exposure science basic principles and applications

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Exposure Science

Author : Paul Lioy
ISBN : 9780124202382
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 86. 29 MB
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Exposure Science: Basic Principles and Applications provides a concise overview of the field of exposure science, from its origins in sanitation and occupational health, to its exciting involvement with emerging scientific concepts. Written by world-leading experts in the field of exposure science, this book provides all the basic understanding you need to employ the best tools and methods for measurement, analysis, and modeling of exposure. Exposure Science: Basic Principles and Applications is an invaluable introduction to exposure science for anyone working in the fields of environmental health, risk assessment, toxicology, or epidemiology. Focuses on and highlights the basic fundamentals, scientific goals, theories and tools of exposure science Examines the use of the exposome and eco-exposome concepts within the field of exposure science

Post Vietnam Dioxin Exposure In Agent Orange Contaminated C 123 Aircraft

Author : Institute of Medicine
ISBN : 9780309308939
Genre : Medical
File Size : 60. 32 MB
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From 1972 to 1982, approximately 1,500-2,100 US Air Force Reserve personnel trained and worked on C-123 aircraft that had formerly been used to spray herbicides in Vietnam as part of Operation Ranch Hand. After becoming aware that some of the aircraft on which they had worked had previously served this purpose, some of these AF Reservists applied to the US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) for compensatory coverage under the Agent Orange Act of 1991. The Act provides health care and disability coverage for health conditions that have been deemed presumptively service-related for herbicide exposure during the Vietnam War. The VA denied the applications on the basis that these veterans were ineligible because as non-Vietnam-era veterans or as Vietnam-era veterans without "boots on the ground" service in Vietnam, they were not covered. However, with the knowledge that some air and wipe samples taken between 1979 and 2009 from some of the C-123s used in Operation Ranch Hand showed the presence of agent orange residues, representatives of the C-123 Veterans Association began a concerted effort to reverse VA's position and obtain coverage. At the request of the VA, Post-Vietnam Dioxin Exposure in Agent Orange-Contaminated C-123 Aircraft evaluates whether or not service in these C-123s could have plausibly resulted in exposures detrimental to the health of these Air Force Reservists. The Institute of Medicine assembled an expert committee to address this question qualitatively, but in a scientific and evidence-based fashion. This report evaluates the reliability of the available information for establishing exposure and addresses and places in context whether any documented residues represent potentially harmful exposure by characterizing the amounts available and the degree to which absorption might be expected. Post-Vietnam Dioxin Exposure rejects the idea that the dioxin residues detected on interior surfaces of the C-123s were immobile and effectively inaccessible to the Reservists as a source of exposure. Accordingly, this report states with confidence that the Air Force Reservists were exposed when working in the Operation Ranch Hand C-123s and so experienced some increase in their risk of a variety of adverse responses.

A Review Of The Environmental Protection Agency S Science To Achieve Results Research Program

Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
ISBN : 9780309458603
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 74. 45 MB
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Environmental research has driven landmark improvements that led to the protection of human and ecosystem health. Recognizing the value of knowledge generated by environmental research and the ingenuity within academic and nonprofit institutions, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) created a program known as Science to Achieve Results, or STAR, in 1995. STAR is EPA’s primary competitive extramural grants program. A Review of the Environmental Protection Agency’s Science to Achieve Results Research Program assesses the program’s scientific merit, public benefits, and overall contributions in the context of other relevant research and recommends ways to enhance those aspects of the program. This report also considers the conclusions and recommendations of a prior National Research Council review of the STAR program (2003), the STAR program’s research priorities in light of the nation’s environmental challenges, and the effects of recent STAR funding trends on obtaining scientific information needed to protect public health and the environment.

Social Ecology In The Digital Age

Author : Daniel Stokols
ISBN : 9780128031148
Genre : Nature
File Size : 32. 79 MB
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Social Ecology in the Digital Age: Solving Complex Problems in a Globalized World provides a comprehensive overview of social ecological theory, research, and practice. Written by renowned expert Daniel Stokols, the book distills key principles from diverse strands of ecological science, offering a robust framework for transdisciplinary research and societal problem-solving. The existential challenges of the 21st Century - global climate change and climate-change denial, environmental pollution, biodiversity loss, food insecurity, disease pandemics, inter-ethnic violence and the threat of nuclear war, cybercrime, the Digital Divide, and extreme poverty and income inequality confronting billions each day - cannot be understood and managed adequately from narrow disciplinary or political perspectives. Social Ecology in the Digital Age is grounded in scientific research but written in a personal and informal style from the vantage point of a former student, current teacher and scholar who has contributed over four decades to the field of social ecology. The book will be of interest to scholars, students, educators, government leaders and community practitioners working in several fields including social and human ecology, psychology, sociology, anthropology, criminology, law, education, biology, medicine, public health, earth system and sustainability science, geography, environmental design, urban planning, informatics, public policy and global governance. Winner of the 2018 Gerald L. Young Book Award from The Society for Human Ecology "Exemplifying the highest standards of scholarly work in the field of human ecology." https://societyforhumanecology.org/human-ecology-homepage/awards/gerald-l-young-book-award-in-human-ecology/ The book traces historical origins and conceptual foundations of biological, human, and social ecology Offers a new conceptual framework that brings together earlier approaches to social ecology and extends them in novel directions Highlights the interrelations between four distinct but closely intertwined spheres of human environments: our natural, built, sociocultural, and virtual (cyber-based) surroundings Spans local to global scales and individual, organizational, community, regional, and global levels of analysis Applies core principles of social ecology to identify multi-level strategies for promoting personal and public health, resolving complex social problems, managing global environmental change, and creating resilient and sustainable communities Underscores social ecology’s vital importance for understanding and managing the environmental and political upheavals of the 21st Century Highlights descriptive, analytic, and transformative (or moral) concerns of social ecology Presents strategies for educating the next generation of social ecologists emphasizing transdisciplinary, team-based, translational, and transcultural approaches

Human Exposure Assessment For Airborne Pollutants

Author : National Research Council
ISBN : 9780309042840
Genre : Science
File Size : 51. 38 MB
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Most people in the United States spend far more time indoors than outdoors. Yet, many air pollution regulations and risk assessments focus on outdoor air. These often overlook contact with harmful contaminants that may be at their most dangerous concentrations indoors. A new book from the National Research Council explores the need for strategies to address indoor and outdoor exposures and examines the methods and tools available for finding out where and when significant exposures occur. The volume includes: A conceptual framework and common terminology that investigators from different disciplines can use to make more accurate assessments of human exposure to airborne contaminants. An update of important developments in assessing exposure to airborne contaminants: ambient air sampling and physical chemical measurements, biological markers, questionnaires, time-activity diaries, and modeling. A series of examples of how exposure assessments have been applied--properly and improperly--to public health issues and how the committee's suggested framework can be brought into practice. This volume will provide important insights to improve risk assessment, risk management, pollution control, and regulatory programs.

Principles And Applications Of Radiological Physics E Book

Author : Martin Vosper
ISBN : 9780702046148
Genre : Medical
File Size : 35. 37 MB
Format : PDF, Kindle
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Principles and Application of Radiological Physics 6E provides comprehensive and easy-to-follow coverage of the principles and application of physics for both diagnostic and therapeutic radiography students. Regardless of changes in technology and clinical grading, the most important role of the radiographer remains unchanged - ensuring the production of high quality images and optimal treatment. These should be performed with the minimum of radiation hazard to patients, staff and others. An understanding of physics and the basics of radiographic technology is essential to do this effectively. The book covers all the physics and mathematics required by undergraduate diagnostic and therapeutic radiography students, catering for those who do not have a mathematics qualification as well as for those who do. NEW TO THIS EDITION: A focus upon application of physics to reflect current teaching approaches Completely revised structure, leading from science principles to applications New chapters on CT, MRI, ultrasound, PET, RNI, mammography and digital imaging Electronic learning resources for students, hosted on EVOLVE *Strong links between theory and practice throughout *Clear and concise text Focus on application of physics, as well as principles New, updated 2-colour design New Sections - Equipment for X-ray production, The Radiographic Image and Diagnostic Imaging Technologies Electronic learning resources for students support the text

Materials In Dentistry

Author : Jack L. Ferracane
ISBN : 0781727332
Genre : Medical
File Size : 44. 6 MB
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The Second Edition of this textbook for dental assisting, dental hygie ne, and first-year dental students retains its well-organized, easy-to -follow format, with enhanced content, tables, illustrations, and disp lay boxes. Expanded chapters cover preventative materials, abrasion an d polishing, dental implants and composites. Coverage of new materials includes ceramics, dental cements, and new gold alloys for PFM restor ations. Additional problem solving and clinically relevant examples ar e provided, plus a concise description of the ADA materials acceptance and specification program. Other features include a glossary of terms, chapter outlines, manufacturer websites, and review and checkpoint q uestions denoting clinical situations.

Principles And Applications Of Esr Spectroscopy

Author : Anders Lund
ISBN : 1402053444
Genre : Science
File Size : 89. 52 MB
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Principles and Applications of ESR Spectroscopy fills the gap between the detailed monographs in ESR spectroscopy and the general textbooks in molecular physics, physical chemistry, biochemistry or spectroscopy. The latter only briefly explain the underlying theory and do not provide details about applications, while the currently available ESR textbooks are primarily focused on the technique as such. This text is based upon the authors’ long experience of teaching the subject to a mixed audience, in the extreme case ranging from physics to biology. The potential of the method is illustrated with applications in fields such as molecular science, catalysis and environmental sciences, polymer and materials sciences, biochemistry and radiation chemistry/physics. Theoretical derivations have in general been omitted, as they have been presented repeatedly in previous works. The necessary theory is instead illustrated by practical examples from the literature.

Principles Of Characterizing And Applying Human Exposure Models

Author : World Health Organization
ISBN : 9789241563116
Genre : Medical
File Size : 49. 40 MB
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The objective of this manual is to provide guidance to risk assessors on the use of quantitative toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic data to address interspecies and interindividual differences in dose/concentration-response assessment. Section 1 focuses on the relevance of this guidance in the context of the broader risk assessment paradigm and other initiatives of the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) project on the Harmonization of Approaches to the Assessment of Risk from Exposure to Chemicals. Technical background material is presented in section 2, followed by generic guidance for the development of chemical-specific adjustment factors in section 3 and accompanying summary figures. Illustrative case-studies are included in an Appendix, and a glossary of terms is also provided.

Toxicology A Primer On Toxicology Principles And Applications

Author : Michael A. Kamrin
ISBN : 1439805237
Genre : Medical
File Size : 84. 53 MB
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Different from other books, this unique volume presents basic toxicology principles and applications in a sophisticated yet nontechnical style. It provides an understanding of both the strengths and limitations of the discipline of toxicology and its benefits. This primer is valuable for virtually any non-toxicologist.

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