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Epigenetics In Human Disease

Author : Trygve Tollefsbol
ISBN : 0128122153
Genre :
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Epigenetics is one of the fastest growing fields in biomedical research, illuminating studies of human diseases by looking beyond genetic make-up and acknowledging that outside factors play a role in gene expression. In Epigenetics in Human Disease, Second Edition, leading international researchers examine those diseases or conditions for which we have advanced knowledge of epigenetic mechanisms such as cancer, autoimmune disorders, aging, metabolic disorders, neurobiological disorders, and cardiovascular disease. In addition to detailing the role of epigenetics in the etiology, progression, diagnosis, and prognosis of these diseases, novel epigenetic approaches to treatment are also explored. Fully revised and up-to-date, this new edition discusses topics of current interest in epigenetic research, including stem cell epigenetic therapy, bioinformatic analysis of NGS data, epigenetic mechanisms of imprinting disorders, online epigenetic tools and data sets, early-life programming of epigenetics in age-related diseases, and epigenetics of addiction and suicide, as well as epigenetic approaches to regulating and preventing diabetes, cardiac disease, allergic disorders, Alzheimer's disease, respiratory diseases, and many other human maladies. With its translational focus, Epigenetics in Human Disease, Second Edition, serves as an invaluable reference for both basic scientists and clinicians alike Includes contributions by leading international investigators involved in translational epigenetic research and therapeutic applications Integrates methods and applications with fundamental chapters on epigenetics in human disease, as well as evaluation of recent epigenetic clinical breakthroughs Side-by-side coverage of the basis of epigenetic diseases and treatment pathways This new edition has been fully revised to cover current developments in disease epigenetics, including stem cell epigenetic therapy, bioinformatic analysis of NGS data, epigenetic mechanisms of imprinting disorders, online epigenetic tools and data sets, early-life programming of epigenetics in age-related diseases, and epigenetics of addiction and suicide, as well as epigenetic approaches to regulating and preventing diabetes, cardiac disease, allergic disorders, Alzheimer's disease, respiratory diseases, and many other human maladies

Patho Epigenetics Of Disease

Author : Janos Minarovits
ISBN : 9781461433453
Genre : Medical
File Size : 22. 52 MB
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In multicellular organisms the establishment, maintenance, and programmed alterations of cell-type specific gene expression patterns are regulated by epigenetic mechanisms. Thus, epigenetic alterations (DNA methylation, DNA associated Polycomb-Trithorax protein complexes, histone modifications) ensure the unique transcriptional activity and phenotypic diversity of diploid cells that carry identical or nearly identical DNA sequences. Because DNA methyltransferase I (DNMT1) associates with replication foci during S phase and prefers hemimethylated DNA as a substrate, DNMT1 ensures the clonal propagation of cytosine methylation patterns (maintenance methylation). Thus, DNA methylation may provide a memory function by helping progeny cells to “remember” their proper cellular identity. An alternative system of epigenetic memory, the Polycomb and Trithorax groups of protein complexes, that may operate both independently from and in concert with DNA methylation, ensures the heritable regulation of gene expression via modification of histone tails. The complex interplay of epigenetic regulatory mechanisms permits both the dynamic modulation of gene expression and the faithful transmission of gene expression patterns to each progeny cell upon division. These carefully orchestrated processes can go wrong, however, resulting in epigenetic reprogramming of the cells that may manifest in pathological changes, as it was first realized during the studies of epigenetic alterations in malignant tumors. By now it became a well established fact that not only genetic changes, but also the disruption of epigenetic regulation can result in carcinogenesis and tumor progression. Scientists working in other fields soon followed the pioneering work of cancer researchers, and revealed that epigenetic dysregulation forms the basis of a wide spectrum of human diseases.

Epigenetics And Disease

Author : Susan M. Gasser
ISBN : 3764389893
Genre : Medical
File Size : 53. 23 MB
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Epigenetics has emerged recently as an important area of molecular biological studies. Epigenetic modifications lead to potentially heritable but reversible alterations in the expression of genes that determine cell fate. Epigenetic misregulation is thus often linked to degenerative diseases, cancer and neuronal disorders. Recent biomedical interest in this regulatory system stems from the fact that epigenetic, in contrast to genetic, alterations are in principle amenable to pharmacological intervention. A few epigenetically active drugs, for example histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) and DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitors, have been approved by FDA for treatment of cancers such as CTCL, MDS, and AML. This volume explores the scientific background for clinical applications of epigenetically active drugs. Included are descriptions of epigenetic controls over gene expression, the post-transcriptional silencing of genes by RNA interference (RNAi) and microRNAs, as well as new findings from stem cell research which are relevant to pharmacological applications.

Environmental Epigenomics In Health And Disease

Author : Randy L Jirtle
ISBN : 9783642233807
Genre : Medical
File Size : 84. 70 MB
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There are now compelling human epidemiological and animal experimental data that indicate the risk of developing adult-onset complex diseases and neurological disorders are influenced by persistent epigenetic adaptations in response to prenatal and early postnatal exposures to environmental factors. Epigenetics refers to heritable changes in gene function that occur without a change in the sequence of the DNA. The main components of the epigenetic code are DNA methylation, histone modifications, and non-coding RNAs. The epigenetic programs are established as stem cell differentiate during embryogenesis, and they are normally faithfully reproduced during mitosis. Moreover, they can also be maintained during meiosis, resulting in epigenetic transgenerational disease inheritance, and also potentially introducing phenotypic variation that is selected for in the evolution of new species. The objective of this book is to provide evidence that environmental exposures during early development can alter the risk of developing medical conditions, such as asthma, autism, cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and schizophrenia later in life by modifying the epigenome.

Nutrition Epigenetics And Health

Author : Burdge Graham
ISBN : 9789813143326
Genre : Medical
File Size : 71. 95 MB
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Epigenetics is emerging as an important factor in risk of diseases of global importance including obesity, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Unlike gene polymorphisms which have been the focus of understanding the role of inherited disease susceptibility for some time, epigenetic can be modified by environmental factors, in particular nutrition. Thus research into the role of epigenetics in disease has substantial potential for explaining the impact of the environmental factors such as diet on disease risk. Since epigenetic processes can be modified by nutrition, it may be possible to modify inappropriate epigenetic marks by nutritional interventions to reduce disease risk. This book will explore current understanding of the interaction between nutrition, epigenetics and disease risk, will place this knowledge in the context of global health and discuss the ethical implications of this research.

Epigenetics In Health And Disease

Author : Igor Kovalchuk
ISBN : 9780132597081
Genre : Medical
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"After reviewing the field's history and context, the authors introduce and explain each key epigenetic mechanism. Next, they extensively discuss the roles these mechanisms may play in inheritance, development, health and disease, behavior, evolution, ecology, and the interactions of individual organisms with their environments"--Cover, p. [4].

Computational Epigenetics And Diseases

Author :
ISBN : 9780128145142
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 67. 1 MB
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Computational Epigenetics and Diseases, written by leading scientists in this evolving field, provides a comprehensive and cutting-edge knowledge of computational epigenetics in human diseases. In particular, the major computational tools, databases, and strategies for computational epigenetics analysis, for example, DNA methylation, histone modifications, microRNA, noncoding RNA, and ceRNA, are summarized, in the context of human diseases. This book discusses bioinformatics methods for epigenetic analysis specifically applied to human conditions such as aging, atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, liver and autoimmune disorders, and reproductive and respiratory diseases. Additionally, different organ cancers, such as breast, lung, and colon, are discussed. This book is a valuable source for graduate students and researchers in genetics and bioinformatics, and several biomedical field members interested in applying computational epigenetics in their research. Provides a comprehensive and cutting-edge knowledge of computational epigenetics in human diseases Summarizes the major computational tools, databases, and strategies for computational epigenetics analysis, such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, microRNA, noncoding RNA, and ceRNA Covers the major milestones and future directions of computational epigenetics in various kinds of human diseases such as aging, atherosclerosis, diabetes, heart disease, neurological disorders, cancers, blood disorders, liver diseases, reproductive diseases, respiratory diseases, autoimmune diseases, human imprinting disorders, and infectious diseases

Epigenetics In Allergy And Autoimmunity

Author : Christopher Chang
ISBN : 9789811534492
Genre : Medical
File Size : 88. 97 MB
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This book will address the growing roles of epigenetics in disease pathogenesis, and review the contribution of epigenetic modifications to disease onset and progression. The roles that epigenetics plays in facilitating effects of the environment on allergy and immunologic diseases will be reviewed. The book is divided into three parts – the first is an introduction to epigenetics and the methods that have been developed to study epigenetics, the second addresses epigenetics in allergic diseases and the third part will cover epigenetics in autoimmune diseases. With the rapid expansion of knowledge of how genes are regulated and how this regulation affects disease phenotypes, this book will be attractive to experienced researchers as well as those just launching an epigenetics research program. It will also be of interest to allergist, immunologists, rheumatologists and dermatologist who are engaged in clinical practice as a resource for understanding the basis for personalized and precision medicine. For example, the role that epigenetics plays in the pathogenesis in various allergic and autoimmune disorders and how this determines disease phenotypes will be covered extensively in this book. This book will thus help fill the gap in available resources on epigenetics in allergy and autoimmune diseases.

Epigenetics Of Aging

Author : Trygve O. Tollefsbol
ISBN : 9781441906397
Genre : Medical
File Size : 69. 56 MB
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Recent studies have indicated that epigenetic processes may play a major role in both cellular and organismal aging. These epigenetic processes include not only DNA methylation and histone modifications, but also extend to many other epigenetic mediators such as the polycomb group proteins, chromosomal position effects, and noncoding RNA. The topics of this book range from fundamental changes in DNA methylation in aging to the most recent research on intervention into epigenetic modifications to modulate the aging process. The major topics of epigenetics and aging covered in this book are: 1) DNA methylation and histone modifications in aging; 2) Other epigenetic processes and aging; 3) Impact of epigenetics on aging; 4) Epigenetics of age-related diseases; 5) Epigenetic interventions and aging: and 6) Future directions in epigenetic aging research. The most studied of epigenetic processes, DNA methylation, has been associated with cellular aging and aging of organisms for many years. It is now apparent that both global and gene-specific alterations occur not only in DNA methylation during aging, but also in several histone alterations. Many epigenetic alterations can have an impact on aging processes such as stem cell aging, control of telomerase, modifications of telomeres, and epigenetic drift can impact the aging process as evident in the recent studies of aging monozygotic twins. Numerous age-related diseases are affected by epigenetic mechanisms. For example, recent studies have shown that DNA methylation is altered in Alzheimer’s disease and autoimmunity. Other prevalent diseases that have been associated with age-related epigenetic changes include cancer and diabetes. Paternal age and epigenetic changes appear to have an effect on schizophrenia and epigenetic silencing has been associated with several of the progeroid syndromes of premature aging. Moreover, the impact of dietary or drug intervention into epigenetic processes as they affect normal aging or age-related diseases is becoming increasingly feasible.

Environmental Epigenomics In Health And Disease

Author : Randy L. Jirtle
ISBN : 9783642368271
Genre : Medical
File Size : 47. 20 MB
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There are now compelling human epidemiological and animal experimental data that indicate the risk of developing adult-onset complex diseases and neurological disorders are influenced by persistent epigenetic adaptations in response to prenatal and early postnatal exposures to environmental factors. Epigenetics refers to heritable changes in gene function that occur without a change in the sequence of the DNA. The main components of the epigenetic code are DNA methylation, histone modifications, and non-coding RNAs. The epigenetic programs are established as stem cell differentiate during embryogenesis, and they are normally faithfully reproduced during mitosis. Moreover, they can also be maintained during meiosis, resulting in epigenetic transgenerational disease inheritance, and also potentially introducing phenotypic variation that is selected for in the evolution of new species. The objective of this two volume book is to provide evidence that environmental exposures during early development can alter the risk of developing medical conditions, such as asthma, autism, cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and schizophrenia later in life by modifying the epigenome. Consequently, epigenetic research promises to markedly improve our ability to diagnosis, prevent, and treat the pathological conditions of humans; however, it also introduces unique legal and ethical issues. This volume highlights the correlation between environmental factors and complex diseases, such as autism, addiction, neurological diseases, diabetes, obesity and cancer. It concludes with a chapter on legal and ethical implications of epigenetics. ​

Epigenetics Of Infectious Diseases

Author : Walter Doerfler
ISBN : 9783319550213
Genre : Medical
File Size : 88. 20 MB
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The present volume of Epigenetics and Human Health is devoted to the patho-epigenetics of viral and microbial infections, an exiting new field of disease-related epigenetic research. As recognized during the past years, epigenetic reprogramming of pathogen and host genome functions – the latter frequently induced by pathogens – plays an important role in many infectious processes. Beyond their immediate relevance for pathogen proliferation and obligatorily associated symptoms, such alterations frequently contribute to severe additional complications, such as the development of immunodeficiency, cancer and various chronic disorders. This holds in particular for epigenetic dysregulation of host gene expression induced by latent infections. The present book summarizes current knowledge of the mechanisms underlying epigenetic changes caused by viral, bacterial, fungal and protozoan infections and their impact on human health.

Patho Epigenetics Of Disease

Author : Janos Minarovits
ISBN : 1489991786
Genre : Medical
File Size : 86. 75 MB
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In multicellular organisms the establishment, maintenance, and programmed alterations of cell-type specific gene expression patterns are regulated by epigenetic mechanisms. Thus, epigenetic alterations (DNA methylation, DNA associated Polycomb-Trithorax protein complexes, histone modifications) ensure the unique transcriptional activity and phenotypic diversity of diploid cells that carry identical or nearly identical DNA sequences. Because DNA methyltransferase I (DNMT1) associates with replication foci during S phase and prefers hemimethylated DNA as a substrate, DNMT1 ensures the clonal propagation of cytosine methylation patterns (maintenance methylation). Thus, DNA methylation may provide a memory function by helping progeny cells to “remember” their proper cellular identity. An alternative system of epigenetic memory, the Polycomb and Trithorax groups of protein complexes, that may operate both independently from and in concert with DNA methylation, ensures the heritable regulation of gene expression via modification of histone tails. The complex interplay of epigenetic regulatory mechanisms permits both the dynamic modulation of gene expression and the faithful transmission of gene expression patterns to each progeny cell upon division. These carefully orchestrated processes can go wrong, however, resulting in epigenetic reprogramming of the cells that may manifest in pathological changes, as it was first realized during the studies of epigenetic alterations in malignant tumors. By now it became a well established fact that not only genetic changes, but also the disruption of epigenetic regulation can result in carcinogenesis and tumor progression. Scientists working in other fields soon followed the pioneering work of cancer researchers, and revealed that epigenetic dysregulation forms the basis of a wide spectrum of human diseases.

Epigenetics In Cardiac Disease

Author : Johannes Backs
ISBN : 9783319414577
Genre : Medical
File Size : 39. 33 MB
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This book describes important advances in our understanding of how environmental conditions affect cardiac gene expression through epigenetic mechanisms. Further, it discusses the roles of chromatin modifications (in particular DNA methylation and histone modifications) and of chromatin regulators in the context of cardiac diseases. The book provides readers with an overview of our current understanding of epigenetic regulation in the heart, and will stimulate further research in this exciting field. Edited and written by internationally respected experts, it addresses the needs of professors, students and researchers working in the fields of cardiac biology and epigenetics.

Epigenetics

Author : Lyle Armstrong
ISBN : 081536511X
Genre : Science
File Size : 48. 21 MB
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"The concept of epigenetics has been known about since the 1940s, but it is only in the last 10 years that research has shown just how wide ranging its effects are. It is now a very widely-used term, but there is still a lot of confusion surrounding what it actually is and does. Epigenetics brings together the structure and machinery of epigenetic modification, how epigenetic modification controls cellular functions, and the evidence for the relationship between epigenetics and disease. It will therefore be an invaluable source of information about all aspects of this subject for undergraduate students, graduate students, and professionals alike. Topics included are the role of epigenetics in stem cells, the involvement of epigenetics with cancer, and the role of epigenetics in mental health. Key Features - Describes the two forms of epigenetic modification, DNA methylation and histone acetylation, and how they take place. - Section on how epigenetics controls cell function, including cellular differentiation and consequently the role of epigenetics in stem cells - Section on the role of epigenetics in disease only includes diseases where there is clear evidence of epigenetic involvement - Glossary explaining all the terms involved in epigenetics - Full-color figures"--Provided by publisher.

Genetics And Epigenetics Of Psychiatric Diseases 2nd Edition

Author : Cunyou Zhao
ISBN : 9782889660254
Genre : Science
File Size : 88. 25 MB
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Psychiatric diseases have a highly complex etiology, aggregating in families but not segregating in a traditional Mendelian manner. Recent approaches to understanding the causes of psychiatric disease have focused on describing the genetic contribution to major psychiatric illnesses; the use of large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and exome sequencing has enabled a systematic exploration of genetic risk factors and identified over 100 independent genomic loci significantly associated with psychiatric diseases; however, there remains uncertainty about the causal genes involved in disease pathogenesis, and how their function is regulated. Since many GWAS variants reside in non-coding regions, the disease-associated common variants might be enriched in regulatory domains, including enhancers and regions of active chromatin state. These lead us to focus on the possible role of non-sequence-based genomic variation in health and disease. Of particular interest are epigenetic modifications that regulate gene expression through modifications to DNA, RNA, histone proteins, and chromatin. The availability of high-throughput profiling methods for quantifiying epigenomic modifications in large numbers of samples has enabled us to perform epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) aimed at screening methylomic variations associated with environmental exposure and disease. Thus systematic integration of genetic, epigenetic and epidemiological approaches will contribute to improving our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying disease phenotypes.

Epigenetic Aspects Of Chronic Diseases

Author : Helmtrud I. Roach
ISBN : 9781848826441
Genre : Medical
File Size : 77. 69 MB
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Epigenetic Aspects of Chronic Diseases assembles in comprehensive form what is known about the role of epigenetics in chronic disease development. This book provides new insights into treatment, including modulation of epigenetic regulation. Each chapter gives an outline of a respective disease, explains why epigenetics may be involved in the disease process and then presents the evidence of how changes in epigenetic status contribute to initiation and progress of the disease. The final chapters look towards future therapeutic treatment, based on manipulation of epigenetic aspects. Written by widely published experts, Epigenetic Aspects of Chronic Diseases is a valuable reference tool for clinicians and researchers who investigate and treat chronic diseases, as well as health care personnel, post-doctoral fellows and medical or dental students.

Patho Epigenetics Of Infectious Disease

Author : Janos Minarovits
ISBN : 9783319247380
Genre : Science
File Size : 89. 62 MB
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Epigenetic modification of cellular genomes is a fascinating means of regulating tissue- and cell type-specific gene expression in all developmental stages of the life of an organism. Carefully orchestrated processes, such as DNA methylation and a plenitude of specific histone modifications secure the faithful transmission of gene expression patterns to progeny cells. Upon chronic infection, the epigenetic cellular balance can become disrupted and, in the long run, through the epigenetic reprogramming of host cell genomes, contribute to the malignant conversion of formerly healthy cells, in many cases preceded by the establishment of an epigenetic field of cancerization. The present volume undertakes to highlight the interactions of infectious pathogens and their effector molecules with the epigenetic regulatory machinery of the cell. Clearly, the recent take-off of epigenetics research did not leave Research on Infectious Diseases and Infection-Associated Cancer untouched. This resulted in a great many of clinically relevant data on understanding the molecular mechanisms of chronic infectious disease. Infectious pathogen- and disease-specific epigenetic alterations are already being used for the early detection of malignant disease and for the prediction of chemotherapy resistance or response to treatment.

Epigenetics And Disease

Author : Susan M. Gasser
ISBN : 3764399147
Genre :
File Size : 82. 27 MB
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Personalized Epigenetics

Author : Trygve Tollefsbol
ISBN : 9780128004364
Genre : Science
File Size : 45. 24 MB
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Personalized Epigenetics discusses the core translatability of epigenetics to health management of individuals who have unique variations in their epigenetic signatures that can guide both disorder and disease prevention and therapy. The book details inter-individual variability in the major epigenetic process in humans consisting of DNA methylation, histone modifications, and noncoding RNA, and the diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic potential of the field, it also reviews the impact of the environment on epigenetic variations among individuals and the role of pharmacology and drug development in personalized epigenetics. Most importantly, the text covers personalized epigenetics from a disease-oriented perspective, presenting chapters that provide advances in widespread disorders or diseases, including diabetes, cancer, autoimmune disorders, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders, and pain management. Discusses the core translatability of epigenetics to health management of individuals who have unique variations in their epigenetic signatures Details inter-individual variability in the major epigenetic process in humans consisting of DNA methylation, histone modifications, and noncoding RNA, and the consequent diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic potential of the field Reviews the impact of the environment on epigenetic variations among individuals and the roles of pharmacology and drug development Devotes several chapters to the advances made in widespread disorders or diseases, including diabetes, cancer, autoimmune disorders, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders, and pain management

Nutrition In Epigenetics

Author : Mihai D. Niculescu
ISBN : 0470959800
Genre : Medical
File Size : 70. 67 MB
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The study of epigenetics, or how heritable changes in gene expression are regulated without modifying the coding DNA sequence, has become an increasingly important field of study in recent years. Rapid developments in our understanding of the way in which gene function is modulated by the environment has revolutionized the way we think about human development and health. Nutrition in Epigenetics reviews the latest research looking at the interaction between genes and nutrients and the role they play together in maintaining human health. Nutrition in Epigenetics is divided into two primary parts. The first part provides key principles such as epigenetic mechanisms, developmental epigenetics, and the role of epigenetics in disease. The second part looks specifically at the application of epigenetics to the field of human nutrition. Chapters review the role of specific nutrients in modulating epigenetic status and the effect on health and disease. Nutrition in Epigenetics is an indispensable resource for researchers, professionals and advanced students with an interest in human nutrition, epigenetics, and biomedical research.

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