evolution and impact of transposable elements contemporary issues in genetics and evolution

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Evolution And Impact Of Transposable Elements

Author : Pierre Capy
ISBN : 9789401148986
Genre : Science
File Size : 66. 25 MB
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During the last 50 years, the perception oftransposable elements (TEs) has changed considerably from selfish DNA to sequences that may contribute significantly to genome function and evolution. The recent increased interest in TEs is based on the realization that they are a major genetic component (at least 10--20%) of all organisms and a major contributor to the mutation process. It is currently estimated that 70--80% of spontaneous mutations are the result of TE-mediated insertions, deletions, or chromosomal rearrangements. Thus, it seems at least plausible that TEs may playa significant role in the adaptation and evolution of natural populations and species. The ubiquity of TEs suggests that they are an old component of genomes which have been vertically transmitted through generations over evolutionary time. However, detailed analyses carried out over the last 20 years have revealed several unusual features of TE evolution: (i) TEs can be horizontally transferred between species; (ii) TE evolutionary rates can be dramatically increased by specific inactivation processes, such as the RIP (Repeat Induced Point mutation) mechanism in fungi; (iii) TEs can influence the regulation of other TEs by insertion or deletion; (iv) different classes of TEs in even distantly related species can be remarkably similar in both structure and function.

Dynamics And Evolution Of Transposable Elements

Author : Pierre Capy
ISBN : 3540611908
Genre : Science
File Size : 64. 96 MB
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This book describes the evolution of transposable elements (TEs). After a description of the main types of elements, their life and death within a species including regulation of transposition, their distribution in natural populations and on chromosomes is discussed. The impact of TEs on the host genome, the putative relationship between the environment and transposition rates lead to a discussion of the interaction (or co-evolution) of TEs and their host. These results introduce the analysis of the phylogenies of TEs and their interpretations according to different models i.e. horizontal versus vertical transmission. The question of the origin and of the general evolution of TEs is raised from the comparison of conserved regions such as reverse transcriptase or transposase-integrase domains.

Multiobjective Optimization Methodology

Author : K.S. Tang
ISBN : 9781351832526
Genre : Science
File Size : 24. 1 MB
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The first book to focus on jumping genes outside bioscience and medicine, Multiobjective Optimization Methodology: A Jumping Gene Approach introduces jumping gene algorithms designed to supply adequate, viable solutions to multiobjective problems quickly and with low computational cost. Better Convergence and a Wider Spread of Nondominated Solutions The book begins with a thorough review of state-of-the-art multiobjective optimization techniques. For readers who may not be familiar with the bioscience behind the jumping gene, it then outlines the basic biological gene transposition process and explains the translation of the copy-and-paste and cut-and-paste operations into a computable language. To justify the scientific standing of the jumping genes algorithms, the book provides rigorous mathematical derivations of the jumping genes operations based on schema theory. It also discusses a number of convergence and diversity performance metrics for measuring the usefulness of the algorithms. Practical Applications of Jumping Gene Algorithms Three practical engineering applications showcase the effectiveness of the jumping gene algorithms in terms of the crucial trade-off between convergence and diversity. The examples deal with the placement of radio-to-fiber repeaters in wireless local-loop systems, the management of resources in WCDMA systems, and the placement of base stations in wireless local-area networks. Offering insight into multiobjective optimization, the authors show how jumping gene algorithms are a useful addition to existing evolutionary algorithms, particularly to obtain quick convergence solutions and solutions to outliers.

Transposable Elements And Genome Evolution

Author : J. F. McDonald
ISBN : 9789401141567
Genre : Science
File Size : 59. 17 MB
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Once considered merely `selfish' or `parasitic' DNA, transposable elements are today recognized as being of major biological significance. Not only are these elements a major source of mutation, they have contributed both directly and indirectly to the evolution of genome structure and function. On October 8-10, 1999, 100 molecular biologists and evolutionists representing 11 countries met on the campus of The University of Georgia in Athens for the inaugural Georgia Genetics Symposium. The topics of presentations ranged from how the elements themselves have evolved to the impact transposable elements have had on the evolution of their host genomes. The papers in this volume therefore represent state-of-the-art thinking, by leading world experts in the field, on the evolutionary significance of transposable elements.

The Dynamic Genome

Author : Antonio Fontdevila
ISBN : 9780199541379
Genre : Science
File Size : 52. 32 MB
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Provides a synthetic, readable account of some widely debated evolutionary issues in the context of our growing understanding of functional genomics.

Plant Genomes

Author : Jean-Nicolas Volff
ISBN : 9783805584913
Genre : Medical
File Size : 51. 64 MB
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Recent major advances in the field of comparative genomics and cytogenomics of plants, particularly associated with the completion of ambitious genome projects, have uncovered astonishing facets of the architecture and evolutionary history of plant genomes. The aim of this book was to review these recent developments as well as their implications in our understanding of the mechanisms which drive plant diversity. New insights into the evolution of gene functions, gene families and genome size are presented, with particular emphasis on the evolutionary impact of polyploidization and transposable elements. Knowledge on the structure and evolution of plant sex chromosomes, centromeres and microRNAs is reviewed and updated. Taken together, the contributions by internationally recognized experts present a panoramic overview of the structural features and evolutionary dynamics of plant genomes.This volume of Genome Dynamics will provide researchers, teachers and students in the fields of biology and agronomy with a valuable source of current knowledge on plant genomes.

Issues In Genetic Medicine 2012 Edition

Author :
ISBN : 9781481645553
Genre : Medical
File Size : 20. 61 MB
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Issues in Genetic Medicine / 2012 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Genetic Research. The editors have built Issues in Genetic Medicine: 2012 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Genetic Research in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in Genetic Medicine: 2012 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

Evolutionary Biology

Author : Douglas J. Futuyma
ISBN : UOM:39015007702866
Genre : Science
File Size : 70. 43 MB
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The British National Bibliography

Author : Arthur James Wells
ISBN : STANFORD:36105117839287
Genre : English literature
File Size : 90. 54 MB
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Molecular Evolutionary Genetics

Author : Ross J. MacIntyre
ISBN : UOM:39015010655614
Genre : Science
File Size : 22. 42 MB
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This volume in the Monographs in Evolutionary Biology series addresses issues that are part of an emerging area of research loosely called "mo lecular evolution. " Its practitioners include both molecular biologists cu rious about the evolutionary implications of their data and evolutionary biologists pushing their analyses to the molecular level. The union of these fields of molecular and organismal biology has been turbulent at times, and, as shall be seen, this dialectic has led to some very serious challenges to long-held notions about the role of natural selection in evolution and the economy of genome organization in eukaryotes. As an inevitable outgrowth of molecular biology, molecular evolution is necessarily a young discipline, but it can already point proudly to two major discoveries. The first, is the molecular clock, a concept that has emerged from the analysis of at least four data sets-amino acid sequences, immunologic data, DNA renaturation studies, and, recently, analyses of DNA sequences. The reality of a strong stochastic component in the evolution of nucleotide sequences can no longer be doubted, although the accuracy of the clock with regard to particular sequences and within particular groups of or ganisms should be independently measured each time it is used. Never theless, molecular clocks will assume increasingly important roles in phy logenetic reconstructions, especially since the fossil record is so fragmentary. The second major discovery of molecular evolution has been the incredible complexity of the eukaryotic genome.

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