foraging-theory

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Foraging Theory

Author : David W. Stephens
ISBN : 9780691206790
Genre : Science
File Size : 62. 78 MB
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This account of the current state of foraging theory is also a valuable description of the use of optimality theory in behavioral ecology in general. Organizing and introducing the main research themes in economic analyses of animal feeding behavior, the authors analyze the empirical evidence bearing on foraging models and answer criticisms of optimality modeling. They explain the rationale for applying optimality models to the strategies and mechanics of foraging and present the basic "average-rate maximizing" models and their extensions. The work discusses new directions in foraging research: incorporating incomplete information and risk-sensitive behavior in foraging models; analyzing trade-offs, such as nutrient requirements and the threat of being eaten while foraging; formulating dynamic models; and building constrained optimization models that assume that foragers can use only simple "rules of thumb." As an analysis of these and earlier research developments and as a contribution to debates about the role of theory in evolutionary biology. Foraging Theory will appeal to a wide range of readers, from students to research professionals, in behavioral ecology, population and community ecology, animal behavior, and animal psychology, and especially to those planning empirical tests of foraging models.

Information Foraging Theory

Author : Peter Pirolli
ISBN : 9780195387797
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 44. 91 MB
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Peter Pirolli covers information foraging theory (IFT), a theory in adaptive information interaction. IFT analyses what people do to make sense of the huge amount of information available on the Internet and how they navigate it.

Social Foraging Theory

Author : Luc-Alain Giraldeau
ISBN : 9780691188348
Genre : Science
File Size : 56. 2 MB
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Although there is extensive literature in the field of behavioral ecology that attempts to explain foraging of individuals, social foraging--the ways in which animals search and compete for food in groups--has been relatively neglected. This book redresses that situation by providing both a synthesis of the existing literature and a new theory of social foraging. Giraldeau and Caraco develop models informed by game theory that offer a new framework for analysis. Social Foraging Theory contains the most comprehensive theoretical approach to its subject, coupled with quantitative methods that will underpin future work in the field. The new models and approaches that are outlined here will encourage new research directions and applications. To date, the analysis of social foraging has lacked unifying themes, clear recognition of the problems inherent in the study of social foraging, and consistent interaction between theory and experiments. This book identifies social foraging as an economic interaction between the actions of individuals and those of other foragers. This interdependence raises complex questions about the size of foraging groups, the diversity of resources used, and the propensity of group members to exploit each other or forage cooperatively. The models developed in the book will allow researchers to test their own approaches and predictions. Many years in development, Social Foraging Theory will interest researchers and graduate students in such areas as behavioral ecology, population ecology, evolutionary biology, and wildlife management.

Foraging Theory Applied To Medical Information Searching

Author : Dr Mai Dwairy
ISBN : 9781477128077
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 44. 84 MB
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Workload and other constraints prevent General Practitioners from accessing medical evidence for clinical decisions. This problem was studied in New Zealand GPs using Optimal Foraging Theory developed in ecology. GPs information search strategies were modelled as sequential steps associated with costs and benefits measured from logbooks of actual searches. By consulting the most profitable sources, switching sources when unsuccessful, and double checking, GPs seem close to an optimal trade-off between maximizing search success and information reliability, and minimizing searching time. Subsidised training in information searching and provision of a literature search service are two inferred avenues to access medical evidence.

Foraging

Author : David W. Stephens
ISBN : 9780226772653
Genre : Science
File Size : 20. 32 MB
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Foraging is fundamental to animal survival and reproduction, yet it is much more than a simple matter of finding food; it is a biological imperative. Animals must find and consume resources to succeed, and they make extraordinary efforts to do so. For instance, pythons rarely eat, but when they do, their meals are large—as much as 60 percent larger than their own bodies. The snake’s digestive system is normally dormant, but during digestion metabolic rates can increase fortyfold. A python digesting quietly on the forest floor has the metabolic rate of thoroughbred in a dead heat. This and related foraging processes have broad applications in ecology, cognitive science, anthropology, and conservation biology—and they can be further extrapolated in economics, neurobiology, and computer science. Foraging is the first comprehensive review of the topic in more than twenty years. A monumental undertaking, this volume brings together twenty-two experts from throughout the field to offer the latest on the mechanics of foraging, modern foraging theory, and foraging ecology. The fourteen essays cover all the relevant issues, including cognition, individual behavior, caching behavior, parental behavior, antipredator behavior, social behavior, population and community ecology, herbivory, and conservation. Considering a wide range of taxa, from birds to mammals to amphibians, Foraging will be the definitive guide to the field.

The Physics Of Foraging

Author : Gandhimohan. M. Viswanathan
ISBN : 9781139497558
Genre : Science
File Size : 45. 93 MB
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Do the movements of animals, including humans, follow patterns that can be described quantitatively by simple laws of motion? If so, then why? These questions have attracted the attention of scientists in many disciplines, and stimulated debates ranging from ecological matters to queries such as 'how can there be free will if one follows a law of motion?' This is the first book on this rapidly evolving subject, introducing random searches and foraging in a way that can be understood by readers without a previous background on the subject. It reviews theory as well as experiment, addresses open problems and perspectives, and discusses applications ranging from the colonization of Madagascar by Austronesians to the diffusion of genetically modified crops. The book will interest physicists working in the field of anomalous diffusion and movement ecology as well as ecologists already familiar with the concepts and methods of statistical physics.

Inujjuamiunt Foraging Strategies

Author : Eric Alden Smith
ISBN : 0202366952
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 42. 72 MB
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This study of the hunters of the settlement of Inukjuak (Inujjuaq) in Ungava, northern Quebec, evaluates the utility of models drawn from evolutionary ecology, including optimal foraging theory, in analyzing the subsistence economy of a contemporary (Inuit) hunting-gathering people, and places the Inujjuamiut society in a general anthropological context.

Foraging

Author : Michael L. Commons
ISBN : 9781134927296
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 26. 85 MB
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The sixth volume in this respected series systematically presents and evaluates quantitative models of various foraging phenomena, including: steady state decision rules; acquisition of decision rules; perception and learning in foraging behavior.

Foraging Behavior

Author : A.C. Kamil
ISBN : 9781461318392
Genre : Science
File Size : 76. 95 MB
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Foraging behavior has always been a central concern of ecology. Understanding what animals eat is clearly an essential component of under standing many ecological issues including energy flow, competition and adaptation. Theoretical and empirical developments in the late 1960's and 1970's led to a new emphasis in the study of foraging behavior, the study of individual animals in both field and laboratory. This development, in turn, led to an explosion of interest in foraging. Part of the reason for this explosion is that when foraging is studied at the individual level, it is relevant to many disciplines. Behaviorists, including ethologists and psychologists, are interested in any attempt to understand behavior. Ecologists know that a better understanding of foraging will contribute to resolving a number of important ecological issues. Anthropologists and others are applying the ideas coming out of the study of foraging behavior to problems within their disciplines. These developments led to a multidisciplinary symposium on foraging behavior, held as part of the 1978 Animal Behavior Society meetings in Seattle, Washington. Many ecologists, ethologists and psychologists participated or attended. The symposium was very successful. generating a high level of excitement. As a result, the participants decided to publish the proceedings of the symposium (Kami1 & Sargent 1981).

Search And Foraging

Author : Eugene Kagan
ISBN : 9781482242102
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 50. 72 MB
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Since the start of modern computing, the studies of living organisms have inspired the progress in developing computers and intelligent machines. In particular, the methods of search and foraging are the benchmark problems for robotics and multi-agent systems. The highly developed theory of search and screening involves optimal search plans that are obtained by standard optimization techniques while the foraging theory addresses search plans that mimic the behavior of living foragers. Search and Foraging: Individual Motion and Swarm Dynamics examines how to program artificial search agents so that they demonstrate the same behavior as predicted by the foraging theory for living organisms. For cybernetics, this approach yields techniques that enable the best online search planning in varying environments. For biology, it allows reasonable insights regarding the internal activity of living organisms performing foraging tasks. The book discusses foraging theory as well as search and screening theory in the same mathematical and algorithmic framework. It presents an overview of the main ideas and methods of foraging and search theories, making the concepts of one theory accessible to specialists of the other. The book covers Brownian walks and Lévy flight models of individual foraging and corresponding diffusion models and algorithms of search and foraging in random environments both by single and multiple agents. It also describes the active Brownian motion models for swarm dynamics with corresponding Fokker–Planck equations. Numerical examples and laboratory verifications illustrate the application of both theories.

Rethinking Sociological Theory

Author : Stephen K. Sanderson
ISBN : 9781317252771
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 80. 55 MB
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Stephen K. Sanderson s latest book recaptures a scientific theoretical sociology, one whose fundamental aim is the formulation of real theories that can be empirically tested. Sanderson reviews the major theoretical traditions within contemporary sociology, explicating their key principles, critically evaluating these principles and their applications, and showcasing exemplars. He judges each tradition by asking whether it has generated falsifiable research programs. Although principally a work of theoretical critique, "Rethinking Sociological Theory" is also a valuable textbook for both undergraduate and graduate courses in sociological theory."

Behavioral Ecology And The Transition To Agriculture

Author : Douglas J. Kennett
ISBN : 9780520246478
Genre : Nature
File Size : 53. 19 MB
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"For the newcomer to the literature and logic of human behavioral ecology, this book is a flat-out bonanza—entirely accessible, self-critical, largely free of polemic, and, above all, stimulating beyond measure. It's an extraordinary contribution. Our understanding of the foraging-farming dynamic may just have changed forever."—David Hurst Thomas, American Museum of Natural History

Handbook Of Contemporary Behavioral Economics

Author : Morris Altman
ISBN : 0765618907
Genre : Economics
File Size : 60. 31 MB
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Decision Theory And Rationality

Author : José Luis Bermúdez
ISBN : 9780191609459
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 82. 94 MB
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The concept of rationality is a common thread through the human and social sciences — from political science to philosophy, from economics to sociology, and from management science to decision analysis. But what counts as rational action and rational behavior? José Luis Bermúdez explores decision theory as a theory of rationality. Decision theory is the mathematical theory of choice and for many social scientists it makes the concept of rationality mathematically tractable and scientifically legitimate. Yet rationality is a concept with several dimensions and the theory of rationality has different roles to play. It plays an action-guiding role (prescribing what counts as a rational solution of a given decision problem). It plays a normative role (giving us the tools to pass judgment not just on how a decision problem was solved, but also on how it was set up in the first place). And it plays a predictive/explanatory role (telling us how rational agents will behave, or why they did what they did). This controversial but accessible book shows that decision theory cannot play all of these roles simultaneously. And yet, it argues, no theory of rationality can play one role without playing the other two. The conclusion is that there is no hope of taking decision theory as a theory of rationality.

Foraging In The Tennessee River Valley

Author : Kandace D. Hollenbach
ISBN : 9780817355227
Genre : History
File Size : 58. 6 MB
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In Foraging the Tennessee River Valley, 12,500 to 8,000 Years Ago, Hollenbach analyzes and compares botanical remains from archaeological excavations in four rockshelters in the Middle Tennessee River Valley.

Archaeological Hammers And Theories

Author : James A. Moore
ISBN : 9781483277639
Genre : History
File Size : 80. 26 MB
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Studies in Archaeology: Archaeological Hammers and Theories provides information pertinent to the archeological method, with emphasis on the interaction of data and technique with theory and problems. This book describes the nature of archeological data, the range of archeological theories, and the scope of archeological problems. Organized into three parts encompassing 13 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the products of the archeological record. This text then examines survey sampling, site formation studies, and lithic and ceramic analysis. Other chapters consider the behavioral concepts that are implicit in the notions of special behavior, optimization, decision making, and population dynamics. This book discusses as well the analysis of pottery, which plays a leading part in the reconstruction of culture histories in archeology. The final chapter suggests an alternative set of philosophical issues that might serve to focus a philosophy or archeology. This book is a valuable resource for archeologists.

Foraging Inspired Optimisation Algorithms

Author : Anthony Brabazon
ISBN : 9783319591568
Genre : Computers
File Size : 43. 75 MB
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This book is an introduction to relevant aspects of the foraging literature for algorithmic design, and an overview of key families of optimization algorithms that stem from a foraging metaphor. The authors first offer perspectives on foraging and foraging-inspired algorithms for optimization, they then explain the techniques inspired by the behaviors of vertebrates, invertebrates, and non-neuronal organisms, and they then discuss algorithms based on formal models of foraging, how to evolve a foraging strategy, and likely future developments. No prior knowledge of natural computing is assumed. This book will be of particular interest to graduate students, academics and practitioners in computer science, informatics, data science, management science, and other application domains.

Wildlife Habitat Relationships

Author : Michael L. Morrison
ISBN : 9781597266338
Genre : Science
File Size : 83. 79 MB
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Wildlife-Habitat Relationships goes beyond introductory wildlife biology texts to provide wildlife professionals and students with an understanding of the importance of habitat relationships in studying and managing wildlife. The book offers a unique synthesis and critical evaluation of data, methods, and studies, along with specific guidance on how to conduct rigorous studies. Now in its third edition, Wildlife-Habitat Relationships combines basic field zoology and natural history, evolutionary biology, ecological theory, and quantitative tools in explaining ecological processes and their influence on wildlife and habitats. Also included is a glossary of terms that every wildlife professional should know. Michael L. Morrison is professor and Caesar Kleberg Chair in Wildlife Ecology and Conservation in the Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences at Texas A&M University in College Station. Bruce G. Marcot is wildlife ecologist with the USDA Forest Service in Portland, Oregon. R. William Mannan is professor of wildlife ecology at the University of Arizona in Tucson.

Philosophy Of Psychology

Author : José Luis Bermúdez
ISBN : 0415275946
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 36. 51 MB
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Philosophy of Psychology is a well-structured introduction to the nature and mechanisms of cognition and behaviour from one of the leaders in the field.

Avian Energetics And Nutritional Ecology

Author : C. Carey
ISBN : 9781461304258
Genre : Science
File Size : 67. 15 MB
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A symposium held in 1973 chaired and organized by William R. Dawson was the first major attempt to summarize and synthesize the existing information in the then emerging field of avian energetics. The symposium featured papers by James R. King, William A. Calder III, Vance A. Tucker, and Robert E. Ricklefs and com mentaries by George A. Bartholomew, S. Charles Kendeigh, and Eugene P. Odum. The proceedings of the symposium, Avian Energetics (Paynter 1974), played a critical role in stimulating interest and research in the field of avian energetics. Some twenty-odd years later, we are making another attempt to summarize the information in the field of avian energetics. Some obvious differences exist be tween its predecessor and this volume. Numerous improvements in methodology, such as the use of doubly labeled water to estimate metabolism in free-living birds, now allow researchers to ask questions that could not be addressed previ ously. Second, consideration of nutrition is now inseparable from that of energet ics. This merger is necessary not only because food intake is the source of both en ergy and nutrients but also because one or more nutrients, rather than energy, can be limiting for a given species in a particular instance. Finally, the study of ener getics and nutritional ecology, particularly in birds and mammals, has grown so dramatically that a single volume can now only partially cover the range of possi ble topics and can catalogue only a sampling of all the studies on the subject.

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