freedom riders 1961 and the struggle for racial justice

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Freedom Riders

Author : Raymond Arsenault
ISBN : 9780195327144
Genre : History
File Size : 33. 66 MB
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Relives a critical episode in American history that transformed the Civil Rights Movement when a group of volunteers traveled by bus in 1961 from Washington, D.C., through the deep South, defying Jim Crow laws and putting their lives on the line for racial justice.

Freedom Riders

Author : Raymond Arsenault
ISBN : 9780199754311
Genre : Law
File Size : 84. 65 MB
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Presents a comprehensive study of the 1961 Freedom Rides from Washington DC to the deep south that challenged the segregated transit laws, and describes the brutal confrontation between the riders and the Ku Klux Klan in Alabama and Mississippi.

Freedom Riders

Author : Lisa A. Crayton
ISBN : 9781538380291
Genre : Juvenile Nonfiction
File Size : 56. 9 MB
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For decades leading up to the civil rights movement, African Americans faced segregation, danger, and humiliation while using public transportation and facilities. Interstate travel posed additional risks, until black as well as white nonviolent protestors challenged the status quo. In solidarity, they boarded public transportation, rode across state lines, and staunchly violated discriminatory laws. Harassed, beaten, and jailed, they pressed forward toward integration. Their courageous "freedom rides" drew widespread attention and ultimately helped change laws. Readers take a fast-paced trip through history to learn about the Freedom Rides' gutsy passengers, treacherous routes, and remarkable achievements.

Beyond Atlanta

Author : Stephen G. N. Tuck
ISBN : 0820325287
Genre : History
File Size : 58. 11 MB
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This text draws on interviews with almost 200 people, both black and white, who worked for, or actively resisted, the freedom movement in Georgia. Beginning before and continuing after the years of direct action protest in the 1960s, the book makes clearthe exhorbitant cost of racial oppression.

Autobiography Of A Freedom Rider

Author : Thomas Armstrong
ISBN : 9780757391712
Genre : Biography & Autobiography
File Size : 80. 78 MB
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In the segregated Deep South when lynching and Klansmen and Jim Crow laws ruled, there stood a line of foot soldiers ready to sacrifice their lives for the right to vote, to enter rooms marked "White Only," and to live with simple dignity. They were called Freedom Riders and Thomas M. Armstrong was one of them. This is his story as well as a look ahead at the work still to be done. June, 1961. Thomas M. Armstrong, determined to challenge segregated interstate bus travel in Mississippi, courageously walks into a Trailways bus station waiting room in Jackson. He is promptly arrested for his part in a strategic plan to gain national attention. The crime? Daring to share breathing space marked "Whites Only." Being of African-American descent in the Mississippi Deep South was literally a crime if you overstepped legal or even unspoken cultural bounds in 1961. The consequences of defying entrenched societal codes could result in brutal beatings, displacement, even murder with no recourse for justice in a corrupt political machine, thick with the grease of racial bias. The Freedom Rides were carefully orchestrated and included both black-and-white patriots devoted to the cause of de-segregation. Autobiography of a Freedom Rider details the strategies employed behind the scenes that resulted in a national spectacle of violence so stunning in Alabama and Mississippi that Robert Kennedy called in Federal marshals. Armstrong's burning need to create social change for his fellow black citizens provides the backdrop of this richly woven memoir that traces back to his great-grandparents as freed slaves, examines the history of the Civil Rights Movement, the devastating personal repercussions Armstrong endured for being a champion of those rights, the sweet taste of progressive advancement in the past 50 years, and a look ahead at the work still to be done. Hundreds were arrested for their part in the Freedom Rides, Thomas M. Armstrong amongst them. But it is the authors' quest to give homage to "the true heroes of the civil rights movement . . . the everyday black Southerners who confronted the laws of segregation under which they lived . . . the tens of thousands of us who took a chance with our lives when we decided that no longer would we accept the legacy of exclusion that had robbed our ancestors of hope and faith in a just society."

Roy Wilkins

Author : Yvonne Ryan
ISBN : 9780813143804
Genre : Biography & Autobiography
File Size : 20. 43 MB
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Roy Wilkins (1901--1981) spent forty-six years of his life serving the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and led the organization for more than twenty years. Under his leadership, the NAACP spearheaded efforts that contributed to landmark civil rights legislation, including the 1964 Civil Rights Act and Voting Rights Act. In Roy Wilkins: The Quiet Revolutionary and the NAACP, Yvonne Ryan offers the first biography of this influential activist, as well as an analysis of his significant contributions to civil rights in America. While activists in Alabama were treading the highways between Selma and Montgomery, Wilkins was walking the corridors of power in Washington, D.C., working tirelessly in the background to ensure that the rights they fought for were protected through legislation and court rulings. With his command of congressional procedure and networking expertise, Wilkins was regarded as a strong and trusted presence on Capitol Hill, and received greater access to the Oval Office than any other civil rights leader during the presidency of Lyndon B. Johnson. Roy Wilkins fills a significant gap in the history of the civil rights movement, objectively exploring the career and impact of one of its forgotten leaders. The quiet revolutionary, who spent his life navigating the Washington political system, affirmed the extraordinary and courageous efforts of the many men and women who braved the dangers of the southern streets and challenged injustice to achieve equal rights for all Americans.

The Freedom Riders

Author : Deborah Kent
ISBN : 0516466623
Genre : African Americans
File Size : 67. 82 MB
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Reveals how the freedom riders, courageous people of both races who dared to exercise their right to ride unsegregated interstate buses in the South, advanced the Civil Rights movement

America S Growing Inequality

Author : Chester Hartman
ISBN : 9780739191729
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 31. 40 MB
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America’s Growing Inequality presents the links between racism and poverty in the United States, highlighting the work of social justice organizations to facilitate an end to their presence in society. The facts, analyses, and policy proposals that comprise this book will inform scholars and students in a range of disciplines including sociology, social work, urban planning, and economics.

The Sound Of Freedom

Author : Raymond Arsenault
ISBN : 9781608190560
Genre : Biography & Autobiography
File Size : 47. 31 MB
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Chronicles the landmark 1939 concert, offers insight into the period's racial climate, describes Eleanor Roosevelt's resignation from the DAR for barring Anderson's performances, and pays tribute to the singer's significant contributions.

Acts Of Conscience

Author : Joseph Kip Kosek
ISBN : 9780231513050
Genre : History
File Size : 82. 8 MB
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In response to the massive bloodshed that defined the twentieth century, American religious radicals developed a modern form of nonviolent protest, one that combined Christian principles with new uses of mass media. Greatly influenced by the ideas of Mohandas Gandhi, these "acts of conscience" included sit-ins, boycotts, labor strikes, and conscientious objection to war. Beginning with World War I and ending with the ascendance of Martin Luther King Jr., Joseph Kip Kosek traces the impact of A. J. Muste, Richard Gregg, and other radical Christian pacifists on American democratic theory and practice. These dissenters found little hope in the secular ideologies of Wilsonian Progressivism, revolutionary Marxism, and Cold War liberalism, all of which embraced organized killing at one time or another. The example of Jesus, they believed, demonstrated the immorality and futility of such violence under any circumstance and for any cause. Yet the theories of Christian nonviolence are anything but fixed. For decades, followers have actively reinterpreted the nonviolent tradition, keeping pace with developments in politics, technology, and culture. Tracing the rise of militant nonviolence across a century of industrial conflict, imperialism, racial terror, and international warfare, Kosek recovers radical Christians' remarkable stance against the use of deadly force, even during World War II and other seemingly just causes. His research sheds new light on an interracial and transnational movement that posed a fundamental, and still relevant, challenge to the American political and religious mainstream.

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