environmental-toxicology-and-toxicogenomics

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Environmental Toxicology And Toxicogenomics

Author : Xiaoping Pan
ISBN : 1071615130
Genre : Medical
File Size : 42. 13 MB
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This detailed book provides an accessible compendium of up-to-date methods in the fields of environmental toxicology, molecular toxicology, and toxicogenomics. Organized into four major sections, the volume examines methods utilizing model animal species, such as nematode, fruit fly, mice, chicken, and amphibians, methods using plants to study chemical toxicity, applying the Ames assay to chemical mutagenicity study, as well as methods for environmental chemical analysis. Although this book is divided into these parts, the methods can be used across species. Written for the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and practical, Environmental Toxicology and Toxicogenomics: Principles, Methods, and Applications serves as a valuable resource for the scientific community, particularly for young scientists and graduate and undergraduate students, inspiring more research in the vitally important field of environmental toxicity, molecular toxicology, and toxicogenomics.

Toxicogenomics In Predictive Carcinogenicity

Author : Russell S Thomas
ISBN : 9781782624059
Genre : Medical
File Size : 32. 56 MB
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Research over the past decade has demonstrated that TGx methods of various types can be used to discriminate modes of mutagenesis as a function of dose. TGx can quickly inform safety evaluation regarding potential mechanisms of conventional outcomes and can provide essential dose-response information. This can then be used to ascertain the sequence of key events in a putative mode of action as may apply in quantitative cancer risk assessment. With the increasing complexity of research in mode of action investigations it is important to gain a better understand of approaches to data integration and health risk assessment. Furthermore, it is essential to consider how novel test systems and newer methods and approaches may be used in future to gain a better understanding of mechanisms. Toxicogenomics in Predictive Carcinogenicity describes toxicogenomics methods in predictive carcinogenicity testing, mode of action and safety evaluation, and cancer risk assessment. It illustrates these methods using case studies that have yielded significant new information on compounds and classes of compounds that have proven difficult to evaluate using conventional methods alone. This book additionally covers current and potential toxicogenomic research using stem cells as well as new bioinformatics methods for drug discovery and environmental toxicology. This publication is an indispensable tool for postgraduates, academics and industrialists working in biochemistry, genomics, carcinogenesis, pathology, pharmaceuticals, food technology, bioinformatics, risk assessment and environmental toxicology.

Applications Of Toxicogenomics In Safety Evaluation And Risk Assessment

Author : Darrell R. Boverhof
ISBN : 1118008987
Genre : Science
File Size : 36. 38 MB
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This book provides a timely overview of toxicogenomics, with special emphasis on the practical applications of this technology to the risk assessment process. Introductory sections are followed by a series of chapters highlighting practical and systematic applications of toxicogenomics in informing the risk assessment process – including the areas of mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, endocrine toxicity, organ-specific toxicity, population monitoring, and ecotoxicology. The book concludes with approaches for the integration of this technology in safety evaluation studies, and an outlook on how toxicogenomics and complementary technologies can reframe the current risk assessment paradigm.

Toxicogenomics

Author : Saura C. Sahu
ISBN : 9780470699645
Genre : Science
File Size : 70. 44 MB
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Toxicogenomics is the integration of genomics to toxicology. This technology is a powerful tool for collecting information from a large number of biological samples simultaneously and thus it is very useful for large-scale screening of potential toxicants. Toxicogenomics: A Powerful Tool For Toxicity Assessment provides up-to-date state-of-the-art information presented by the recognized experts, and is therefore an authoritative source of current knowledge in this field of research. The potential link between toxicology, genetics and human diseases makes this book very useful to investigators in many and varied disciplines of science and toxicology. Topics covered include: mechanistic toxicogenomics analysis and interpretation of toxicogenomic data principles of data mining in toxicogenomics design issues in toxicogenomics studies sources of variability in toxicogenomic assays Escherichia coli stress response as a tool for detection of toxicity toxicogenomics as a tool to assess immunotoxicity toxicogenomics and ecogenomics for studying endocrine disruption and basic biology use of toxicogenomics as an early predictive tool for hepatotoxicity nutrigenomics: the application of genomic signatures in nutrition-related research application of toxicogenomics in drug discovery potential uses of toxicogenomic biomarkers in occupational health and risk assessment usefulness of toxicogenomics in the regulatory environment perspectives on toxicogenomics at the US Environmental Protection Agency Toxicogenomics: A Powerful Tool For Toxicity Assessment is an essential resource for research scientists currently engaged in toxicogenomics, and will also be of interest to researchers working in toxicology, genetics, medicine, pharmacology, and food sciences, and to regulators and risk assessors of drug, food, environmental and agricultural products.

Applications Of Toxicogenomic Technologies To Predictive Toxicology And Risk Assessment

Author : National Research Council
ISBN : 0309178894
Genre : Science
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The new field of toxicogenomics presents a potentially powerful set of tools to better understand the health effects of exposures to toxicants in the environment. At the request of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, the National Research Council assembled a committee to identify the benefits of toxicogenomics, the challenges to achieving them, and potential approaches to overcoming such challenges. The report concludes that realizing the potential of toxicogenomics to improve public health decisions will require a concerted effort to generate data, make use of existing data, and study data in new ways--an effort requiring funding, interagency coordination, and data management strategies.

Toxicology And Human Environments

Author :
ISBN : 9780124159082
Genre : Science
File Size : 88. 45 MB
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Environmental toxicology is generally held to be the study of the potential of constituents of outdoor environments to impact either human health or the biological structure of the ecosystems involved. This volume is a first attempt to integrate toxicological studies of all of the many human environments, both indoor and outdoor, and their complex interrelationships. Included are considerations of natural environments, the agroecosystem, occupational, urban and domestic environments as well as the environment associated with Superfund sites and military deployments. The primary emphasis is on public health, including the potential health effects of toxicants found in different environments, the bioprocessing of such toxicants in humans and surrogate animals and the principles of risk analysis. Approaches the toxicology of human environments in a new and unique way, stressing the complex interrelationships of all human environments and the implication for human and environmental health Each chapter is written by an acknowledged expert and is addressed to those interested in the broader implications of the environmental modifications that are always associated with the activities of humans living and working in them

Application Of Toxicogenomics To Cross Species Extrapolation

Author : National Research Council
ISBN : 0309181682
Genre : Science
File Size : 53. 77 MB
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Some of what we know about the health effects of exposure to chemicals from food, drugs, and the environment come from studies of occupational, inadvertent, or accident-related exposures. When there is not enough human data, scientists rely on animal data to assess risk from chemical exposure and make health and safety decisions. However, humans and animals can respond differently to chemicals, including the types of adverse effects experienced and the dosages at which they occur. Scientists in the field of toxicogenomics are using new technologies to study the effects of chemicals. For example, in response to a particular chemical exposure, they can study gene expression ("transcriptomics"), proteins ("proteomics") and metabolites ("metabolomics"), and they can also look at how individual and species differences in the underlying DNA sequence itself can result in different responses to the environment. Based on a workshop held in August 2004, this report explores how toxicogenomics could enhance scientists' ability to make connections between data from experimental animal studies and human health.

Toxicogenomic Technologies And Risk Assessment Of Environmental Carcinogens

Author : National Research Council
ISBN : 030918178X
Genre : Science
File Size : 56. 27 MB
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Toxicogenomics is a discipline that combines expertise in toxicology, genetics, molecular biology, and environmental health to help understand the response of living organisms to stressful environments. The National Research Council convened a workshop to discuss how toxicogenomic data could be applied to improve risk assessments, particularly cancer risk from environmental exposure to chemicals. Risk assessments serve as the basis of many public-health decisions in environmental, occupational, and consumer protection from chemicals. The workshop provided a forum for communities of experts, including those working in "-omics" and those in the policy arena, to discuss where their fields intersect, and how toxicogenomics could address critical knowledge gaps in risk assessments.

A Textbook Of Modern Toxicology

Author : Ernest Hodgson
ISBN : 9781118211298
Genre : Science
File Size : 26. 94 MB
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A Textbook of Modern Toxicology is a unique resource thatprovides both students and practitioners with a wide-ranging,accessible overview of the discipline. Suitable for courses inenvironmental, pharmacological, medical, and veterinary toxicology,this essential text features chapters written by experts whoaddress a range of key topics. The Fourth Edition includes additional chapters on newapproaches to toxicology - molecular methods (-omics:toxicogenomics, proteomics, and metabolomics), bioinformatics, andsystems biology – and continues the legacy of itspredecessors to provide up-to-date insights into acute toxicity andchemical carcinogenesis, organ toxicity, in vitro and in vivotoxicity testing, ecological risk assessment, and many other areasof toxicology that help foster a solid comprehension of thefield. Also featured in the Fourth Edition are end-of-chapter questionsand a Solutions Manual available separately for academicadopters.

Toxicogenomics

Author : Wilbert H. M. Heijne
ISBN : 908504121X
Genre :
File Size : 58. 30 MB
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Handbook Of Toxicogenomics

Author : Jürgen Borlak
ISBN : 9783527604517
Genre : Science
File Size : 23. 14 MB
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Toxicogenomics is a new, dynamic and very promising field that can help optimize toxicity analyses and streamline research into active substances. It is of interest not only for basic research and development, but also from a legal and ethical perspective. Here, experts from all the fields mentioned will find solid information provided by an international team of experienced authors. With its approach as an interdisciplinary overview, it will prove particularly useful for all those needing to develop appropriate research strategies. The authors work for major research institutions, such as the Fraunhofer Institute of Toxicology and Experimental Medicine (Germany), the German Cancer Research Center, the National Institute of Environmental Health Science (USA), the National Institute of Health Science (Japan) or for companies like Affymetrix, Altana Pharma, Bayer, Boehringer Ingelheim, Bruker, Merck, Nimblegen, Novartis, and Syngenta. Coverage ranges from the technology platforms applied, including DNA arrays or proteomics, via the bioinformatics tools required, right up to applications of toxicogenomics presented in numerous case studies, while also including an overview of national programs and initiatives as well as regulatory perspectives. Walter Rosenthal, Director of the Research Institute for Molecular Pharmacology in Berlin, praises the book thus: "I would like to congratulate the publishers of this handbook, one that deals with a extremely hot topic. They have succeeded in gaining as authors leading representatives from this field. The Handbook impressively shows how modern genomic research is leading to rapid advances and new insights within toxicology."

Toxicity Testing For Assessment Of Environmental Agents

Author : National Research Council
ISBN : 9780309100922
Genre : Nature
File Size : 84. 80 MB
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Toxicity testing in laboratory animals provides much of the information used by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to assess the hazards and risks associated with exposure to environmental agents that might harm public health or the environment. The data are used to establish maximum acceptable concentrations of environmental agents in drinking water, set permissible limits of exposure of workers, define labeling requirements, establish tolerances for pesticides residues on food, and set other kinds of limits on the basis of risk assessment. Because the number of regulations that require toxicity testing is growing, EPA called for a comprehensive review of established and emerging toxicity-testing methods and strategies. This interim report reviews current toxicity-testing methods and strategies and near-term improvements in toxicity-testing approaches proposed by EPA and others. It identifies several recurring themes and questions in the various reports reviewed. The final report will present a long-range vision and strategic plan to advance the practices of toxicity testing and human health assessment of environmental contaminants.

Computational Toxicology

Author : Bruce A. Fowler
ISBN : 9780123965080
Genre : Computers
File Size : 69. 10 MB
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Computational Toxicology: Methods and Applications for Risk Assessment is an essential reference on the translation of computational toxicology data into information that can be used for more informed risk assessment decision-making. This book is authored by leading international investigators who have real-world experience in relating computational toxicology methods to risk assessment. Key topics of interest include QSAR modeling, chemical mixtures, applications to metabolomic and metabonomic data sets, toxicogenomic analyses, applications to REACH informational strategies and much more. The examples provided in this book are based on cutting-edge technologies and set out to stimulate the further development of this promising field to offer rapid, better and more cost-effective answers to major public health concerns. Authored by leading international researchers engaged in cutting-edge applications of computational methods for translating complex toxicological data sets into useful risk assessment information Incorporates real-world examples of how computational toxicological methods have been applied to advance the science of risk assessment Provides the framework necessary for new technologies and fosters common vocabularies and principles upon which the effects of new chemical entities should be compared

Principles Of Toxicology Second Edition

Author : Stine Karen
ISBN : 9780849328565
Genre : Medical
File Size : 46. 54 MB
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Written by two experienced toxicology lecturers, Principles of Toxicology provides a broad-based yet in-depth introduction to this diverse subject. Comprehensive and easy-to-read, the book covers this broad and interdisciplinary field from the viewpoint of three different functional levels: molecular and cellular; physiological; and ecological and environmental. This revised second edition expands the coverage of the book while keeping the organizational format that made the first edition a bestseller. It also includes a series of brief case studies illustrating the application of toxicological principles to current issues of interest. Each and every chapter has been revised, several have been significantly rewritten, and three are entirely new. This new edition retains the extensive cross-referencing system that links all sections and enhances the integration of material. It also includes an appendix of selected toxicants that describes chemical structure and category of use. These features combine to make finding specific information quick and easy. The highly readable format and uniform, consistent presentation of information will make this the most used reference on your shelf. See what's new in the second edition:

Communicating Toxicogenomics Information To Nonexperts

Author : National Research Council
ISBN : 0309181968
Genre : Science
File Size : 77. 82 MB
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Toxicogenomics, the study of how genomes respond to exposure to toxicants, may ultimately hold the promise of detecting changes in the expression of a person's genes if he or she is exposed to these toxicants. As the technology rapidly develops, it is critical that scientists and the public communicate about the promises and limitations of this new field. Communicating technical information to the public about a developing science can be challenging, particularly when the applications of that science are not yet well understood. Communicating Toxicogenomics Information to Nonexperts is the summary of a workshop designed to consider strategies for communicating toxicogenomic information to the public and other non- expert audiences, specifically addressing the communication of some key social, ethical, and legal issues related to toxicogenomics and addressing how information related to the social implications of toxicogenomics might be perceived by nonexperts.

In Vitro Environmental Toxicology Concepts Application And Assessment

Author : Georg Reifferscheid
ISBN : 9783319459080
Genre : Science
File Size : 28. 99 MB
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This book review series presents current trends in modern biotechnology. The aim is to cover all aspects of this interdisciplinary technology where knowledge, methods and expertise are required from chemistry, biochemistry, microbiology, genetics, chemical engineering and computer science.Volumes are organized topically and provide a comprehensive discussion of developments in the respective field over the past 3-5 years. The series also discusses new discoveries and applications. Special volumes are dedicated to selected topics which focus on new biotechnological products and new processes for their synthesis and purification.In general, special volumes are edited by well-known guest editors. The series editor and publisher will however always be pleased to receive suggestions and supplementary information. Manuscripts are accepted in English.

Validation Of Toxicogenomic Technologies

Author : National Research Council
ISBN : 9780309104135
Genre : Nature
File Size : 40. 21 MB
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Beginning in the early 1980s, new technologies, began to permit evaluation of the expression of individual genes. Recent technological advances have expanded those evaluations to permit the simultaneous detection of the expression of tens of thousands of genes and to support holistic evaluations of the entire genome. The application of these technologies has enabled researchers to unravel complexities of cell biology and, in conjunction with toxicologic evaluations, the technologies are used to probe and gain insight into questions of toxicologic relevance. As a result, the use of the technologies has become increasingly important for scientists in academia, as well as for the regulatory and drug development process.

Fundamental Toxicology

Author : John H Duffus
ISBN : 9781782625452
Genre : Science
File Size : 73. 20 MB
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Fundamental Toxicology is a concise and comprehensive review of toxicology. It is based on the highly successful Fundamental Toxicology for Chemists and has been enriched and expanded. Every chapter in this new edition has been revised and updated, and four new chapters have been added. With contributions from internationally recognised experts in their field, this broad-based introduction to the topic covers both well-established and rapidly developing areas of toxicology, such as toxicogenomics, reproductive toxicology, behavioural toxicology and ecotoxicology. The book was written and published with the support of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). The book includes new information on: risk assessment and risk management; toxicogenomics; effects of toxic substances on the human body; environmental distribution of chemicals and ecotoxicology; clinical toxicology; pharmaceutical toxicology; and aspects of laboratory measurement and safe laboratory practice. Fundamental Toxicology is ideal for students and includes extensive pedagogical features, such as an extensive glossary, a bibliography after each chapter and recommended further reading. It is also designed for teachers and lecturers, especially those who may be teaching toxicology for the first time. Included is a suggested curriculum for using the text to teach toxicology to students from various scientific disciplines. Professionals working in toxicology and related fields will find this an invaluable guide.

Unsupervised Data Mining Applications On High Dimensional Gene Expression Time Series In Toxicogenomics

Author : Ce Gao
ISBN : OCLC:939947297
Genre : Bioinformatics
File Size : 77. 75 MB
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Toxicogenomics, the study of adverse effects caused by toxicants to human health and environment via high-throughput genomics technologies, present promising alternatives to expensive and lengthy animal-based approaches in toxicity testing and risk assessment. Advances in toxicogenomics techniques now enable monitoring cellular activities continuously, under a large range of experimental and biological conditions and providing comprehensive and high-resolution information at molecular levels. The research interests in toxicogenomics center on key issues involving the quantification of molecular toxic effects, the linkage between molecular endpoints and phenotypic ones, the discernment of dose-response and pharmacokinetics relationships, as well as the integration of bioinformatics into predictive toxicology. In particular, the increasingly complex and voluminous toxicogenomics data pose great analytical challenges. The existing bioinformatics tools are incompatible with the high dimensionality and temporal dynamics of the data, possibly leading to unreliable and misinterpretation of the potential toxicity connotation. The objectives of this dissertation are to develop and demonstrate new or improved methodology that better address the challenges and limitations in high dimensional time series toxicogenomics data analysis for critical bioinformatics application such as toxicity mechanism identification, toxicants classification, and for predictive toxicology knowledge discovery. In this study, we develop new or improve bioinformatics data analysis algorithms so that they are capable of processing high dimensional time series toxicogenomics data, therefore better capture and reflect the dynamics of cellular response to toxicants. We also prove the potential and validity of the incorporation of various molecular disturbance/effect quantifiers into various functional toxicogenomics bioinformatics to provide quantitative insights into the toxicant-induced cellular molecular responses at individual gene, specific pathway and system levels. In addition, we demonstrate the effectives of unsupervised bioinformatics tools for mining new, more in depth, much-detailed and fundamental knowledge and understanding of toxicological information at molecular level. This research could generate new information to fill in the urgent knowledge gaps in toxicogenomics that present barriers to the realization of predictive toxicology and make contributions to several fields including toxicology, bioinformatics and environmental science.

Toxicogenomics

Author : Tohru Inoue
ISBN : 9784431669999
Genre : Medical
File Size : 39. 36 MB
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The meteoric rate at which the human genome is being sequenced has presented to the research community a vast array of newly discovered genes, which in tum has catalyzed an even more dramatic effort to decipher this voluminous data set into understanding how genes function both individually and in complex pathways that regulate the biochemistry of life. A compendium of gene expression data, enhanced by complete proteomic analysis, will enable investigators to probe into the complexities of the mechanisms of normal genetic and metabolic pathways and, subsequently, how disease occurs when they malfunction. The new science of toxicogenomics combines genomic, proteomic, and informatics technologies, and biological research can now foresee a time when there will be a full comprehension of the complex dynamic mechanisms of genetics, biochemistry, and physiology. The inherent power of toxicogenomics derives from an amalgamation of multiple scientific disciplines that were originally drawn together to facilitate sequencing the three billion bases that comprise the human genome. Traditionally, the science of toxicology has been founded upon empirical codification of dose-related effects. It has evolved to studies that are directed towards understanding the mechanisms by which individual agents cause their effects in humans. Due to technical limitations, this process has been relatively slow, since it has accomplished one chemical or one effect at a time.

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