forensic epidemiology

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Forensic Epidemiology

Author : Michael Freeman
ISBN : 9780124046443
Genre : Law
File Size : 52. 41 MB
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It is an inescapable fact that causation, both generally (in populations), and specifically (in individuals), cannot be observed. Rather, causation is determined when it can be inferred that the risk of an observed injury or disease from a plausible cause is greater than the risk from other plausible causes. While many causal evaluations performed in forensic medicine are simplified by the fact that the circumstances surrounding the onset of an injury or disease clearly rules out competing causes (eg, a death following a fall), there are many cases that present a more complicated picture. It is these types of investigations, in which an analysis of comparative levels of risk from competing causes is needed to arrive at a reliable and accurate determination of the most likely cause, that forensic epidemiology (FE) is directed at. In Forensic Epidemiology, the authors present the legal and scientific theories underlying the methods by which risk is used in the investigation of individual causation. Methods and principles from epidemiology are combined with those from a multitude of other disciplines, including general medicine, pharmacology, forensic pathology, biostatistics, and biomechanics, inter alia, as a basis for investigating the plausibility of injury and disease exposures and mechanisms. The ultimate determination of the probability of causation (PC) results from an assessment of the strength of association of the investigated relationship in the individual, based on a comparison between the risk of disease or injury from the investigated exposure versus the risk of the same disease or injury occurring at the same point in time in the individual, but absent the exposure. The principles and methods described in Forensic Epidemiology will be of interest to those who work and study in the fields of forensic medicine, epidemiology, and the law. Historical perspective on how epidemiologic evidence of causation has been used in courts in the US and Europe Theory and science underlying the use of risk to assess individual causation Primer on epidemiologic methods, and various measures used to arrive at individualized comparative risk assessments and PC The use of statistical methods applied to publicly available data for ad hoc analysis of PC applicable to the specific circumstances of a case Background on complementary disciplines, including forensic pathology, death investigation, biomechanics, and survival analysis Examples of applied FE in the investigation of traffic injury and death, automotive and other product defect litigation, medical negligence, and criminal prosecution and defense

Forensic Epidemiology

Author : Steven A. Koehler
ISBN : 1420063286
Genre : Law
File Size : 59. 31 MB
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After 9/11, forensic epidemiology emerged as a leading investigative tool, partnering public health officers with law enforcement like never before. Based on the authors’ first-hand experience, Forensic Epidemiology brings to light the vast amounts of information collected by medical examiners that will be useful in advancing death investigation techniques among the forensic science, public health, and law enforcement fields. This practical resource begins with a brief overview of epidemiological science and the history of forensic epidemiology before examining the multiple functions of death certificates and the signature role of forensic epidemiologists in death investigations. Incorporating numerous illustrations and real-world examples, the book: Explains proven methods to collect, analyze, and interpret data for criminal investigations Defines the terminology, methodology, procedures, and goals of all sectors involved for more effective collaboration Examines deaths from natural, suicidal, accidental, homicidal, and undetermined causes Describes the various decomposition states and methods used to establish positive identity The increased frequency of criminal acts that involve deliberate biological and chemical agents underscores the need for collaboration between law enforcement investigators and public health professionals. As Forensic Epidemiology effectively demonstrates, when they work together, they can mount a powerful and successful response to threats to the American public. Dr. Steven A. Koehler was interviewed in Volume 12 of Anil Aggrawal's Internet Journal of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology.

Case Studies In Forensic Epidemiology

Author : Sana Loue
ISBN : 9780306475245
Genre : Medical
File Size : 60. 46 MB
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Epidemiology has often been defined as the study of the distribution of disease, together with the distribution of factors that may modify that risk of disease. As such, epidemiology has often been reduced to a methodology only, providing a mechanism for the study of disease that is somehow removed, separate and apart from the populations that serve as its focus. Epidemiology, however, is much more than that. The discipline p- vides a way of perceiving and knowing the world, and of relating to the c- munities whose health and disease patterns we are trying to understand. As such, its usefulness extends past the construction of questionnaires, the detective work inherent in tracing the source of an infection or the analysis of data. Rather, epidemiology serves as a point of reference and a linkage between various domains of reality: in the courtroom, between a com- nity’s injuries and those alleged to be responsible for those violations; between the community striving to effectuate changes to improve its health and environment and the lawmakers and policymakers whose actions may dictate or control the likelihood of that change; and between “mainstream” populations and those who become or remain marginalized and stigmatized due to disease or perceived disease.

Forensic Epidemiology

Author : Sana Loue
ISBN : 9780763738495
Genre : Law
File Size : 47. 86 MB
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Events on local, national, and international levels have highlighted the need for joint investigation and collaboration between public health and law enforcement. Domestic violence and partner homicide, intentional infection of individuals with HIV, and the anthrax attacks of 2001 are examples that underscore the need for forensic epidemiology in the investigation of criminal acts. Forensic Epidemiology focuses specifically on the integration of the principles and methods of epidemiology with law enforcement functions in the administrative and criminal contexts. Ideal for students and professi

Forensic Epidemiology In The Global Context

Author : Sana Loue
ISBN : 9781461467380
Genre : Medical
File Size : 60. 86 MB
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As globalization causes profound changes in business, industry, and trade,it can also have significant effects on populations, environments, and individuals.These effects may be harmful, resulting in injury or illness, prompting the critical question: How best to correct wrongs caused to individuals, communities, and/or the environment of one country by the actions of individuals or corporations of another? Possible answers lie in an emerging discipline. Forensic Epidemiology in the Global Context opens meaningful windows onto the processes of forensic epidemiology, the roles of the epidemiologist in civil disputes, and the potential contribution of the field to legal and justice efforts worldwide. Case examples from the U.K., Nigeria, Ecuador, Romania, and Australia illustrate commonly used methodologies and the challenges involved in their use in U.S. and international courts of law. A chapter on expert testimony takes readers through qualification and admissibility issues, report requirements, and working with attorneys. Included in the coverage: Forensic epidemiology in the international legal arena. The epidemiologist as an expert in litigation. Epidemiological evidence in tort law: dispatches from the U.K. Liability for occupational exposure: the role of epidemiology. Forensic epidemiology and environmental justice. Forensic epidemiology, pathology, ethnics, and human rights. By emphasizing both the scientific and legal components of the equation, Forensic Epidemiology in the Global Context gives researchers and graduate students in epidemiology a unique and timely guide to the present and future of an increasingly salient field.

Forensic Nursing Science E Book

Author : Virginia A. Lynch
ISBN : 9780323066389
Genre : Medical
File Size : 68. 50 MB
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Written and edited by the most respected authorities in forensic nursing and forensic sciences, this new edition provides the tools and concepts you need to collect evidence that is admissible in court, determine the significance of that evidence, and provide accurate, reliable testimony while administering high-quality patient care. Now in full color throughout, it remains the most comprehensive, highly illustrated text of its kind. Provides a comprehensive, updated guide to forensic nursing science, paying special attention to the International Association of Forensic Nurses’s (IAFN) goals for forensic nursing. Retains a focus on assessment skills and the collection and preservation of evidence, following the established guidelines of the forensic sciences. Prepares you to provide testimony as a fact witness or a forensic nursing expert. Includes an illustrated case study in almost every chapter, helping you relate the information to clinical practice. Highlights important recommendations for interventions in Best Practice boxes, including the evidence base for each. Summarizes important points in Key Point boxes, so you can quickly review the most important concepts in each chapter. Explores the evolving role of forensic nurses in today’s health care facilities and the community. Edited by Virginia Lynch, founding member and first President of the International Association of Forensic Nurses and Janet Barber Duval, both well-respected pioneers and educators in the field. Contains 300 full-color illustrations integrated throughout the text, so you can view evidence quickly and easily, as it is likely to appear in practice. Presents information on courtroom testimony and depositions in one reorganized, streamlined chapter, giving you a full, organized treatment of this extremely important topic. Includes twelve new chapters: Digital Evidence, Medical Evidence Recovery at the Death Scene, Asphyxia, Electrical and Thermal Injury, Intrafamilial Homicide and Unexplained Childhood Death, Human Trafficking, Credential Development for Forensic Nurses, Gangs and Hate Crimes, Ethics Issues in Forensic Nursing, Forensic Physics and Fracture Analysis, Sexual Deviant Behaviors and Crime and Forensic Epidemiology. Contains heavily revised information on Prehospital Evidence, Forensic Investigation in the Hospital, and Human Abuse and Deaths in Custody. Features critical thinking questions with every case study, so you can thoroughly consider the implications of each clinical scenario. Evolve site will include appendices and additional documentation materials.

Essential Forensic Pathology

Author : Gilbert Corrigan
ISBN : 9781439876664
Genre : Law
File Size : 34. 72 MB
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A myriad of different scenarios await those entering the field of forensic pathology, ranging from gunshot wounds to asphyxiation to explosives to death from addiction. Essential Forensic Pathology: Core Studies and Exercises helps prepare pathologists in training by establishing what they must know about the most common death scenes they will encounter. The book begins by discussing the coaching objectives in medical education and follows with a description of the 15 different rotations of the forensic pathology resident. Using a consistent and concise format, the book describes the facility where the rotation takes place, the necessary skills, the laboratory equipment, and other components of the rotation. The main portion of the book presents forensic pathology essentials in the form of learning objectives—each delineated with a code: "M" for items students must know, and "S" for those they must do. This section begins by discussing the government’s role, describes medical examiner and coroner systems, and analyzes the academic discipline of forensic pathology. Next, the book focuses on hands-on elements of forensic pathology, with chapters on scene investigation, identification, and postmortem changes (signs of death). Objectives are also presented for various causes of death, including gunshot wounds, stab wounds, asphyxiation, sex-related death, and death from addiction. Additional chapters cover bombs and explosive devices, mental disease, epidemics, and issues related to forensic entomology. Each chapter contains a list of pertinent vocabulary and references for further study. By mastering the objectives contained in each chapter of this manual, forensic pathology students will be ready to pass certification exams and work confidently in the field.

Reviews Of Environmental Contamination And Toxicology

Author : David M. Whitacre
ISBN : 1441976159
Genre : Science
File Size : 84. 24 MB
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Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology attempts to provide concise, critical reviews of timely advances, philosophy and significant areas of accomplished or needed endeavor in the total field of xenobiotics, in any segment of the environment, as well as toxicological implications.

A Dictionary Of Epidemiology

Author : Miquel Porta
ISBN : 9780199390052
Genre : Medical
File Size : 63. 8 MB
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This sixth edition of A Dictionary of Epidemiology -- the most updated since its inception -- reflects the profound substantive and methodological changes that have come to characterize epidemiology and its associated disciplines. Sponsored by the International Epidemiological Association, this book remains the essential reference for anyone studying or working in epidemiology, biostatistics, public health, medicine, or the growing number health sciences in which epidemiologic competency is now required. More than just a dictionary, this text is an essential guidebook to the state of the science. It offers the most current, authoritative definitions of terms central to biomedical and public health literature -- everything from confounding and incidence rate to epigenetic inheritance and Number Needed to Treat. As epidemiology continues to change and grow, A Dictionary of Epidemiology will remain its book of record.

Methods In Field Epidemiology

Author : Pia D. M. MacDonald
ISBN : 9780763784591
Genre : Health & Fitness
File Size : 51. 82 MB
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This unique guidebook covers all aspects of practical field epidemiologic investigation. It explains the requirements, defines terms, and illustrates many examples of how to undertake the tasks of the public health epidemiologist during a field investigation. Unlike other texts of its kind, it breaks down each function of field epidemiology to its constituent parts and thoroughly answers questions related to them. Topics include: public health surveillance; qualifying a potential outbreak; assembling and equipping a team; hypothesis generation and descriptive epidemiology; epidemiological studies; hypothesis-testing interviews; data analysis; writing a report; public health laboratory’s role in field; environmental health components; investigating non-infectious health events; forensic epidemiology investigations; GIS; and special considerations. The text is accompanied by a complete package of instructor resources including Sample Syllabus, Instructor's Manual, TestBank, and PowerPoint slides.

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