focus-evaluativity-and-antonymy

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Focus Evaluativity And Antonymy

Author : Sam Alxatib
ISBN : 9783030378066
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 62. 96 MB
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This book uncovers properties of focus association with 'only' by examining the interaction between the particle and bare (or “evaluative”) gradable terms. Its empirical building blocks are paradigms involving upward-scalar terms like 'few' and 'rarely', and their downward-scalar antonyms 'many' and 'frequently', an area that has not been studied previously in the literature. The empirical claim is that associations of the former type give rise to unexpected readings, and the proposed theoretical explanation draws on the properties of the latter type of association. In presenting the details, the book deconstructs the so-called scalar presupposition of 'only' and derives it from constraints against its vacuous use. This view is then combined with a semantics of the evaluative adjectives 'many' and 'few' to explain why the unavailable (but expected) meanings of the given constructions are unavailable. The attested (but unexpected) readings of 'only+few/rarely' associations are derived from independently motivated LFs in which the degree expressions are existentially closed. Finally, the book provides new findings, based on the core proposal, about 'only if' constructions, and about the interaction between 'only' and other upward-scalar modified numerals (comparatives, and 'at most'). The book thus provides new data and a new theoretical view of the semantic properties of 'only', and connects it to the semantics of gradable expressions.

The Semantics Of Evaluativity

Author : Jessica Rett
ISBN : 9780199602483
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 20. 41 MB
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This book focuses on the semantic phenomenon of evaluativity and its consequences across constructions. Evaluativity has traditionally been associated exclusively with the positive construction, a term for sentences with a gradable adjective but with no overt degree morphology. John is tall is evaluative because it entails that John is tall relative to a contextually valued standard. John is taller than Sue and John is as tall as Sue are not evaluative because both could be used even if John and Sue were short. Previous accounts of evaluativity have assumed that it is not part of the inherent meaning of adjectives, but is contributed by a null morpheme. Jessica Rett argues against this analysis, proposing that no null morpheme is required. Instead, evaluativity is explained on the basis of assumptions that speakers and hearers make about the relationship between the simplicity of a situation and the simplicity of the language used to describe that situation; the analysisis couched in recent approaches to Gricean conversational implicature.

Insight Into Fuzzy Modeling

Author : Vilém Nov?k
ISBN : 9781119193180
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 23. 37 MB
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"This book is the result of almost thirty years of research on fuzzy modeling. It provides a unique view of both the theory and various types of applications. The book is divided into two parts. The first part contains an extensive presentation of the theory of fuzzy modeling. The second part presents selected applications in three important areas: control and decision-making, image processing, and time series analysis and forecasting. The authors address the consistent and appropriate treatment of the notions of fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic and their applications. They provide two complementary views of the methodology, which is based on fuzzy IF-THEN rules. The first, more traditional method involves fuzzy approximation and the theory of fuzzy relations. The second method is based on a combination of formal fuzzy logic and linguistics. A very important topic covered for the first time in book form is the fuzzy transform (F-transform). Applications of this theory are described in separate chapters and include image processing and time series analysis and forecasting. All of the mentioned components make this book of interest to students and researchers of fuzzy modeling as well as to practitioners in industry"--

Using Perceived Risk As A Mediator Between Product Service Features And Evaluative Judgment

Author : David Eugene Hartman
ISBN : MSU:31293005677566
Genre : Consumer behavior
File Size : 59. 18 MB
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On Goodness

Author : David Conan Wolfsdorf
ISBN : 9780190688523
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 87. 73 MB
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On Goodness attempts to answer the question "What is goodness?" It is natural to associate this question with ethics; but goodness is not confined to ethics. Water and wine, a strategy for streamlining maintenance operations, and an oil painting may all be good and in non-ethical ways. Goodness figures prominently in ethics; so the study serves ethics. But it serves other domains as well. On Goodness is a contribution to the foundations of value theory. It is also a metaphysical inquiry, for two reasons. As the examples indicate, the entity under investigation is extremely general. Goodness occurs in potables, plans, and paintings, among countless other kinds of things. Second, it is particularly obscure what sort of being the entity is. Besides the description "good," is there a single thing that good drinks, strategies, and artworks share? Is their goodness related in a more complex way? And regardless of these relations, in any instance, just what is that goodness? The question "What is goodness?" has been central to philosophy since Socrates and Plato made it their polestar. The distinctive contribution of On Goodness lies in its methodology. The method of pursuing the metaphysical question is linguistic. The basic proposal is that achieving the answer depends on clarifying the meaning and use of the words "good" and "goodness." Consequently, the study is pervasively informed by and critically engaged with contemporary linguistic theories and ideas.

Dissertation Abstracts

Author :
ISBN : UOM:39015076682692
Genre : Dissertations, Academic
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Towards A Social Science Of Language

Author : Gregory R. Guy
ISBN : 1556195826
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 83. 1 MB
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This is a two-volume collection of original research papers designed to reflect the breadth and depth of the impact that William Labov has had on linguistic science. Four areas of 'Labovian' linguistics are addressed: First is the study of variation and change; the papers in sections I and II of the first volume take this as their central theme, with a focus on either the social context and uses of language (I) or on the the internal linguistic dynamics of variation and change (II). The study of African American English, and other language varieties in the Americas spoken by people of African descent and influenced by their linguistic heritage, is the subject of the papers in section III of the first volume. The third theme is the study of discourse; the papers in section I of the second volume develop themes in Labovian linguistics that go back to Labov's work on narrative, descriptive, and therapeutic discourse. Fourth is the emphasis on language use, the search for discursive, interactive, and meaningful determinants of the complexity in human communication. Papers with these themes appear in section II of the second volume.

Advances In Personality Psychology

Author : Sarah E. Hampson
ISBN : 9781317797746
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 55. 39 MB
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In the first volume of this new series, Sarah E. Hampson brings together a unique collection of critical reviews of key areas of personality psychology and integrative accounts of important work by internationally recognised experts in the field. Advances in Personality Psychology includes chapters on cross-cultural evidence for the Big-Five framework for personality description, type and trait approaches to understanding childhood personality, developments in psychometrics, the relationship between hostility and cardiovascular disease, and the connections between personality and emotions. In further chapters the view that personality cannot change in adulthood is challenged and the importance of environmental factors is revealed by an observational study of twins. This state-of-the-art volume will provide students, teachers and researchers of contemporary personality psychology with a highly valuable resource on recent developments in this area.

Studies In Australian Political Rhetoric

Author : John Uhr
ISBN : 9781925021875
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 58. 20 MB
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This edited collection includes eleven major case studies and one general review of rhetorical contest in Australian politics. The volume showcases the variety of methods available for studying political speech, including historical, theoretical, institutional, and linguistic analyses, and demonstrates the centrality of language use to democratic politics. The chapters reveal errors in rhetorical strategy, the multiple and unstable standards for public speech in Australia, and the links between rhetoric and action. The length of Australian political speech is traversed, from pre-Federation to the Gillard minority government (2010–13), and the topics similarly range from Alfred Deakin’s nation building to Kevin Rudd’s Apology to the Stolen Generations. This fresh collection is intended to stimulate and advance the study of political rhetoric in Australia.

The Just Meritocracy

Author : Paul Kamolnick
ISBN : 0275979229
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 77. 86 MB
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This concise, research-packed volume presents the empirical case for the partial hereditarian position linking human intelligence and socioeconomic status, as well as the ethical case for retooling contemporary American social policy.

Ranam

Author :
ISBN : NWU:35556036238202
Genre : American literature
File Size : 57. 47 MB
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Morphosyntax And Semantics Of Degree Constructions

Author : Sophie Sophie Moracchini (Ph. D.)
ISBN : OCLC:1142633803
Genre :
File Size : 39. 18 MB
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This thesis investigates the morphosyntax and the semantics of comparatives and related degree constructions through the prism of a phenomenon called evaluativity, a type of inference whereby gradable adjectives receive a context-dependent interpretation. Pursuing the view that evaluativity is contributed by an optional null operator (EVAL, Rett 2008), this dissertation achieves the following results. First, it integrates a compositional analysis of evaluativity within a non-lexical view of antonymy. Second, it argues that the observed restrictions on the distribution of these inferences follow from independently motivated conditions that regulate the presence of the EVAL operator at the interfaces. In particular, three interface conditions are identified and discussed in detail: ++ At Logical Form (LF), derivations are subject to a structural economy condition, Minimize APs!, which executes transderivational comparisons over semantically equivalent Adjectival Phrases (APs). The inclusion of EVAL in a parse licenses derivations that would otherwise be deemed deviant by this economy condition. ++ At Phonological Form (PF), the EVAL morpheme morphophonologically interacts with its surrounding environment. Specifically, EVAL is claimed to be a zero-morpheme subject to Myers Generalization, a PF-filter on syntactic derivations which prevents further morphological operations from applying to a zeroderived form. A consequence of this claim is that EVAL is licensed in derivations only where it does not disrupt post-syntactic operations that apply within the AP. ++ The distribution of EVAL is conditioned by aspects of Information Structure. In particular, in degree constructions that license contrastive adjectives, the distribution of focus is governed by (AvoIDF) which, in turn, interacts with conditions on deletion. Ultimately, the presence of EVAL can license a surface form which would otherwise get eliminated by PF-deletion. In essence, the grammatical account of evaluativity developed in this thesis offers a window into the word-internal structure of complex degree expressions and presents new insights into the semantic and morphosyntactic primitives of the degree domain.

Facets Phases And Foci

Author : Ulf Magnusson
ISBN : UIUC:30112124484020
Genre : English language
File Size : 34. 72 MB
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Linguistics And Language Behavior Abstracts

Author :
ISBN : UOM:39015079593185
Genre : Language and languages
File Size : 66. 31 MB
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Proceedings Of The Conference

Author : Association for Computational Linguistics. Meeting
ISBN : STANFORD:36105018860101
Genre : Computational linguistics
File Size : 74. 39 MB
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Canadian Journal Of English Language Arts

Author :
ISBN : UOM:39015075888340
Genre : English language
File Size : 60. 91 MB
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Papers

Author : University of North Carolina (1793-1962) Psychometric Laboratory
ISBN : UOM:39015024590344
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 28. 54 MB
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Ekpoma Journal Of Languages And Literary Studies

Author :
ISBN : IND:30000008421319
Genre : Africa
File Size : 64. 51 MB
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Bulletin De La Soci?t? N?ophilologique

Author : Werner Soderhjelm
ISBN : STANFORD:36105213164424
Genre : Electronic journals
File Size : 64. 65 MB
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Includes music.

Dimensional Adjectives

Author : Manfred Bierwisch
ISBN : UCSC:32106009918076
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 25. 38 MB
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The present volume is the result of a project which concentrated on a selected subset of linguistic knowledge with the aim of giving a systematic account of the various aspects of structure and process in this subset and the interpretation of these. The subset that for a number of reasons appeared appropriate to this undertaking centres around the dimensional adjectives of German. That the en terprise ultimately produced a less integrated and complete result than expected is due to several reasons. Some of these are of an intrinsic nature, ever present, and not particularly surprising. Some, however, are related to the character of the project itself and are worth commenting upon, as they reflect specific expe riences and difficulties which we encountered during several years of working on the project. We started from the assumption that the dimensional adjectives constitute a sufficiently rich, but nevertheless limited domain of grammatical and concep tual structure which is fairly well understood and explored in relevant aspects. Consequently we expected that summarizing, integrating, and extending the nu merous results that were available should quickly lead to a more complete picture of the interaction of the components involved. However, even had the premise of this assumption been correct, the conclusion turned out to be wrong fairly early in the project. On closer inspection, the investigations of the phenomena were much less complete, the facts agreed upon less systematic, and the proposed anal yses far less convincing than supposed initially.

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