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Extracting Accountability

Author : Jessica M. Smith
ISBN : 9780262362429
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 46. 1 MB
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How engineers in the mining and oil and gas industries attempt to reconcile competing domains of public accountability. The growing movement toward corporate social responsibility (CSR) urges corporations to promote the well-being of people and the planet rather than the sole pursuit of profit. In Extracting Accountability, Jessica Smith investigates how the public accountability of corporations emerges from the everyday practices of the engineers who work for them. Focusing on engineers who view social responsibility as central to their profession, she finds the corporate context of their work prompts them to attempt to reconcile competing domains of accountability—to formal guidelines, standards, and policies; to professional ideals; to the public; and to themselves. Their efforts are complicated by the distributed agency they experience as corporate actors: they are not always authors of their actions and frequently act through others. Drawing on extensive interviews, archival research, and fieldwork, Smith traces the ways that engineers in the mining and oil and gas industries accounted for their actions to multiple publics—from critics of their industry to their own friends and families. She shows how the social license to operate and an underlying pragmatism lead engineers to ask how resource production can be done responsibly rather than whether it should be done at all. She analyzes the liminality of engineering consultants, who experienced greater professional autonomy but often felt hamstrung when positioned as outsiders. Finally, she explores how critical participation in engineering education can nurture new accountabilities and chart more sustainable resource futures.

Extracting Accountability From Non State Actors In International Law

Author : Lee James McConnell
ISBN : 9781317220572
Genre : Law
File Size : 35. 8 MB
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The human rights of communities in many resource-rich, weak governance States are adversely affected, not only by the acts of States and their agents, but also by powerful non-State actors. Contemporary phenomena such as globalisation, privatisation and the proliferation of internal armed conflict have all contributed to the increasing public influence of these entities and the correlative decline in State power. This book responds to the persistent challenges stemming from non-State actors linked to extractive industries. In light of the intersecting roles of multinational enterprises and non-State armed groups in this context, these actors are adopted as the primary analytical vehicles. The operations of these entities highlight the practical flaws of existing accountability regimes and permit an exploration of the theoretical challenges that preclude their direct legal regulation at the international level. Drawing insights from discursive democracy, compliance theories and the Pure Theory of Law, the book establishes a conceptual foundation for the creation of binding international obligations addressing non-State actors. Responding to the recent calls for a binding business and human rights treaty at the UN Human Rights Council, and the growing influence of armed non-State actors, the book makes a timely contribution to debates surrounding the direction of future developments in the field of international human rights law.

Extracting Natural Resources

Author : United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on the Judiciary. Subcommittee on Human Rights and the Law
ISBN : PURD:32754081248498
Genre : Human rights and globalization
File Size : 35. 29 MB
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Accountability And Democracy

Author : Craig T. Borowiak
ISBN : 9780199778492
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 38. 43 MB
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Few political concepts are as emblematic of our era as democratic accountability. In a time of political and economic turmoil, in which global forces have destabilized conventional relations of political authority, democratic accountability has come to symbolize both what is absent and what is desired in our polity. Situated at the intersection of democratic theory and international studies, Accountability and Democracy provides an in-depth critical analysis of accountability. Through an engagement with several key democratic traditions, both ancient and modern, the book paints a rich picture of democratic accountability as a multi-dimensional concept harboring competing imperatives and diverse instantiations. Contrary to dominant views that emphasize discipline and control, Craig Borowiak offers an original and refreshing view of democratic accountability as a source of mutuality, participation, and political transformation. He both creatively engages conventional electoral models of accountability and moves beyond them by situating democratic accountability within more deliberative, participatory and agonistic contexts. Provocatively, the book also challenges deep-seated understandings of democratic accountability as an expression of popular sovereignty. Borowiak instead argues that accountable governance is incompatible with all claims to ultimate authority, regardless of whether they refer to the demos, the state, or cosmopolitan public law. Rather than conceiving of democratic accountability as a way to legitimize a secure and sovereign political order, the book contends that destabilization and democratic insurgence are indispensable and often neglected facets of democratic accountability practices. For contemporary scholars, practitioners and activists grappling with the challenge of building democratic legitimacy into world politics, the book urges greater reflexivity and nuance in how democratic accountability is evoked and implemented. It offers insights into the myriad ways democratic accountability has been thwarted in the past, while also cultivating a sense of expanded possibility for how it might be conceived for the present.

Anti Oppressive Social Work Theory And Practice

Author : Lena Dominelli
ISBN : 9781403914002
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 57. 61 MB
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This book, by one of the leading theorists of social work, tackles a subject of crucial importance to students and practitioners alike: how social workers can enable their clients to challenge and transcend the manifold oppressions that disempower them (whether through poverty, disability, mental illness, etc.). It moves from a discussion of social work's purpose and ambitions to an exposition of theory and, from there, to the practice arenas of working with individuals, in groups, within organisations, and within a wider social and political context.

The Future Of Entrepreneurship In Africa

Author : Anthony Abiodun Eniola
ISBN : 9781000816624
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 67. 87 MB
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For many years, entrepreneurship has been considered as one of the most important solutions to the three-pronged challenges, poverty, unemployment and inequality, of most African countries. A recent development that has undoubtedly compounded the challenges that African entrepreneurs face and further impede the economic growth impact is Covid-19. This pandemic has exerted severe damage to economies and businesses globally. For the African setting, the implications of Covid-19 on businesses and individuals would be enormous, as African societies are rarely equipped to absorb unexpected shocks of this magnitude as the social and welfare schemes are far below requirements. This book illuminates entrepreneurship in the African setting, focusing on the prospects, challenges, and the post-Covid-19 pandemic future. It aims to offer a rich repository of information on strategies and techniques for sustaining entrepreneurial activities that can enrich African nations and will be of relevance to academics, researchers, advanced students, entrepreneurs, governments, and government agencies who are interested in understanding issues relating to entrepreneurship development within the African continent.

Extracting Accountability

Author : Jessica M. Smith
ISBN : 9780262542166
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 64. 65 MB
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How engineers in the mining and oil and gas industries attempt to reconcile competing domains of public accountability. The growing movement toward corporate social responsibility (CSR) urges corporations to promote the well-being of people and the planet rather than the sole pursuit of profit. In Extracting Accountability, Jessica Smith investigates how the public accountability of corporations emerges from the everyday practices of the engineers who work for them. Focusing on engineers who view social responsibility as central to their profession, she finds the corporate context of their work prompts them to attempt to reconcile competing domains of accountability—to formal guidelines, standards, and policies; to professional ideals; to the public; and to themselves. Their efforts are complicated by the distributed agency they experience as corporate actors: they are not always authors of their actions and frequently act through others. Drawing on extensive interviews, archival research, and fieldwork, Smith traces the ways that engineers in the mining and oil and gas industries accounted for their actions to multiple publics—from critics of their industry to their own friends and families. She shows how the social license to operate and an underlying pragmatism lead engineers to ask how resource production can be done responsibly rather than whether it should be done at all. She analyzes the liminality of engineering consultants, who experienced greater professional autonomy but often felt hamstrung when positioned as outsiders. Finally, she explores how critical participation in engineering education can nurture new accountabilities and chart more sustainable resource futures.

Incorporating Rights

Author : Erika George
ISBN : 9780190666736
Genre : Law
File Size : 74. 98 MB
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Human rights have not been a central concern of corporate law. Corporate actors have not been a central concern of international human rights law. This book examines existing and emerging strategies that could conceivably close a global governance gap that places human rights at risk and puts commercial actors in the position of becoming complicit in human rights abuses or implicated in abuses when conducting business in emerging market economies or other complex environments. Corporate codes of conduct, sustainability reporting, and selected multi-stakeholder initiatives are presented as the building blocks of a system of strengthening "soft law" that could solidify to become binding baseline standards for better business practices. It explains the conditions that have given rise to constructive change as well as those methods and mechanisms with promise for ensuring that business enterprises incorporate human rights considerations into business operations. This book explores how capital and consumer markets could provide an additional or alternative form of enforcement to promote responsible business conduct. It provides comparative accounts of the creation of industry sector specific regulatory instruments and governance institutions arising from allegations of corporate complicity in human rights abuses after conflicts with concerned constituencies and affected communities. It considers market-based strategies to bring business practices into alignment with the responsibility to respect human rights and examines how corporate social responsibility initiatives could close the governance gap and how codes of conduct could come to regulate like real rules. It argues that regulation through information is essential to ensure that corporate conduct will be informed by human rights considerations and that business policies and practices will be implemented consistent with respect for human rights.

Military Requirements For Senior Master C P O

Author : United States. Naval Education and Training Command
ISBN : UIUC:30112105169350
Genre :
File Size : 27. 4 MB
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Culture And International Economic Law

Author : Valentina Vadi
ISBN : 9781317910756
Genre : Law
File Size : 90. 90 MB
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Globalization and international economic governance offer unprecedented opportunities for cultural exchange. Foreign direct investments can promote cultural diversity and provide the funds needed to locate, recover and preserve cultural heritage. Nonetheless, globalization and international economic governance can also jeopardize cultural diversity and determine the erosion of the cultural wealth of nations. Has an international economic culture emerged that emphasizes productivity and economic development at the expense of the common wealth? This book explores the ‘clash of cultures’ between international law and international cultural law, and asks whether States can promote economic development without infringing their cultural wealth. The book contains original chapters by experts in the field. Key issues include how international courts and tribunals are adjudicating culture–related cases; the interplay between indigenous peoples' rights and economic globalization; and the relationships between culture, human rights, and economic activities. The book will be of great interest and use to researchers and students of international trade law, cultural heritage law, and public international law.

A New Partnership For African Development

Author : Henock Kifle
ISBN : 9171064125
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 69. 99 MB
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This publication is an outcome from a seminar in Abidjan in 1997 with the aim to explore the problems and prospects for the establishment of a new partnership between Sweden and Africa. The seminar was attended by scholars, development bankers, government officials and civil society activists from all parts of sub-Saharan Africa, and development cooperation officials and academics from Sweden and the other Nordic countries.

Business And Human Rights

Author : Nadia Bernaz
ISBN : 9781317233855
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 61. 38 MB
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Business corporations can and do violate human rights all over the world, and they are often not held to account. Emblematic cases and situations such as the state of the Niger Delta and the collapse of the Rana Plaza factory are examples of corporate human rights abuses which are not adequately prevented and remedied. Business and human rights as a field seeks to enhance the accountability of business – companies and businesspeople – in the human rights area, or, to phrase it differently, to bridge the accountability gap. Bridging the accountability gap is to be understood as both setting standards and holding corporations and businesspeople to account if violations occur. Adopting a legal perspective, this book presents the ways in which this dual undertaking has been and could be further carried out in the future, and evaluates the extent to which the various initiatives in the field bridge the corporate accountability gap. It looks at the historical background of the field of business and human rights, and examines salient periods, events and cases. The book then goes on to explore the relevance of international human rights law and international criminal law for global business. International soft law and policy initiatives which have blossomed in recent years are evaluated along with private modes of regulation. The book also examines how domestic law, especially the domestic law of multinational companies’ home countries, can be used to prevent and redress corporate related human rights violations.

The Squares

Author : Cyrus C. M. Mody
ISBN : 9780262369350
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 46. 27 MB
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When ungroovy scientists did groovy science: how non-activist scientists and engineers adapted their work to a rapidly changing social and political landscape. In The Squares, Cyrus Mody shows how, between the late 1960s and the early 1980s, some scientists and engineers who did not consider themselves activists, New Leftists, or members of the counterculture accommodated their work to the rapidly changing social and political landscape of the time. These “square scientists,” Mody shows, began to do many of the things that the counterculture urged: turn away from military-industrial funding, become more interdisciplinary, and focus their research on solving problems of civil society. During the period Mody calls “the long 1970s,” ungroovy scientists were doing groovy science. Mody offers a series of case studies of some of these collective efforts by non-activist scientists to use their technical knowledge for the good of society. He considers the region around Santa Barbara and the interplay of public universities, think tanks, established firms, new companies, philanthropies, and social movement organizations. He looks at Stanford University’s transition from Cold War science to commercialized technoscience; NASA’s search for a post-Apollo mission; the unsuccessful foray into solar energy by Nobel laureate Jack Kilby; the “civilianization” of the US semiconductor industry; and systems engineer Arthur D. Hall’s ill-fated promotion of automated agriculture.

Transition Strategies For Sustainable Community Systems

Author : Amar KJR Nayak
ISBN : 9783030003562
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 40. 44 MB
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This book presents five critical dimensions on relationships, institutions, produc-tion, organisation, and governance from design and systems perspectives for thesystematic transition of unstable and vulnerable communities across the world tosustainable community systems.• The first section discusses features of relationships and processes to deepencooperation and trust within a community.• The second section examines institutions within and outside a district tofoster synergy across institutions within a district and to minimise negativeexternalities on local communities within a district.• The third section deals with food production systems that are nature-friendly, resilient, efficient and sustainable.• The fourth section discusses the design of producer organisations that cangraduate to become sustainable community enterprise systems.• The fifth section focuses on community governance that can facilitatedecentralised, participatory, transparent and democratic local governancesystems. This book• offers a fresh perspective on design thinking for optimising internal designconsistencies.• provides a systems perspective on building sustainable community systemsat the lowest governance unit in different countries, such as Ward/GramPanchayat/Panchayat Council/Gewong/Union Council/GN.• gives insights into design & systems perspectives towards buildingsustainable community systems within a district of any country across the/divworld.

Dams And Development In China

Author : Bryan Tilt
ISBN : 9780231538268
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 79. 14 MB
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China is home to half of the world's large dams and adds dozens more each year. The benefits are considerable: dams deliver hydropower, provide reliable irrigation water, protect people and farmland against flooding, and produce hydroelectricity in a nation with a seeimingly insatiable appetite for energy. As hydropower responds to a larger share of energy demand, dams may also help to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels, welcome news in a country where air and water pollution have become dire and greenhouse gas emissions are the highest in the world. Yet the advantages of dams come at a high cost for river ecosystems and for the social and economic well-being of local people, who face displacement and farmland loss. This book examines the array of water-management decisions faced by Chinese leaders and their consequences for local communities. Focusing on the southwestern province of Yunnan—a major hub for hydropower development in China—which encompasses one of the world's most biodiverse temperate ecosystems and one of China's most ethnically and culturally rich regions, Bryan Tilt takes the reader from the halls of decision-making power in Beijing to Yunnan's rural villages. In the process, he examines the contrasting values of government agencies, hydropower corporations, NGOs, and local communities and explores how these values are linked to longstanding cultural norms about what is right, proper, and just. He also considers the various strategies these groups use to influence water-resource policy, including advocacy, petitioning, and public protest. Drawing on a decade of research, he offers his insights on whether the world's most populous nation will adopt greater transparency, increased scientific collaboration, and broader public participation as it continues to grow economically.

2000 Practice Question Bank Expected For Upsc Ias Prelims 2020 Gs Paper 1

Author : R P Meena
ISBN :
Genre : Education
File Size : 90. 33 MB
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2000+ Practice Question Bank Expected for UPSC IAS Prelims 2020 General Studies Paper-1 Highly Expected (2000-Solved MCQ) from the topic covered: Current Affairs Art and Culture Indian Economy Latest International Affairs Indian Polity Latest Govt Schemes Science and Technology Environment and Ecology Geography (India + world) Indian History Best wishes!!

Globalization The State And Violence

Author : Jonathan Friedman
ISBN : 9780585471396
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 21. 89 MB
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Friedman and a distinguished group of contributors offer a compelling analysis of globalization and the lethal explosiveness that characterizes the current world order. In particular, they investigate global processes and political forces that determine networks of crime, commerce and terror, and reveal the economic, social and cultural fragmentation of transnational networks. The authors analyze the increasing criminalization of ethnic populations, the massively destabililizing effect of migration processes, and new forms of transnational criminal networks that represents disintegration of larger homogeneous territories. This book will be a valuable reference in anthropology, social theory, international politics and economics, ethnic and immigration studies, and economic history.

Journalists In Peril

Author : Nancy J. Woodhull
ISBN : 1412826985
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 85. 8 MB
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Threats to journalists carry many different lessons, but one is constant: People who would intimidate or kill journalists are usually terrified that someone might find out. Journalists who want to protect one another need do nothing more than what should come naturally to them: report on threats to journalists--big threats and small threats, whether they are directed against the international luminaries of the profession or small timers. Non-journalists can also play a big part in the fight to protect journalists. Next to tough and timely reporting that establishes the facts of a case, nothing protects a journalist so much as public outrage and public support. Ordinary citizens can play an enormous role by pressuring thugs and tyrants who would like to stifle the freedom of the press. The freedom of journalists is consequently the bedrock of freedom for all people. Chapters and contributors to "Journalists in Peril "include: "The Clash of Arms in Exotic Locales" by Peter Arnett; "Press Freedom--Balkan Style" by Kati Marton; "Grim Prospects for Hong Kong" by John Schidlovsky; "Russian Reporters--Between a Hammer and an Anvil" by losif M. Dzyaloshinsky; "Defiant Publishing in Nigeria" by Dapo Olorunyomi; "Turkish Journalists on Trial" by Ahmet Emin; "In America, Justice for Some" by Ana Arana; and "Blood and Fear in Italy" by Candida Curzi. The tragic accounts detailed in "Journalists in Peril "are poignantly written and are important reading for all concerned with democracy in the world, especially political scientists, government officials, and those involved in the various communications professions.

The Human Rights Fundaments Of Conservation In The Context Of The Extraction Of Energy Resources

Author : María Augusta León Moreta
ISBN : 9783847104186
Genre : Law
File Size : 51. 17 MB
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English summary: Energy is the driving force of human development and economic growth. The ceaseless demand for energy resources has triggered the development of extraction projects around the world. This, in turn, has exerted a significant pressure on natural resources as well as on the environment. Since the performance of human rights depends on the environment and on access to natural resources, this Study aims to show the extent to which the negative environmental impact arising from extraction operations prevents the effective realization of human rights. The analysis of substantive and procedural human rights in the light of the case law of international human rights courts provides all stakeholders involved in an energy extraction project with the tools and mechanisms to prevent environmental damage and to ensure the protection of human rights. German description: Energie ist ein entscheidender Faktor fur das Wirtschaftswachstum. Die unaufhorliche Nachfrage nach Energieressourcen hat die Entwicklung von Forderprojekten in der ganzen Welt ausgelost. Dies wiederum hat sowohl einen erheblichen Druck auf die naturlichen Quellen als auch auf die Umwelt ausgeubt. Da die effektive Verwirklichung der Menschenrechte von einer sauberen und gesunden Umwelt abhangt, bezweckt diese Arbeit anhand unterschiedlicher Beispiele zu belegen, dass die Energierohstoffgewinnung sich negativ auf wichtige okologische Voraussetzungen fur die effektive Ausubung der Menschenrechte auswirkt. Im Lichte der Rechtsprechung internationaler Menschenrechtsgerichte zeigt diese Arbeit, dass die Gerichte auf Umweltgrundsatze und -normen zuruckgegriffen haben, um Umweltschaden zu verhindern und den Schutz der Menschenrechte zu gewahrleisten.

The Indian Journal Of Public Administration

Author :
ISBN : UCAL:B3687575
Genre : Administrative agencies
File Size : 46. 14 MB
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