux, and programming it with Python scripts. Later, we integrate the Raspberry Pi Zero with sensors, motors, and other hardware. You will also get hands-on with interesting projects in media centers, IoT, and more. Style and approach This recipe-based book will ensure you gain an intermediate-level knowledge of the Raspberry Pi Zero. This book contains comprehensive illustrations with specific schematics for each circuit diagram.

Esp8266 Internet Of Things Cookbook

Author : Marco Schwartz
ISBN : 9781787283558
Genre : Computers
File Size : 38. 71 MB
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Exploring the low cost WiFi module About This Book Leverage the ESP8266's on-board processing and storage capability Get hand- on experience of working on the ESP8266 Arduino Core and its various libraries A practical and enticing recipe-based book that will teach you how to make your environment smart using the ESP8266 Who This Book Is For This book is targeted at IOT enthusiasts who are well versed with electronics concepts and have a very basic familiarity with the ESP8266. Some experience with programming will be an advantage. What You Will Learn Measure data from a digital temperature and humidity sensor using the ESP8266 Explore advanced ESP8266 functionalities Control devices from anywhere in the world using MicroPython Troubleshoot issues with cloud data monitoring Tweet data from the Arduino board Build a cloud-connected power-switch with the ESP8266 Create an ESP8266 robot controlled from the cloud In Detail The ESP8266 Wi-Fi Module is a self contained System on Chip (SOC) with an integrated TCP/IP protocol stack and can give any microcontroller access to your Wi-Fi network. It is capable of either hosting an application or offloading all Wi-Fi networking functions from another application processor. This book contains practical recipes that will help you master all ESP8266 functionalities. You will start by configuring and customizing the chip in line with your requirements. Then you will focus on core topics such as on-board processing, sensors, GPIOs, programming, networking, integration with external components, and so on. We will also teach you how to leverage Arduino using the ESP8266 and you'll learn about its libraries, file system, OTA updates, and so on. The book also provide recipes on web servers, testing, connecting with the cloud, and troubleshooting techniques. Programming aspects include MicroPython and how to leverage it to get started with the ESP8266. Towards the end, we will use these concepts and create an interesting project (IOT). By the end of the book, readers will be proficient enough to use the ESP8266 board efficiently. Style and approach This recipe-based book will teach you to build projects using the ESP8266.

Exploring Raspberry Pi

Author : Derek Molloy
ISBN : 9781119188681
Genre : COMPUTERS
File Size : 22. 26 MB
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Chapter 3 Exploring Embedded Linux Systems ; Introducing Embedded Linux ; Advantages and Disadvantages of Embedded Linux ; Is Linux Open Source and Free? ; Booting the Raspberry Pi ; Managing Linux Systems ; The Super User ; System Administration ; Linux Commands

Scipy Recipes

Author : V Kishore Ayyadevara
ISBN : 9781788295819
Genre : Computers
File Size : 67. 45 MB
Format : PDF, Kindle
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Tackle the most sophisticated problems associated with scientific computing and data manipulation using SciPy Key Features Covers a wide range of data science tasks using SciPy, NumPy, pandas, and matplotlib Effective recipes on advanced scientific computations, statistics, data wrangling, data visualization, and more A must-have book if you're looking to solve your data-related problems using SciPy, on-the-go Book Description With the SciPy Stack, you get the power to effectively process, manipulate, and visualize your data using the popular Python language. Utilizing SciPy correctly can sometimes be a very tricky proposition. This book provides the right techniques so you can use SciPy to perform different data science tasks with ease. This book includes hands-on recipes for using the different components of the SciPy Stack such as NumPy, SciPy, matplotlib, and pandas, among others. You will use these libraries to solve real-world problems in linear algebra, numerical analysis, data visualization, and much more. The recipes included in the book will ensure you get a practical understanding not only of how a particular feature in SciPy Stack works, but also of its application to real-world problems. The independent nature of the recipes also ensure that you can pick up any one and learn about a particular feature of SciPy without reading through the other recipes, thus making the book a very handy and useful guide. What you will learn Get a solid foundation in scientific computing using Python Master common tasks related to SciPy and associated libraries such as NumPy, pandas, and matplotlib Perform mathematical operations such as linear algebra and work with the statistical and probability functions in SciPy Master advanced computing such as Discrete Fourier Transform and K-means with the SciPy Stack Implement data wrangling tasks efficiently using pandas Visualize your data through various graphs and charts using matplotlib Who this book is for Python developers, aspiring data scientists, and analysts who want to get started with scientific computing using Python will find this book an indispensable resource. If you want to learn how to manipulate and visualize your data using the SciPy Stack, this book will also help you. A basic understanding of Python programming is all you need to get started.

Beaglebone Creative Projects For Hobbyists

Author : Charles Hamilton
ISBN : 9781788399265
Genre : Computers
File Size : 42. 71 MB
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Learn to build amazing robotic projects using the powerful BeagleBone Black. About This Book Push your creativity to the limit through complex, diverse, and fascinating projects Develop applications with the BeagleBone Black and open source Linux software Sharpen your expertise in making sophisticated electronic devices Who This Book Is For This Learning Path is aimed at hobbyists who want to do creative projects that make their life easier and also push the boundaries of what can be done with the BeagleBone Black. This Learning Path's projects are for the aspiring maker, casual programmer, and budding engineer or tinkerer. You'll need some programming knowledge, and experience of working with mechanical systems to get the complete experience from this Learning Path. What You Will Learn Set up and run the BeagleBone Black for the first time Get to know the basics of microcomputing and Linux using the command line and easy kernel mods Develop a simple web interface with a LAMP platform Prepare complex web interfaces in JavaScript and get to know how to stream video data from a webcam Find out how to use a GPS to determine where your sailboat is, and then get the bearing and distance to a new waypoint Use a wind sensor to sail your boat effectively both with and against the wind Build an underwater ROV to explore the underwater world See how to build an autonomous Quadcopter In Detail BeagleBone is a microboard PC that runs Linux. It can connect to the Internet and run OSes such as Android and Ubuntu. You can transform this tiny device into a brain for an embedded application or an endless variety of electronic inventions and prototypes. This Learning Path starts off by teaching you how to program the BeagleBone. You will create introductory projects to get yourselves acquainted with all the nitty gritty. Then we'll focus on a series of projects that are aimed at hobbyists like you and encompass the areas of home automation and robotics. With each project, we'll teach you how to connect several sensors and an actuator to the BeagleBone Black. We'll also create robots for land, sea, and water. Yes, really! The books used in this Learning Path are: BeagleBone Black Cookbook BeagleBone Home Automation Blueprints Mastering BeagleBone Robotics Style and approach This practical guide transforms complex and confusing pieces of technology to become accessible with easy- to-succeed instructions. Through clear, concise examples, you will quickly get to grips with the core concepts needed to develop home automation applications with the BeagleBone Black.

Practical Solar Tracking Automatic Solar Tracking Sun Tracking

Author : Gerro Prinsloo
ISBN :
Genre : Computers
File Size : 71. 7 MB
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This book details Practical Solar Energy Harvesting, Automatic Solar-Tracking, Sun-Tracking-Systems, Solar-Trackers and Sun Tracker Systems using motorized automatic positioning concepts and control principles. An intelligent automatic solar tracker is a device that orients a payload toward the sun. Such programmable computer based solar tracking device includes principles of solar tracking, solar tracking systems, as well as microcontroller, microprocessor and/or PC based solar tracking control to orientate solar reflectors, solar lenses, photovoltaic panels or other optical configurations towards the sun. Motorized space frames and kinematic systems ensure motion dynamics and employ drive technology and gearing principles to steer optical configurations such as mangin, parabolic, conic, or cassegrain solar energy collectors to face the sun and follow the sun movement contour continuously. In general, the book may benefit solar research and solar energy applications in countries such as Africa, Mediterranean, Italy, Spain, Greece, USA, Mexico, South America, Brazilia, Argentina, Chili, India, Malaysia, Middle East, UAE, Russia, Japan and China. This book on practical automatic Solar-Tracking Sun-Tracking is in .PDF format and can easily be converted to the .EPUB .MOBI .AZW .ePub .FB2 .LIT .LRF .MOBI .PDB .PDF .TCR formats for smartphones and Kindle by using the ebook.online-convert.com facility. The content of the book is also applicable to communication antenna satellite tracking and moon tracking algorithm source code for which links to free download links are provided. In harnessing power from the sun through a solar tracker or practical solar tracking system, renewable energy control automation systems require automatic solar tracking software and solar position algorithms to accomplish dynamic motion control with control automation architecture, circuit boards and hardware. On-axis sun tracking system such as the altitude-azimuth dual axis or multi-axis solar tracker systems use a sun tracking algorithm or ray tracing sensors or software to ensure the sun's passage through the sky is traced with high precision in automated solar tracker applications, right through summer solstice, solar equinox and winter solstice. A high precision sun position calculator or sun position algorithm is this an important step in the design and construction of an automatic solar tracking system. From sun tracing software perspective, the sonnet Tracing The Sun has a literal meaning. Within the context of sun track and trace, this book explains that the sun's daily path across the sky is directed by relatively simple principles, and if grasped/understood, then it is relatively easy to trace the sun with sun following software. Sun position computer software for tracing the sun are available as open source code, sources that is listed in this book. Ironically there was even a system called sun chaser, said to have been a solar positioner system known for chasing the sun throughout the day. Using solar equations in an electronic circuit for automatic solar tracking is quite simple, even if you are a novice, but mathematical solar equations are over complicated by academic experts and professors in text-books, journal articles and internet websites. In terms of solar hobbies, scholars, students and Hobbyist's looking at solar tracking electronics or PC programs for solar tracking are usually overcome by the sheer volume of scientific material and internet resources, which leaves many developers in frustration when search for simple experimental solar tracking source-code for their on-axis sun-tracking systems. This booklet will simplify the search for the mystical sun tracking formulas for your sun tracker innovation and help you develop your own autonomous solar tracking controller. By directing the solar collector directly into the sun, a solar harvesting means or device can harness sunlight or thermal heat. This is achieved with the help of sun angle formulas, solar angle formulas or solar tracking procedures for the calculation of sun's position in the sky. Automatic sun tracking system software includes algorithms for solar altitude azimuth angle calculations required in following the sun across the sky. In using the longitude, latitude GPS coordinates of the solar tracker location, these sun tracking software tools supports precision solar tracking by determining the solar altitude-azimuth coordinates for the sun trajectory in altitude-azimuth tracking at the tracker location, using certain sun angle formulas in sun vector calculations. Instead of follow the sun software, a sun tracking sensor such as a sun sensor or webcam or video camera with vision based sun following image processing software can also be used to determine the position of the sun optically. Such optical feedback devices are often used in solar panel tracking systems and dish tracking systems. Dynamic sun tracing is also used in solar surveying, DNI analyser and sun surveying systems that build solar infographics maps with solar radiance, irradiance and DNI models for GIS (geographical information system). In this way geospatial methods on solar/environment interaction makes use use of geospatial technologies (GIS, Remote Sensing, and Cartography). Climatic data and weather station or weather center data, as well as queries from sky servers and solar resource database systems (i.e. on DB2, Sybase, Oracle, SQL, MySQL) may also be associated with solar GIS maps. In such solar resource modelling systems, a pyranometer or solarimeter is normally used in addition to measure direct and indirect, scattered, dispersed, reflective radiation for a particular geographical location. Sunlight analysis is important in flash photography where photographic lighting are important for photographers. GIS systems are used by architects who add sun shadow applets to study architectural shading or sun shadow analysis, solar flux calculations, optical modelling or to perform weather modelling. Such systems often employ a computer operated telescope type mechanism with ray tracing program software as a solar navigator or sun tracer that determines the solar position and intensity. The purpose of this booklet is to assist developers to track and trace suitable source-code and solar tracking algorithms for their application, whether a hobbyist, scientist, technician or engineer. Many open-source sun following and tracking algorithms and source-code for solar tracking programs and modules are freely available to download on the internet today. Certain proprietary solar tracker kits and solar tracking controllers include a software development kit SDK for its application programming interface API attributes (Pebble). Widget libraries, widget toolkits, GUI toolkit and UX libraries with graphical control elements are also available to construct the graphical user interface (GUI) for your solar tracking or solar power monitoring program. The solar library used by solar position calculators, solar simulation software and solar contour calculators include machine program code for the solar hardware controller which are software programmed into Micro-controllers, Programmable Logic Controllers PLC, programmable gate arrays, Arduino processor or PIC processor. PC based solar tracking is also high in demand using C++, Visual Basic VB, as well as MS Windows, Linux and Apple Mac based operating systems for sun path tables on Matlab, Excel. Some books and internet webpages use other terms, such as: sun angle calculator, sun position calculator or solar angle calculator. As said, such software code calculate the solar azimuth angle, solar altitude angle, solar elevation angle or the solar Zenith angle (Zenith solar angle is simply referenced from vertical plane, the mirror of the elevation angle measured from the horizontal or ground plane level). Similar software code is also used in solar calculator apps or the solar power calculator apps for IOS and Android smartphone devices. Most of these smartphone solar mobile apps show the sun path and sun-angles for any location and date over a 24 hour period. Some smartphones include augmented reality features in which you can physically see and look at the solar path through your cell phone camera or mobile phone camera at your phone's specific GPS location. In the computer programming and digital signal processing (DSP) environment, (free/open source) program code are available for VB, .Net, Delphi, Python, C, C+, C++, PHP, Swift, ADM, F, Flash, Basic, QBasic, GBasic, KBasic, SIMPL language, Squirrel, Solaris, Assembly language on operating systems such as MS Windows, Apple Mac, DOS or Linux OS. Software algorithms predicting position of the sun in the sky are commonly available as graphical programming platforms such as Matlab (Mathworks), Simulink models, Java applets, TRNSYS simulations, Scada system apps, Labview module, Beckhoff TwinCAT (Visual Studio), Siemens SPA, mobile and iphone apps, Android or iOS tablet apps, and so forth. At the same time, PLC software code for a range of sun tracking automation technology can follow the profile of sun in sky for Siemens, HP, Panasonic, ABB, Allan Bradley, OMRON, SEW, Festo, Beckhoff, Rockwell, Schneider, Endress Hauser, Fudji electric. Honeywell, Fuchs, Yokonawa, or Muthibishi platforms. Sun path projection software are also available for a range of modular IPC embedded PC motherboards, Industrial PC, PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) and PAC (Programmable Automation Controller) such as the Siemens S7-1200 or Siemens Logo, Beckhoff IPC or CX series, OMRON PLC, Ercam PLC, AC500plc ABB, National Instruments NI PXI or NI cRIO, PIC processor, Intel 8051/8085, IBM (Cell, Power, Brain or Truenorth series), FPGA (Xilinx Altera Nios), Intel, Xeon, Atmel megaAVR, MPU, Maple, Teensy, MSP, XMOS, Xbee, ARM, Raspberry Pi, Eagle, Arduino or Arduino AtMega microcontroller, with servo motor, stepper motor, direct current DC pulse width modulation PWM (current driver) or alternating current AC SPS or IPC variable frequency drives VFD motor drives (also termed adjustable-frequency drive, variable-speed drive, AC drive, micro drive or inverter drive) for electrical, mechatronic, pneumatic, or hydraulic solar tracking actuators. The above motion control and robot control systems include analogue or digital interfacing ports on the processors to allow for tracker angle orientation feedback control through one or a combination of angle sensor or angle encoder, shaft encoder, precision encoder, optical encoder, magnetic encoder, direction encoder, rotational encoder, chip encoder, tilt sensor, inclination sensor, or pitch sensor. Note that the tracker's elevation or zenith axis angle may measured using an altitude angle-, declination angle-, inclination angle-, pitch angle-, or vertical angle-, zenith angle- sensor or inclinometer. Similarly the tracker's azimuth axis angle be measured with a azimuth angle-, horizontal angle-, or roll angle- sensor. Chip integrated accelerometer magnetometer gyroscope type angle sensors can also be used to calculate displacement. Other options include the use of thermal imaging systems such as a Fluke thermal imager, or robotic or vision based solar tracker systems that employ face tracking, head tracking, hand tracking, eye tracking and car tracking principles in solar tracking. With unattended decentralised rural, island, isolated, or autonomous off-grid power installations, remote control, monitoring, data acquisition, digital datalogging and online measurement and verification equipment becomes crucial. It assists the operator with supervisory control to monitor the efficiency of remote renewable energy resources and systems and provide valuable web-based feedback in terms of CO2 and clean development mechanism (CDM) reporting. A power quality analyser for diagnostics through internet, WiFi and cellular mobile links is most valuable in frontline troubleshooting and predictive maintenance, where quick diagnostic analysis is required to detect and prevent power quality issues. Solar tracker applications cover a wide spectrum of solar applications and solar assisted application, including concentrated solar power generation, solar desalination, solar water purification, solar steam generation, solar electricity generation, solar industrial process heat, solar thermal heat storage, solar food dryers, solar water pumping, hydrogen production from methane or producing hydrogen and oxygen from water (HHO) through electrolysis. Many patented or non-patented solar apparatus include tracking in solar apparatus for solar electric generator, solar desalinator, solar steam engine, solar ice maker, solar water purifier, solar cooling, solar refrigeration, USB solar charger, solar phone charging, portable solar charging tracker, solar coffee brewing, solar cooking or solar dying means. Your project may be the next breakthrough or patent, but your invention is held back by frustration in search for the sun tracker you require for your solar powered appliance, solar generator, solar tracker robot, solar freezer, solar cooker, solar drier, solar pump, solar freezer, or solar dryer project. Whether your solar electronic circuit diagram include a simplified solar controller design in a solar electricity project, solar power kit, solar hobby kit, solar steam generator, solar hot water system, solar ice maker, solar desalinator, hobbyist solar panels, hobby robot, or if you are developing professional or hobby electronics for a solar utility or micro scale solar powerplant for your own solar farm or solar farming, this publication may help accelerate the development of your solar tracking innovation. Lately, solar polygeneration, solar trigeneration (solar triple generation), and solar quad generation (adding delivery of steam, liquid/gaseous fuel, or capture food-grade CO$_2$) systems have need for automatic solar tracking. These systems are known for significant efficiency increases in energy yield as a result of the integration and re-use of waste or residual heat and are suitable for compact packaged micro solar powerplants that could be manufactured and transported in kit-form and operate on a plug-and play basis. Typical hybrid solar power systems include compact or packaged solar micro combined heat and power (CHP or mCHP) or solar micro combined, cooling, heating and power (CCHP, CHPC, mCCHP, or mCHPC) systems used in distributed power generation. These systems are often combined in concentrated solar CSP and CPV smart microgrid configurations for off-grid rural, island or isolated microgrid, minigrid and distributed power renewable energy systems. Solar tracking algorithms are also used in modelling of trigeneration systems using Matlab Simulink (Modelica or TRNSYS) platform as well as in automation and control of renewable energy systems through intelligent parsing, multi-objective, adaptive learning control and control optimization strategies. Solar tracking algorithms also find application in developing solar models for country or location specific solar studies, for example in terms of measuring or analysis of the fluctuations of the solar radiation (i.e. direct and diffuse radiation) in a particular area. Solar DNI, solar irradiance and atmospheric information and models can thus be integrated into a solar map, solar atlas or geographical information systems (GIS). Such models allows for defining local parameters for specific regions that may be valuable in terms of the evaluation of different solar in photovoltaic of CSP systems on simulation and synthesis platforms such as Matlab and Simulink or in linear or multi-objective optimization algorithm platforms such as COMPOSE, EnergyPLAN or DER-CAM. A dual-axis solar tracker and single-axis solar tracker may use a sun tracker program or sun tracker algorithm to position a solar dish, solar panel array, heliostat array, PV panel, solar antenna or infrared solar nantenna. A self-tracking solar concentrator performs automatic solar tracking by computing the solar vector. Solar position algorithms (TwinCAT, SPA, or PSA Algorithms) use an astronomical algorithm to calculate the position of the sun. It uses astronomical software algorithms and equations for solar tracking in the calculation of sun's position in the sky for each location on the earth at any time of day. Like an optical solar telescope, the solar position algorithm pin-points the solar reflector at the sun and locks onto the sun's position to track the sun across the sky as the sun progresses throughout the day. Optical sensors such as photodiodes, light-dependant-resistors (LDR) or photoresistors are used as optical accuracy feedback devices. Lately we also included a section in the book (with links to microprocessor code) on how the PixArt Wii infrared camera in the Wii remote or Wiimote may be used in infrared solar tracking applications. In order to harvest free energy from the sun, some automatic solar positioning systems use an optical means to direct the solar tracking device. These solar tracking strategies use optical tracking techniques, such as a sun sensor means, to direct sun rays onto a silicon or CMOS substrate to determine the X and Y coordinates of the sun's position. In a solar mems sun-sensor device, incident sunlight enters the sun sensor through a small pin-hole in a mask plate where light is exposed to a silicon substrate. In a web-camera or camera image processing sun tracking and sun following means, object tracking software performs multi object tracking or moving object tracking methods. In an solar object tracking technique, image processing software performs mathematical processing to box the outline of the apparent solar disc or sun blob within the captured image frame, while sun-localization is performed with an edge detection algorithm to determine the solar vector coordinates. An automated positioning system help maximize the yields of solar power plants through solar tracking control to harness sun's energy. In such renewable energy systems, the solar panel positioning system uses a sun tracking techniques and a solar angle calculator in positioning PV panels in photovoltaic systems and concentrated photovoltaic CPV systems. Automatic on-axis solar tracking in a PV solar tracking system can be dual-axis sun tracking or single-axis sun solar tracking. It is known that a motorized positioning system in a photovoltaic panel tracker increase energy yield and ensures increased power output, even in a single axis solar tracking configuration. Other applications such as robotic solar tracker or robotic solar tracking system uses robotica with artificial intelligence in the control optimization of energy yield in solar harvesting through a robotic tracking system. Automatic positioning systems in solar tracking designs are also used in other free energy generators, such as concentrated solar thermal power CSP and dish Stirling systems. The sun tracking device in a solar collector in a solar concentrator or solar collector Such a performs on-axis solar tracking, a dual axis solar tracker assists to harness energy from the sun through an optical solar collector, which can be a parabolic mirror, parabolic reflector, Fresnel lens or mirror array/matrix. A parabolic dish or reflector is dynamically steered using a transmission system or solar tracking slew drive mean. In steering the dish to face the sun, the power dish actuator and actuation means in a parabolic dish system optically focusses the sun's energy on the focal point of a parabolic dish or solar concentrating means. A Stirling engine, solar heat pipe, thermosyphin, solar phase change material PCM receiver, or a fibre optic sunlight receiver means is located at the focal point of the solar concentrator. The dish Stirling engine configuration is referred to as a dish Stirling system or Stirling power generation system. Hybrid solar power systems (used in combination with biogas, biofuel, petrol, ethanol, diesel, natural gas or PNG) use a combination of power sources to harness and store solar energy in a storage medium. Any multitude of energy sources can be combined through the use of controllers and the energy stored in batteries, phase change material, thermal heat storage, and in cogeneration form converted to the required power using thermodynamic cycles (organic Rankin, Brayton cycle, micro turbine, Stirling) with an inverter and charge controller. В этой книге подробно Автоматическая Solar-Tracking, ВС-Tracking-Systems, Solar-трекеры и ВС Tracker Systems. Интеллектуальный автоматический солнечной слежения является устройством, которое ориентирует полезную нагрузку к солнцу. Такое программируемый компьютер на основе солнечной устройство слежения включает принципы солнечной слежения, солнечных систем слежения, а также микроконтроллер, микропроцессор и / или ПК на базе управления солнечной отслеживания ориентироваться солнечных отражателей, солнечные линзы, фотоэлектрические панели или другие оптические конфигурации к ВС Моторизованные космические кадры и кинематические системы обеспечения динамики движения и использовать приводной техники и готовится принципы, чтобы направить оптические конфигурации, такие как Манжен, параболических, конических или Кассегрена солнечных коллекторов энергии, чтобы лицом к солнцу и следовать за солнцем контур движения непрерывно. В обуздывать силу от солнца через солнечный трекер или практической солнечной системы слежения, системы возобновляемых контроля энергии автоматизации требуют автоматического солнечной отслеживания программного обеспечения и алгоритмов солнечные позиции для достижения динамического контроля движения с архитектуры автоматизации управления, печатных плат и аппаратных средств. На оси системы слежения ВС, таких как высота-азимут двойной оси или многоосевые солнечные системы трекер использовать алгоритм отслеживания солнце или трассировки лучей датчиков или программное обеспечение, чтобы обеспечить прохождение солнца по небу прослеживается с высокой точностью в автоматизированных приложений Солнечная Tracker , прямо через летнего солнцестояния, солнечного равноденствия и зимнего солнцестояния.Высокая точность позиции ВС калькулятор или положение солнца алгоритм это важный шаг в проектировании и строительстве автоматической системой солнечной слежения. 這本書詳細介紹了全自動太陽能跟踪,太陽跟踪系統的出現,太陽能跟踪器和太陽跟踪系統。智能全自動太陽能跟踪器是定向向著太陽的有效載荷設備。這種可編程計算機的太陽能跟踪裝置,包括太陽跟踪,太陽能跟踪系統,以及微控制器,微處理器和/或基於PC機的太陽跟踪控制,以定向太陽能反射器,太陽透鏡,光電板或其他光學配置朝向太陽的原理。機動空間框架和運動系統,確保運動動力學和採用的驅動技術和傳動原理引導光學配置,如曼金,拋物線,圓錐曲線,或卡塞格林式太陽能集熱器面向太陽,不斷跟隨太陽運動的輪廓。 從陽光透過太陽能跟踪器或實用的太陽能跟踪系統利用電力,可再生能源控制的自動化系統需要自動太陽跟踪軟件和太陽位置算法來實現控制與自動化架構,電路板和硬件的動態運動控制。上軸太陽跟踪系統,如高度,方位角雙軸或多軸太陽跟踪系統使用太陽跟踪算法或光線追踪傳感器或軟件,以確保通過天空中太陽的通道被跟踪的高精度的自動太陽跟踪器的應用,通過正確的夏至,春分太陽和冬至。一種高精度太陽位置計算器或太陽位置算法是這樣的自動太陽能跟踪系統的設計和施工中的重要一步。

Sun Tracker Automatic Solar Tracking Sun Tracking Systems Solar Trackers And Automatic Sun Tracker Systems

Author : Gerro Prinsloo
ISBN :
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 28. 92 MB
Format : PDF, ePub
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This book details Automatic Solar-Tracking, Sun-Tracking-Systems, Solar-Trackers and Sun Tracker Systems. An intelligent automatic solar tracker is a device that orients a payload toward the sun. Such programmable computer based solar tracking device includes principles of solar tracking, solar tracking systems, as well as microcontroller, microprocessor and/or PC based solar tracking control to orientate solar reflectors, solar lenses, photovoltaic panels or other optical configurations towards the sun. Motorized space frames and kinematic systems ensure motion dynamics and employ drive technology and gearing principles to steer optical configurations such as mangin, parabolic, conic, or cassegrain solar energy collectors to face the sun and follow the sun movement contour continuously. In harnessing power from the sun through a solar tracker or practical solar tracking system, renewable energy control automation systems require automatic solar tracking software and solar position algorithms to accomplish dynamic motion control with control automation architecture, circuit boards and hardware. On-axis sun tracking system such as the altitude-azimuth dual axis or multi-axis solar tracker systems use a sun tracking algorithm or ray tracing sensors or software to ensure the sun's passage through the sky is traced with high precision in automated solar tracker applications, right through summer solstice, solar equinox and winter solstice. A high precision sun position calculator or sun position algorithm is this an important step in the design and construction of an automatic solar tracking system. From sun tracing software perspective, the sonnet Tracing The Sun has a literal meaning. Within the context of sun track and trace, this book explains that the sun's daily path across the sky is directed by relatively simple principles, and if grasped/understood, then it is relatively easy to trace the sun with sun following software. Sun position computer software for tracing the sun are available as open source code, sources that is listed in this book. Ironically there was even a system called sun chaser, said to have been a solar positioner system known for chasing the sun throughout the day. Using solar equations in an electronic circuit for automatic solar tracking is quite simple, even if you are a novice, but mathematical solar equations are over complicated by academic experts and professors in text-books, journal articles and internet websites. In terms of solar hobbies, scholars, students and Hobbyist's looking at solar tracking electronics or PC programs for solar tracking are usually overcome by the sheer volume of scientific material and internet resources, which leaves many developers in frustration when search for simple experimental solar tracking source-code for their on-axis sun-tracking systems. This booklet will simplify the search for the mystical sun tracking formulas for your sun tracker innovation and help you develop your own autonomous solar tracking controller. By directing the solar collector directly into the sun, a solar harvesting means or device can harness sunlight or thermal heat. This is achieved with the help of sun angle formulas, solar angle formulas or solar tracking procedures for the calculation of sun's position in the sky. Automatic sun tracking system software includes algorithms for solar altitude azimuth angle calculations required in following the sun across the sky. In using the longitude, latitude GPS coordinates of the solar tracker location, these sun tracking software tools supports precision solar tracking by determining the solar altitude-azimuth coordinates for the sun trajectory in altitude-azimuth tracking at the tracker location, using certain sun angle formulas in sun vector calculations. Instead of follow the sun software, a sun tracking sensor such as a sun sensor or webcam or video camera with vision based sun following image processing software can also be used to determine the position of the sun optically. Such optical feedback devices are often used in solar panel tracking systems and dish tracking systems. Dynamic sun tracing is also used in solar surveying, DNI analyser and sun surveying systems that build solar infographics maps with solar radiance, irradiance and DNI models for GIS (geographical information system). In this way geospatial methods on solar/environment interaction makes use use of geospatial technologies (GIS, Remote Sensing, and Cartography). Climatic data and weather station or weather center data, as well as queries from sky servers and solar resource database systems (i.e. on DB2, Sybase, Oracle, SQL, MySQL) may also be associated with solar GIS maps. In such solar resource modelling systems, a pyranometer or solarimeter is normally used in addition to measure direct and indirect, scattered, dispersed, reflective radiation for a particular geographical location. Sunlight analysis is important in flash photography where photographic lighting are important for photographers. GIS systems are used by architects who add sun shadow applets to study architectural shading or sun shadow analysis, solar flux calculations, optical modelling or to perform weather modelling. Such systems often employ a computer operated telescope type mechanism with ray tracing program software as a solar navigator or sun tracer that determines the solar position and intensity. The purpose of this booklet is to assist developers to track and trace suitable source-code and solar tracking algorithms for their application, whether a hobbyist, scientist, technician or engineer. Many open-source sun following and tracking algorithms and source-code for solar tracking programs and modules are freely available to download on the internet today. Certain proprietary solar tracker kits and solar tracking controllers include a software development kit SDK for its application programming interface API attributes (Pebble). Widget libraries, widget toolkits, GUI toolkit and UX libraries with graphical control elements are also available to construct the graphical user interface (GUI) for your solar tracking or solar power monitoring program. The solar library used by solar position calculators, solar simulation software and solar contour calculators include machine program code for the solar hardware controller which are software programmed into Micro-controllers, Programmable Logic Controllers PLC, programmable gate arrays, Arduino processor or PIC processor. PC based solar tracking is also high in demand using C++, Visual Basic VB, as well as MS Windows, Linux and Apple Mac based operating systems for sun path tables on Matlab, Excel. Some books and internet webpages use other terms, such as: sun angle calculator, sun position calculator or solar angle calculator. As said, such software code calculate the solar azimuth angle, solar altitude angle, solar elevation angle or the solar Zenith angle (Zenith solar angle is simply referenced from vertical plane, the mirror of the elevation angle measured from the horizontal or ground plane level). Similar software code is also used in solar calculator apps or the solar power calculator apps for IOS and Android smartphone devices. Most of these smartphone solar mobile apps show the sun path and sun-angles for any location and date over a 24 hour period. Some smartphones include augmented reality features in which you can physically see and look at the solar path through your cell phone camera or mobile phone camera at your phone's specific GPS location. In the computer programming and digital signal processing (DSP) environment, (free/open source) program code are available for VB, .Net, Delphi, Python, C, C+, C++, PHP, Swift, ADM, F, Flash, Basic, QBasic, GBasic, KBasic, SIMPL language, Squirrel, Solaris, Assembly language on operating systems such as MS Windows, Apple Mac, DOS or Linux OS. Software algorithms predicting position of the sun in the sky are commonly available as graphical programming platforms such as Matlab (Mathworks), Simulink models, Java applets, TRNSYS simulations, Scada system apps, Labview module, Beckhoff TwinCAT (Visual Studio), Siemens SPA, mobile and iphone apps, Android or iOS tablet apps, and so forth. At the same time, PLC software code for a range of sun tracking automation technology can follow the profile of sun in sky for Siemens, HP, Panasonic, ABB, Allan Bradley, OMRON, SEW, Festo, Beckhoff, Rockwell, Schneider, Endress Hauser, Fudji electric. Honeywell, Fuchs, Yokonawa, or Muthibishi platforms. Sun path projection software are also available for a range of modular IPC embedded PC motherboards, Industrial PC, PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) and PAC (Programmable Automation Controller) such as the Siemens S7-1200 or Siemens Logo, Beckhoff IPC or CX series, OMRON PLC, Ercam PLC, AC500plc ABB, National Instruments NI PXI or NI cRIO, PIC processor, Intel 8051/8085, IBM (Cell, Power, Brain or Truenorth series), FPGA (Xilinx Altera Nios), Intel, Xeon, Atmel megaAVR, MPU, Maple, Teensy, MSP, XMOS, Xbee, ARM, Raspberry Pi, Eagle, Arduino or Arduino AtMega microcontroller, with servo motor, stepper motor, direct current DC pulse width modulation PWM (current driver) or alternating current AC SPS or IPC variable frequency drives VFD motor drives (also termed adjustable-frequency drive, variable-speed drive, AC drive, micro drive or inverter drive) for electrical, mechatronic, pneumatic, or hydraulic solar tracking actuators. The above motion control and robot control systems include analogue or digital interfacing ports on the processors to allow for tracker angle orientation feedback control through one or a combination of angle sensor or angle encoder, shaft encoder, precision encoder, optical encoder, magnetic encoder, direction encoder, rotational encoder, chip encoder, tilt sensor, inclination sensor, or pitch sensor. Note that the tracker's elevation or zenith axis angle may measured using an altitude angle-, declination angle-, inclination angle-, pitch angle-, or vertical angle-, zenith angle- sensor or inclinometer. Similarly the tracker's azimuth axis angle be measured with a azimuth angle-, horizontal angle-, or roll angle- sensor. Chip integrated accelerometer magnetometer gyroscope type angle sensors can also be used to calculate displacement. Other options include the use of thermal imaging systems such as a Fluke thermal imager, or robotic or vision based solar tracker systems that employ face tracking, head tracking, hand tracking, eye tracking and car tracking principles in solar tracking. With unattended decentralised rural, island, isolated, or autonomous off-grid power installations, remote control, monitoring, data acquisition, digital datalogging and online measurement and verification equipment becomes crucial. It assists the operator with supervisory control to monitor the efficiency of remote renewable energy resources and systems and provide valuable web-based feedback in terms of CO2 and clean development mechanism (CDM) reporting. A power quality analyser for diagnostics through internet, WiFi and cellular mobile links is most valuable in frontline troubleshooting and predictive maintenance, where quick diagnostic analysis is required to detect and prevent power quality issues. Solar tracker applications cover a wide spectrum of solar energy and concentrated solar devices, including solar power generation, solar desalination, solar water purification, solar steam generation, solar electricity generation, solar industrial process heat, solar thermal heat storage, solar food dryers, solar water pumping, hydrogen production from methane or producing hydrogen and oxygen from water (HHO) through electrolysis. Many patented or non-patented solar apparatus include tracking in solar apparatus for solar electric generator, solar desalinator, solar steam engine, solar ice maker, solar water purifier, solar cooling, solar refrigeration, USB solar charger, solar phone charging, portable solar charging tracker, solar coffee brewing, solar cooking or solar dying means. Your project may be the next breakthrough or patent, but your invention is held back by frustration in search for the sun tracker you require for your solar powered appliance, solar generator, solar tracker robot, solar freezer, solar cooker, solar drier, solar pump, solar freezer, or solar dryer project. Whether your solar electronic circuit diagram include a simplified solar controller design in a solar electricity project, solar power kit, solar hobby kit, solar steam generator, solar hot water system, solar ice maker, solar desalinator, hobbyist solar panels, hobby robot, or if you are developing professional or hobby electronics for a solar utility or micro scale solar powerplant for your own solar farm or solar farming, this publication may help accelerate the development of your solar tracking innovation. Lately, solar polygeneration, solar trigeneration (solar triple generation), and solar quad generation (adding delivery of steam, liquid/gaseous fuel, or capture food-grade CO$_2$) systems have need for automatic solar tracking. These systems are known for significant efficiency increases in energy yield as a result of the integration and re-use of waste or residual heat and are suitable for compact packaged micro solar powerplants that could be manufactured and transported in kit-form and operate on a plug-and play basis. Typical hybrid solar power systems include compact or packaged solar micro combined heat and power (CHP or mCHP) or solar micro combined, cooling, heating and power (CCHP, CHPC, mCCHP, or mCHPC) systems used in distributed power generation. These systems are often combined in concentrated solar CSP and CPV smart microgrid configurations for off-grid rural, island or isolated microgrid, minigrid and distributed power renewable energy systems. Solar tracking algorithms are also used in modelling of trigeneration systems using Matlab Simulink (Modelica or TRNSYS) platform as well as in automation and control of renewable energy systems through intelligent parsing, multi-objective, adaptive learning control and control optimization strategies. Solar tracking algorithms also find application in developing solar models for country or location specific solar studies, for example in terms of measuring or analysis of the fluctuations of the solar radiation (i.e. direct and diffuse radiation) in a particular area. Solar DNI, solar irradiance and atmospheric information and models can thus be integrated into a solar map, solar atlas or geographical information systems (GIS). Such models allows for defining local parameters for specific regions that may be valuable in terms of the evaluation of different solar in photovoltaic of CSP systems on simulation and synthesis platforms such as Matlab and Simulink or in linear or multi-objective optimization algorithm platforms such as COMPOSE, EnergyPLAN or DER-CAM. A dual-axis solar tracker and single-axis solar tracker may use a sun tracker program or sun tracker algorithm to position a solar dish, solar panel array, heliostat array, PV panel, solar antenna or infrared solar nantenna. A self-tracking solar concentrator performs automatic solar tracking by computing the solar vector. Solar position algorithms (TwinCAT, SPA, or PSA Algorithms) use an astronomical algorithm to calculate the position of the sun. It uses astronomical software algorithms and equations for solar tracking in the calculation of sun's position in the sky for each location on the earth at any time of day. Like an optical solar telescope, the solar position algorithm pin-points the solar reflector at the sun and locks onto the sun's position to track the sun across the sky as the sun progresses throughout the day. Optical sensors such as photodiodes, light-dependant-resistors (LDR) or photoresistors are used as optical accuracy feedback devices. Lately we also included a section in the book (with links to microprocessor code) on how the PixArt Wii infrared camera in the Wii remote or Wiimote may be used in infrared solar tracking applications. In order to harvest free energy from the sun, some automatic solar positioning systems use an optical means to direct the solar tracking device. These solar tracking strategies use optical tracking techniques, such as a sun sensor means, to direct sun rays onto a silicon or CMOS substrate to determine the X and Y coordinates of the sun's position. In a solar mems sun-sensor device, incident sunlight enters the sun sensor through a small pin-hole in a mask plate where light is exposed to a silicon substrate. In a web-camera or camera image processing sun tracking and sun following means, object tracking software performs multi object tracking or moving object tracking methods. In an solar object tracking technique, image processing software performs mathematical processing to box the outline of the apparent solar disc or sun blob within the captured image frame, while sun-localization is performed with an edge detection algorithm to determine the solar vector coordinates. An automated positioning system help maximize the yields of solar power plants through solar tracking control to harness sun's energy. In such renewable energy systems, the solar panel positioning system uses a sun tracking techniques and a solar angle calculator in positioning PV panels in photovoltaic systems and concentrated photovoltaic CPV systems. Automatic on-axis solar tracking in a PV solar tracking system can be dual-axis sun tracking or single-axis sun solar tracking. It is known that a motorized positioning system in a photovoltaic panel tracker increase energy yield and ensures increased power output, even in a single axis solar tracking configuration. Other applications such as robotic solar tracker or robotic solar tracking system uses robotica with artificial intelligence in the control optimization of energy yield in solar harvesting through a robotic tracking system. Automatic positioning systems in solar tracking designs are also used in other free energy generators, such as concentrated solar thermal power CSP and dish Stirling systems. The sun tracking device in a solar collector in a solar concentrator or solar collector Such a performs on-axis solar tracking, a dual axis solar tracker assists to harness energy from the sun through an optical solar collector, which can be a parabolic mirror, parabolic reflector, Fresnel lens or mirror array/matrix. A parabolic dish or reflector is dynamically steered using a transmission system or solar tracking slew drive mean. In steering the dish to face the sun, the power dish actuator and actuation means in a parabolic dish system optically focusses the sun's energy on the focal point of a parabolic dish or solar concentrating means. A Stirling engine, solar heat pipe, thermosyphin, solar phase change material PCM receiver, or a fibre optic sunlight receiver means is located at the focal point of the solar concentrator. The dish Stirling engine configuration is referred to as a dish Stirling system or Stirling power generation system. Hybrid solar power systems (used in combination with biogas, biofuel, petrol, ethanol, diesel, natural gas or PNG) use a combination of power sources to harness and store solar energy in a storage medium. Any multitude of energy sources can be combined through the use of controllers and the energy stored in batteries, phase change material, thermal heat storage, and in cogeneration form converted to the required power using thermodynamic cycles (organic Rankin, Brayton cycle, micro turbine, Stirling) with an inverter and charge controller. Book and literature review is ideal for sun and moon tracking in solar applications for sun-rich countries such as the USA, Spain, Portugal, Mediterranean, Italy, Greece, Mexico, Portugal, China, India, Brazil, Chili, Argentina, South America, etc. 这本书详细介绍了全自动太阳能跟踪,太阳跟踪系统的出现,太阳能跟踪器和太阳跟踪系统。智能全自动太阳能跟踪器是定向向着太阳的有效载荷设备。这种可编程计算机的太阳能跟踪装置,包括太阳跟踪,太阳能跟踪系统,以及微控制器,微处理器和/或基于PC机的太阳跟踪控制,以定向太阳能反射器,太阳透镜,光电板或其他光学配置朝向太阳的原理。机动空间框架和运动系统,确保运动动力学和采用的驱动技术和传动原理引导光学配置,如曼金,抛物线,圆锥曲线,或卡塞格林式太阳能集热器面向太阳,不断跟随太阳运动的轮廓。 从阳光透过太阳能跟踪器或实用的太阳能跟踪系统利用电力,可再生能源控制的自动化系统需要自动太阳跟踪软件和太阳位置算法来实现控制与自动化架构,电路板和硬件的动态运动控制。上轴太阳跟踪系统,如高度,方位角双轴或多轴太阳跟踪系统使用太阳跟踪算法或光线追踪传感器或软件,以确保通过天空中太阳的通道被跟踪的高精度的自动太阳跟踪器的应用,通过正确的夏至,春分太阳和冬至。一种高精度太阳位置计算器或太阳位置算法是这样的自动太阳能跟踪系统的设计和施工中的重要一步。 从太阳跟踪软件的角度来看,十四行诗跟踪太阳有一个字面意义。在太阳跟踪和追踪的背景下,这本书解释说,在天空中太阳的日常路径是通过相对简单的原则导向的,如果掌握/了解的话,就比较容易追查以下软件,太阳有太阳。是太阳位置的计算机软件用于跟踪太阳作为开源代码,列出在这本书的来源。讽刺的是还出现了系统,称为太阳跟踪器,据说已经知道了追逐太阳全天太阳能定位系统。 В этой книге подробно Автоматическая Solar-Tracking, ВС-Tracking-Systems, Solar-трекеры и ВС Tracker Systems. Интеллектуальный автоматический солнечной слежения является устройством, которое ориентирует полезную нагрузку к солнцу. Такое программируемый компьютер на основе солнечной устройство слежения включает принципы солнечной слежения, солнечных систем слежения, а также микроконтроллер, микропроцессор и / или ПК на базе управления солнечной отслеживания ориентироваться солнечных отражателей, солнечные линзы, фотоэлектрические панели или другие оптические конфигурации к ВС Моторизованные космические кадры и кинематические системы обеспечения динамики движения и использовать приводной техники и готовится принципы, чтобы направить оптические конфигурации, такие как Манжен, параболических, конических или Кассегрена солнечных коллекторов энергии, чтобы лицом к солнцу и следовать за солнцем контур движения непрерывно. В обуздывать силу от солнца через солнечный трекер или практической солнечной системы слежения, системы возобновляемых контроля энергии автоматизации требуют автоматического солнечной отслеживания программного обеспечения и алгоритмов солнечные позиции для достижения динамического контроля движения с архитектуры автоматизации управления, печатных плат и аппаратных средств. На оси системы слежения ВС, таких как высота-азимут двойной оси или многоосевые солнечные системы трекер использовать алгоритм отслеживания солнце или трассировки лучей датчиков или программное обеспечение, чтобы обеспечить прохождение солнца по небу прослеживается с высокой точностью в автоматизированных приложений Солнечная Tracker , прямо через летнего солнцестояния, солнечного равноденствия и зимнего солнцестояния.Высокая точность позиции ВС калькулятор или положение солнца алгоритм это важный шаг в проектировании и строительстве автоматической системой солнечной слежения.

Automatic Solar Tracking Sun Tracking Satellite Tracking Rastreador Solar Seguimento Solar Seguidor Solar Autom Tico De Seguimiento Solar

Author : Gerro Prinsloo
ISBN : 9780620615761
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 49. 45 MB
Format : PDF, Kindle
Download : 889
Read : 549

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Automatic Solar Tracking Sun Tracking : This book details Automatic Solar-Tracking, Sun-Tracking-Systems, Solar-Trackers and Sun Tracker Systems. An intelligent automatic solar tracker is a device that orients a payload toward the sun. Such programmable computer based solar tracking device includes principles of solar tracking, solar tracking systems, as well as microcontroller, microprocessor and/or PC based solar tracking control to orientate solar reflectors, solar lenses, photovoltaic panels or other optical configurations towards the sun. Motorized space frames and kinematic systems ensure motion dynamics and employ drive technology and gearing principles to steer optical configurations such as mangin, parabolic, conic, or cassegrain solar energy collectors to face the sun and follow the sun movement contour continuously (seguimiento solar y automatización, automatización seguidor solar, tracking solar e automação, automação seguidor solar, inseguimento solare, inseguitore solare, energia termica, sole seguito, posizionatore motorizzato) In harnessing power from the sun through a solar tracker or practical solar tracking system, renewable energy control automation systems require automatic solar tracking software and solar position algorithms to accomplish dynamic motion control with control automation architecture, circuit boards and hardware. On-axis sun tracking system such as the altitude-azimuth dual axis or multi-axis solar tracker systems use a sun tracking algorithm or ray tracing sensors or software to ensure the sun's passage through the sky is traced with high precision in automated solar tracker applications, right through summer solstice, solar equinox and winter solstice. A high precision sun position calculator or sun position algorithm is this an important step in the design and construction of an automatic solar tracking system. The content of the book is also applicable to communication antenna satellite tracking and moon tracking algorithm source code for which links to free download links are provided. From sun tracing software perspective, the sonnet Tracing The Sun has a literal meaning. Within the context of sun track and trace, this book explains that the sun's daily path across the sky is directed by relatively simple principles, and if grasped/understood, then it is relatively easy to trace the sun with sun following software. Sun position computer software for tracing the sun are available as open source code, sources that is listed in this book. The book also describes the use of satellite tracking software and mechanisms in solar tracking applications. Ironically there was even a system called sun chaser, said to have been a solar positioner system known for chasing the sun throughout the day. Using solar equations in an electronic circuit for automatic solar tracking is quite simple, even if you are a novice, but mathematical solar equations are over complicated by academic experts and professors in text-books, journal articles and internet websites. In terms of solar hobbies, scholars, students and Hobbyist's looking at solar tracking electronics or PC programs for solar tracking are usually overcome by the sheer volume of scientific material and internet resources, which leaves many developers in frustration when search for simple experimental solar tracking source-code for their on-axis sun-tracking systems. This booklet will simplify the search for the mystical sun tracking formulas for your sun tracker innovation and help you develop your own autonomous solar tracking controller. By directing the solar collector directly into the sun, a solar harvesting means or device can harness sunlight or thermal heat. This is achieved with the help of sun angle formulas, solar angle formulas or solar tracking procedures for the calculation of sun's position in the sky. Automatic sun tracking system software includes algorithms for solar altitude azimuth angle calculations required in following the sun across the sky. In using the longitude, latitude GPS coordinates of the solar tracker location, these sun tracking software tools supports precision solar tracking by determining the solar altitude-azimuth coordinates for the sun trajectory in altitude-azimuth tracking at the tracker location, using certain sun angle formulas in sun vector calculations. Instead of follow the sun software, a sun tracking sensor such as a sun sensor or webcam or video camera with vision based sun following image processing software can also be used to determine the position of the sun optically. Such optical feedback devices are often used in solar panel tracking systems and dish tracking systems. Dynamic sun tracing is also used in solar surveying, DNI analyser and sun surveying systems that build solar infographics maps with solar radiance, irradiance and DNI models for GIS (geographical information system). In this way geospatial methods on solar/environment interaction makes use use of geospatial technologies (GIS, Remote Sensing, and Cartography). Climatic data and weather station or weather center data, as well as queries from sky servers and solar resource database systems (i.e. on DB2, Sybase, Oracle, SQL, MySQL) may also be associated with solar GIS maps. In such solar resource modelling systems, a pyranometer or solarimeter is normally used in addition to measure direct and indirect, scattered, dispersed, reflective radiation for a particular geographical location. Sunlight analysis is important in flash photography where photographic lighting are important for photographers. GIS systems are used by architects who add sun shadow applets to study architectural shading or sun shadow analysis, solar flux calculations, optical modelling or to perform weather modelling. Such systems often employ a computer operated telescope type mechanism with ray tracing program software as a solar navigator or sun tracer that determines the solar position and intensity. The purpose of this booklet is to assist developers to track and trace suitable source-code and solar tracking algorithms for their application, whether a hobbyist, scientist, technician or engineer. Many open-source sun following and tracking algorithms and source-code for solar tracking programs and modules are freely available to download on the internet today. Certain proprietary solar tracker kits and solar tracking controllers include a software development kit SDK for its application programming interface API attributes (Pebble). Widget libraries, widget toolkits, GUI toolkit and UX libraries with graphical control elements are also available to construct the graphical user interface (GUI) for your solar tracking or solar power monitoring program. The solar library used by solar position calculators, solar simulation software and solar contour calculators include machine program code for the solar hardware controller which are software programmed into Micro-controllers, Programmable Logic Controllers PLC, programmable gate arrays, Arduino processor or PIC processor. PC based solar tracking is also high in demand using C++, Visual Basic VB, as well as MS Windows, Linux and Apple Mac based operating systems for sun path tables on Matlab, Excel. Some books and internet webpages use other terms, such as: sun angle calculator, sun position calculator or solar angle calculator. As said, such software code calculate the solar azimuth angle, solar altitude angle, solar elevation angle or the solar Zenith angle (Zenith solar angle is simply referenced from vertical plane, the mirror of the elevation angle measured from the horizontal or ground plane level). Similar software code is also used in solar calculator apps or the solar power calculator apps for IOS and Android smartphone devices. Most of these smartphone solar mobile apps show the sun path and sun-angles for any location and date over a 24 hour period. Some smartphones include augmented reality features in which you can physically see and look at the solar path through your cell phone camera or mobile phone camera at your phone's specific GPS location. In the computer programming and digital signal processing (DSP) environment, (free/open source) program code are available for VB, .Net, Delphi, Python, C, C+, C++, PHP, Swift, ADM, F, Flash, Basic, QBasic, GBasic, KBasic, SIMPL language, Squirrel, Solaris, Assembly language on operating systems such as MS Windows, Apple Mac, DOS or Linux OS. Software algorithms predicting position of the sun in the sky are commonly available as graphical programming platforms such as Matlab (Mathworks), Simulink models, Java applets, TRNSYS simulations, Scada system apps, Labview module, Beckhoff TwinCAT (Visual Studio), Siemens SPA, mobile and iphone apps, Android or iOS tablet apps, and so forth. At the same time, PLC software code for a range of sun tracking automation technology can follow the profile of sun in sky for Siemens, HP, Panasonic, ABB, Allan Bradley, OMRON, SEW, Festo, Beckhoff, Rockwell, Schneider, Endress Hauser, Fudji electric. Honeywell, Fuchs, Yokonawa, or Muthibishi platforms. Sun path projection software are also available for a range of modular IPC embedded PC motherboards, Industrial PC, PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) and PAC (Programmable Automation Controller) such as the Siemens S7-1200 or Siemens Logo, Beckhoff IPC or CX series, OMRON PLC, Ercam PLC, AC500plc ABB, National Instruments NI PXI or NI cRIO, PIC processor, Intel 8051/8085, IBM (Cell, Power, Brain or Truenorth series), FPGA (Xilinx Altera Nios), Intel, Xeon, Atmel megaAVR, MPU, Maple, Teensy, MSP, XMOS, Xbee, ARM, Raspberry Pi, Eagle, Arduino or Arduino AtMega microcontroller, with servo motor, stepper motor, direct current DC pulse width modulation PWM (current driver) or alternating current AC SPS or IPC variable frequency drives VFD motor drives (also termed adjustable-frequency drive, variable-speed drive, AC drive, micro drive or inverter drive) for electrical, mechatronic, pneumatic, or hydraulic solar tracking actuators. The above motion control and robot control systems include analogue or digital interfacing ports on the processors to allow for tracker angle orientation feedback control through one or a combination of angle sensor or angle encoder, shaft encoder, precision encoder, optical encoder, magnetic encoder, direction encoder, rotational encoder, chip encoder, tilt sensor, inclination sensor, or pitch sensor. Note that the tracker's elevation or zenith axis angle may measured using an altitude angle-, declination angle-, inclination angle-, pitch angle-, or vertical angle-, zenith angle- sensor or inclinometer. Similarly the tracker's azimuth axis angle be measured with a azimuth angle-, horizontal angle-, or roll angle- sensor. Chip integrated accelerometer magnetometer gyroscope type angle sensors can also be used to calculate displacement. Other options include the use of thermal imaging systems such as a Fluke thermal imager, or robotic or vision based solar tracker systems that employ face tracking, head tracking, hand tracking, eye tracking and car tracking principles in solar tracking. With unattended decentralised rural, island, isolated, or autonomous off-grid power installations, remote control, monitoring, data acquisition, digital datalogging and online measurement and verification equipment becomes crucial. It assists the operator with supervisory control to monitor the efficiency of remote renewable energy resources and systems and provide valuable web-based feedback in terms of CO2 and clean development mechanism (CDM) reporting. A power quality analyser for diagnostics through internet, WiFi and cellular mobile links is most valuable in frontline troubleshooting and predictive maintenance, where quick diagnostic analysis is required to detect and prevent power quality issues. Solar tracker applications cover a wide spectrum of solar applications and solar assisted application, including concentrated solar power generation, solar desalination, solar water purification, solar steam generation, solar electricity generation, solar industrial process heat, solar thermal heat storage, solar food dryers, solar water pumping, hydrogen production from methane or producing hydrogen and oxygen from water (HHO) through electrolysis. Many patented or non-patented solar apparatus include tracking in solar apparatus for solar electric generator, solar desalinator, solar steam engine, solar ice maker, solar water purifier, solar cooling, solar refrigeration, USB solar charger, solar phone charging, portable solar charging tracker, solar coffee brewing, solar cooking or solar dying means. Your project may be the next breakthrough or patent, but your invention is held back by frustration in search for the sun tracker you require for your solar powered appliance, solar generator, solar tracker robot, solar freezer, solar cooker, solar drier, solar pump, solar freezer, or solar dryer project. Whether your solar electronic circuit diagram include a simplified solar controller design in a solar electricity project, solar power kit, solar hobby kit, solar steam generator, solar hot water system, solar ice maker, solar desalinator, hobbyist solar panels, hobby robot, or if you are developing professional or hobby electronics for a solar utility or micro scale solar powerplant for your own solar farm or solar farming, this publication may help accelerate the development of your solar tracking innovation. Lately, solar polygeneration, solar trigeneration (solar triple generation), and solar quad generation (adding delivery of steam, liquid/gaseous fuel, or capture food-grade CO$_2$) systems have need for automatic solar tracking. These systems are known for significant efficiency increases in energy yield as a result of the integration and re-use of waste or residual heat and are suitable for compact packaged micro solar powerplants that could be manufactured and transported in kit-form and operate on a plug-and play basis. Typical hybrid solar power systems include compact or packaged solar micro combined heat and power (CHP or mCHP) or solar micro combined, cooling, heating and power (CCHP, CHPC, mCCHP, or mCHPC) systems used in distributed power generation. These systems are often combined in concentrated solar CSP and CPV smart microgrid configurations for off-grid rural, island or isolated microgrid, minigrid and distributed power renewable energy systems. Solar tracking algorithms are also used in modelling of trigeneration systems using Matlab Simulink (Modelica or TRNSYS) platform as well as in automation and control of renewable energy systems through intelligent parsing, multi-objective, adaptive learning control and control optimization strategies. Solar tracking algorithms also find application in developing solar models for country or location specific solar studies, for example in terms of measuring or analysis of the fluctuations of the solar radiation (i.e. direct and diffuse radiation) in a particular area. Solar DNI, solar irradiance and atmospheric information and models can thus be integrated into a solar map, solar atlas or geographical information systems (GIS). Such models allows for defining local parameters for specific regions that may be valuable in terms of the evaluation of different solar in photovoltaic of CSP systems on simulation and synthesis platforms such as Matlab and Simulink or in linear or multi-objective optimization algorithm platforms such as COMPOSE, EnergyPLAN or DER-CAM. A dual-axis solar tracker and single-axis solar tracker may use a sun tracker program or sun tracker algorithm to position a solar dish, solar panel array, heliostat array, PV panel, solar antenna or infrared solar nantenna. A self-tracking solar concentrator performs automatic solar tracking by computing the solar vector. Solar position algorithms (TwinCAT, SPA, or PSA Algorithms) use an astronomical algorithm to calculate the position of the sun. It uses astronomical software algorithms and equations for solar tracking in the calculation of sun's position in the sky for each location on the earth at any time of day. Like an optical solar telescope, the solar position algorithm pin-points the solar reflector at the sun and locks onto the sun's position to track the sun across the sky as the sun progresses throughout the day. Optical sensors such as photodiodes, light-dependant-resistors (LDR) or photoresistors are used as optical accuracy feedback devices. Lately we also included a section in the book (with links to microprocessor code) on how the PixArt Wii infrared camera in the Wii remote or Wiimote may be used in infrared solar tracking applications. In order to harvest free energy from the sun, some automatic solar positioning systems use an optical means to direct the solar tracking device. These solar tracking strategies use optical tracking techniques, such as a sun sensor means, to direct sun rays onto a silicon or CMOS substrate to determine the X and Y coordinates of the sun's position. In a solar mems sun-sensor device, incident sunlight enters the sun sensor through a small pin-hole in a mask plate where light is exposed to a silicon substrate. In a web-camera or camera image processing sun tracking and sun following means, object tracking software performs multi object tracking or moving object tracking methods. In an solar object tracking technique, image processing software performs mathematical processing to box the outline of the apparent solar disc or sun blob within the captured image frame, while sun-localization is performed with an edge detection algorithm to determine the solar vector coordinates. An automated positioning system help maximize the yields of solar power plants through solar tracking control to harness sun's energy. In such renewable energy systems, the solar panel positioning system uses a sun tracking techniques and a solar angle calculator in positioning PV panels in photovoltaic systems and concentrated photovoltaic CPV systems. Automatic on-axis solar tracking in a PV solar tracking system can be dual-axis sun tracking or single-axis sun solar tracking. It is known that a motorized positioning system in a photovoltaic panel tracker increase energy yield and ensures increased power output, even in a single axis solar tracking configuration. Other applications such as robotic solar tracker or robotic solar tracking system uses robotica with artificial intelligence in the control optimization of energy yield in solar harvesting through a robotic tracking system. Automatic positioning systems in solar tracking designs are also used in other free energy generators, such as concentrated solar thermal power CSP and dish Stirling systems. The sun tracking device in a solar collector in a solar concentrator or solar collector Such a performs on-axis solar tracking, a dual axis solar tracker assists to harness energy from the sun through an optical solar collector, which can be a parabolic mirror, parabolic reflector, Fresnel lens or mirror array/matrix. A parabolic dish or reflector is dynamically steered using a transmission system or solar tracking slew drive mean. In steering the dish to face the sun, the power dish actuator and actuation means in a parabolic dish system optically focusses the sun's energy on the focal point of a parabolic dish or solar concentrating means. A Stirling engine, solar heat pipe, thermosyphin, solar phase change material PCM receiver, or a fibre optic sunlight receiver means is located at the focal point of the solar concentrator. The dish Stirling engine configuration is referred to as a dish Stirling system or Stirling power generation system. Hybrid solar power systems (used in combination with biogas, biofuel, petrol, ethanol, diesel, natural gas or PNG) use a combination of power sources to harness and store solar energy in a storage medium. Any multitude of energy sources can be combined through the use of controllers and the energy stored in batteries, phase change material, thermal heat storage, and in cogeneration form converted to the required power using thermodynamic cycles (organic Rankin, Brayton cycle, micro turbine, Stirling) with an inverter and charge controller.

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