fragile by design

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Fragile By Design

Author : Charles W. Calomiris
ISBN : 9780691168357
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 83. 68 MB
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"Why are banking systems unstable in so many countries--but not in others? The United States has had twelve systemic banking crises since 1840, while Canada has had none. The banking systems of Mexico and Brazil have not only been crisis prone but have provided miniscule amounts of credit to business enterprises and households. Analyzing the political and banking history of the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Mexico, and Brazil through several centuries, Fragile by Design demonstrates that chronic banking crises and scarce credit are not accidents due to unforeseen circumstances. Rather, these fluctuations result from the complex bargains made between politicians, bankers, bank shareholders, depositors, debtors, and taxpayers. The well-being of banking systems depends on the abilities of political institutions to balance and limit how coalitions of these various groups influence government regulations. Fragile by Design is a revealing exploration of the ways that politics inevitably intrudes into bank regulation. Charles Calomiris and Stephen Haber combine political history and economics to examine how coalitions of politicians, bankers, and other interest groups form, why some endure while others are undermined, and how they generate policies that determine who gets to be a banker, who has access to credit, and who pays for bank bailouts and rescues."--Publisher's description.

Unleashing Usury

Author : Richard Westra
ISBN : 9780997287004
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 42. 17 MB
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Usury laid medieval society to waste. Western civilization was saved by the rise of capitalism, which tamed the activities of money lending, and endowed them with socially redeeming value, tethering finance to expanding production of material goods and increased social wealth. Now, as the 21st century begins, bloating tides of money with no possibility of ever being converted into real capital wash over the world. Finance again has turned to its dark side, using money to make money with no socially redeeming purpose. Such is the endgame of economies managed by capitalists without capitalism. As Marx foresaw, capitalist society, like all others, is destined to be outpaced by history as the conditions of its existence decompose and become a drag on the human future. Either we will succeed in bringing about new politico-economic structures—or civilization will collapse into barbarism, just as usury broke it down in the past.

How To Design Tax Policy In Fragile States

Author : Mario Mansour
ISBN : 9781513515472
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 74. 50 MB
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The purpose of this note is to provide a framework for improving tax policy design in fragile and conflict-affected states, which face political and institutional constraints. This note begins with an overview of experiences in revenue mobilization in fragile states, including relative to other country groups—in particular, nonfragile states and formerly fragile states; that is, countries that exited fragility during the period under study. A discussion follows of how the principles of tax policy design should be applied in fragile states, particularly the relative importance of the revenue objective vis-à-vis other objectives, such as equity and efficiency. The two sections that follow provide guidance on tax policy design in the emergency and consolidation phases, respectively, and discuss how governments can use tax policy to transition from one phase to another, eventually overcoming fragility. The note concludes with key lessons and a set of guiding principles for tax reform in fragile states.

Fragile Design A

Author : Tracie Peterson
ISBN : 9780764226892
Genre : Fiction
File Size : 59. 29 MB
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Arabella flees her Shaker upbringing for the independence in Lowell and soon finds both waiting love and grave danger. The Bells of Lowell Book 2.

Digital Controller Implementation And Fragility

Author : Robert Istepanian
ISBN : 1852333901
Genre : Computers
File Size : 27. 85 MB
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Written by leading researchers, this book collects a number of articles considering the problems of finite-precision computing in digital controllers and filters. Topics range from analysis of fragility and finite-precision effects to the design of low-complexity digital controllers.

Takagi Sugeno Fuzzy Systems Non Fragile H Infinity Filtering

Author : Xiao-Heng Chang
ISBN : 9783642286322
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 71. 84 MB
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Takagi-Sugeno Fuzzy Systems Non-fragile H-infinity Filtering investigates the problem of non-fragile H-infinity filter design for Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy systems. Given a T-S fuzzy system, the objective of this book is to design an H-infinity filter with the gain variations such that the filtering error system guarantees a prescribed H-infinity performance level. Furthermore, it demonstrates that the solution of non-fragile H-infinity filter design problem can be obtained by solving a set of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). The intended audiences are graduate students and researchers both from the fields of engineering and mathematics. Dr. Xiao-Heng Chang is an Associate Professor at the College of Engineering, Bohai University, Jinzhou, Liaoning, China.

Security Development And The Fragile State

Author : David Carment
ISBN : 9781135257057
Genre : History
File Size : 51. 12 MB
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This book provides theoretical clarity about the concepts of failed and fragile states, which have emerged strongly since the 9/11 attacks. Recent contributions often see the fragile state as either a problem of development or of security. This volume argues that that neither perspective on its own is a sufficient basis for good policy. In a wide-ranging treatment, drawing on large samples as well as case studies, the authors create an alternative model of the fragile state emphasizing the multidimensional, multifaceted nature of the "fragile state problematique". On the basis of their model and empirical evidence, they then derive a number of policy-relevant insights regarding the need for contextualized and ongoing country analysis, the perils and pitfalls of unstructured development assistance, and the need to move whole-of-government approaches from the realm of rhetoric to reality. In offering both a synthesis of existing research and an innovative approach to understanding the fragile state, this volume will be of great interest to students of war and conflict studies, risk, conflict management, and international relations in general. It will also be of use to practitioners in policy circles and to NGOs.

Empire Development Colonialism

Author : Mark Duffield
ISBN : 9781847010773
Genre : History
File Size : 43. 63 MB
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This book makes a unique contribution to the renewed debate about empire and imperialism and will be of great interest to all those concerned with understanding the historical antecedents and wider implications of today's emergent liberal interventionism, and the various logics of international development.

Linear Systems

Author : Guang-Hong Yang
ISBN : 9781466580367
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 71. 12 MB
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Linear Systems: Non-Fragile Control and Filtering presents the latest research results and a systematic approach to designing non-fragile controllers and filters for linear systems. The authors combine the algebraic Riccati technique, the linear matrix inequality (LMI) technique, and the sensitivity analysis method to establish a set of new non-fragile (insensitive) control methods. This proposed method can optimize the closed-loop system performance and make the designed controllers or filters tolerant of coefficient variations in controller or filter gain matrices. A Systematic Approach to Designing Non-Fragile Controllers and Filters for Linear Systems The text begins with developments and main research methods in non-fragile control. It then systematically presents novel methods for non-fragile control and filtering of linear systems with respect to additive/multiplicative controller/filter gain uncertainties. The book introduces the algebraic Riccati equation technique to solve additive/multiplicative norm-bounded controller/filter gain uncertainty, and proposes a structured vertex separator to deal with the numerical problem resulting from interval-bounded coefficient variations. It also explains how to design insensitive controllers and filters in the framework of coefficient sensitivity theory. Throughout, the book includes numerical examples to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed design methods. More Effective Design Methods for Non-Fragile Controllers and Filters The design and analysis tools described will help readers to better understand and analyze parameter uncertainties and to design more effective non-fragile controllers and filters. Providing a coherent approach, this book is a valuable reference for researchers, graduate students, and anyone who wants to explore the area of non-fragile control and filtering.

Working Differently In Fragile And Conflict Affected Situations

Author : Asian Development Bank
ISBN : 9789290929284
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 54. 87 MB
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This handbook aims to help Asian Development Bank staff and other development practitioners to more effectively plan, design, and implement projects in fragile and conflict-affected settings. The practical examples provided in this handbook have been drawn from the collective tacit knowledge of ADB's operational staff. These practical examples include innovative, flexible, streamlined, and simplified approaches to project processing and implementation that are relevant to fragile situations.

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