fundamentals of massive mimo

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Fundamentals Of Massive Mimo

Author : Thomas L. Marzetta
ISBN : 9781316813089
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 43. 82 MB
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Written by pioneers of the concept, this is the first complete guide to the physical and engineering principles of Massive MIMO. Assuming only a basic background in communications and statistical signal processing, it will guide readers through key topics in multi-cell systems such as propagation modeling, multiplexing and de-multiplexing, channel estimation, power control, and performance evaluation. The authors' unique capacity-bounding approach will enable readers to carry out effective system performance analyses and develop advanced Massive MIMO techniques and algorithms. Numerous case studies, as well as problem sets and solutions accompanying the book online, will help readers put knowledge into practice and acquire the skill set needed to design and analyze complex wireless communication systems. Whether you are a graduate student, researcher, or industry professional working in the field of wireless communications, this will be an indispensable guide for years to come.

Massive Mimo

Author : Hien Quoc Ngo
ISBN : 9789175191478
Genre :
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The last ten years have seen a massive growth in the number of connected wireless devices. Billions of devices are connected and managed by wireless networks. At the same time, each device needs a high throughput to support applications such as voice, real-time video, movies, and games. Demands for wireless throughput and the number of wireless devices will always increase. In addition, there is a growing concern about energy consumption of wireless communication systems. Thus, future wireless systems have to satisfy three main requirements: i) having a high throughput; ii) simultaneously serving many users; and iii) having less energy consumption. Massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technology, where a base station (BS) equipped with very large number of antennas (collocated or distributed) serves many users in the same time-frequency resource, can meet the above requirements, and hence, it is a promising candidate technology for next generations of wireless systems. With massive antenna arrays at the BS, for most propagation environments, the channels become favorable, i.e., the channel vectors between the users and the BS are (nearly) pairwisely orthogonal, and hence, linear processing is nearly optimal. A huge throughput and energy efficiency can be achieved due to the multiplexing gain and the array gain. In particular, with a simple power control scheme, Massive MIMO can offer uniformly good service for all users. In this dissertation, we focus on the performance of Massive MIMO. The dissertation consists of two main parts: fundamentals and system designs of Massive MIMO. In the first part, we focus on fundamental limits of the system performance under practical constraints such as low complexity processing, limited length of each coherence interval, intercell interference, and finite-dimensional channels. We first study the potential for power savings of the Massive MIMO uplink with maximum-ratio combining (MRC), zero-forcing, and minimum mean-square error receivers, under perfect and imperfect channels. The energy and spectral efficiency tradeoff is investigated. Secondly, we consider a physical channel model where the angular domain is divided into a finite number of distinct directions. A lower bound on the capacity is derived, and the effect of pilot contamination in this finite-dimensional channel model is analyzed. Finally, some aspects of favorable propagation in Massive MIMO under Rayleigh fading and line-of-sight (LoS) channels are investigated. We show that both Rayleigh fading and LoS environments offer favorable propagation. In the second part, based on the fundamental analysis in the first part, we propose some system designs for Massive MIMO. The acquisition of channel state information (CSI) is very importantin Massive MIMO. Typically, the channels are estimated at the BS through uplink training. Owing to the limited length of the coherence interval, the system performance is limited by pilot contamination. To reduce the pilot contamination effect, we propose an eigenvalue-decomposition-based scheme to estimate the channel directly from the received data. The proposed scheme results in better performance compared with the conventional training schemes due to the reduced pilot contamination. Another important issue of CSI acquisition in Massive MIMO is how to acquire CSI at the users. To address this issue, we propose two channel estimation schemes at the users: i) a downlink "beamforming training" scheme, and ii) a method for blind estimation of the effective downlink channel gains. In both schemes, the channel estimation overhead is independent of the number of BS antennas. We also derive the optimal pilot and data powers as well as the training duration allocation to maximize the sum spectral efficiency of the Massive MIMO uplink with MRC receivers, for a given total energy budget spent in a coherence interval. Finally, applications of Massive MIMO in relay channels are proposed and analyzed. Specifically, we consider multipair relaying systems where many sources simultaneously communicate with many destinations in the same time-frequency resource with the help of a massive MIMO relay. A massive MIMO relay is equipped with many collocated or distributed antennas. We consider different duplexing modes (full-duplex and half-duplex) and different relaying protocols (amplify-and-forward, decode-and-forward, two-way relaying, and one-way relaying) at the relay. The potential benefits of massive MIMO technology in these relaying systems are explored in terms of spectral efficiency and power efficiency.

Mimo Processing For 4g And Beyond

Author : Mário Marques da Silva
ISBN : 9781466598089
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 25. 71 MB
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MIMO Processing for 4G and Beyond: Fundamentals and Evolution offers a cutting-edge look at multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) signal processing, namely its detection (in both time and frequency domains) and precoding. It examines its integration with OFDM, UWB, and CDMA, along with the impact of these combinations at the system level. Massive MIMO and network coding at the physical layer are very recent topics which are also addressed, and which are expected to play an important role in 5G systems. The book brings together contributing authors from first-class institutions who have been working in international research and development (R&D) projects and are highly cited in the MIMO field. These experts examine ongoing R&D activities in the field of MIMO systems and its associated signal processing that is expected to be employed in 4G and 5G systems. Covers the various wireless communication standards that make use of MIMO systems Explains the receiver processing associated with MIMO signal detection (including the case of massive MIMO systems) and presents the optimal precoding techniques Considers optimized MIMO schemes and processing for block transmission techniques, for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmission techniques, and for single carrier-frequency domain equalization Examines MIMO processing and optimization for wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA) Describes the ultra-wideband (UWB) transmission technique and the corresponding MIMO processing and optimizations Explains physical layer network coding techniques From basic receiver design to more advanced processing, the book covers the spectrum of topics associated with MIMO systems and MIMO processing. It provides a comprehensive description of MIMO fundamentals and theory that is ideal for anyone looking to sharpen their skills on the subject, such as corporate/industrial employees or graduate students. The book summarizes the most important enhancements related to the processing of MIMO systems for 4G systems, including its evolution and future trends. It also supplies a performance analysis of the various combinations of MIMO schemes for 4G systems to help you select the combination best suited for your particular needs.

Fundamentals Of Mimo Wireless Communications

Author : Rakhesh Singh Kshetrimayum
ISBN : 9781108415699
Genre : Computers
File Size : 30. 25 MB
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"Provides a solid understanding of the essential concepts of MIMO wireless communications"--

Mmwave Massive Mimo

Author : Shahid Mumtaz
ISBN : 9780128044780
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 82. 64 MB
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mmWave Massive MIMO: A Paradigm for 5G is the first book of its kind to hinge together related discussions on mmWave and Massive MIMO under the umbrella of 5G networks. New networking scenarios are identified, along with fundamental design requirements for mmWave Massive MIMO networks from an architectural and practical perspective. Working towards final deployment, this book updates the research community on the current mmWave Massive MIMO roadmap, taking into account the future emerging technologies emanating from 3GPP/IEEE. The book's editors draw on their vast experience in international research on the forefront of the mmWave Massive MIMO research arena and standardization. This book aims to talk openly about the topic, and will serve as a useful reference not only for postgraduates students to learn more on this evolving field, but also as inspiration for mobile communication researchers who want to make further innovative strides in the field to mark their legacy in the 5G arena. Contains tutorials on the basics of mmWave and Massive MIMO Identifies new 5G networking scenarios, along with design requirements from an architectural and practical perspective Details the latest updates on the evolution of the mmWave Massive MIMO roadmap, considering future emerging technologies emanating from 3GPP/IEEE Includes contributions from leading experts in the field in modeling and prototype design for mmWave Massive MIMO design Presents an ideal reference that not only helps postgraduate students learn more in this evolving field, but also inspires mobile communication researchers towards further innovation

Exploring Alternative Massive Mimo Designs

Author : Daniel Verenzuela
ISBN : 9789179299217
Genre : Electronic books
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The development of information and communication technologies (ICT) provides the means for reaching global connectivity that can help humanity progress and prosper. This comes with high demands on data traffic and number of connected devices which are rapidly growing and need to be met by technological development. Massive MIMO, where MIMO stands for multiple-input multiple-output, is a fundamental component of the 5G wireless communication standard for its ability to provide high spectral and energy efficiency, SE and EE, respectively. The key feature of this technology is the use of a large number of antennas at the base stations (BSs) to spatially multiplex several user equipments (UEs). In the development of new technologies like Massive MIMO, many design alternatives need to be evaluated and compared in order to find the best operating point with a preferable tradeoff between low cost and complexity. In this thesis, two alternative designs for signal processing and hardware in Massive MIMO are studied and compared with the baseline operation in terms of SE, EE, and power consumption. The first design is called superimposed pilot (SP) transmission and is based on superimposing pilot and data symbols to eliminate the need to reserve dedicated time-frequency resources for pilots. This allows more data to be transmitted and supports longer pilot sequences that, in turn, reduce pilot contamination. The second design is mixed analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) and it aims at balancing the SE performance and the power consumption cost by allowing different ADC bit resolutions across the BS antennas. The results show that the Massive MIMO baseline, when properly optimized, is the preferred choice in standard deployments and propagation conditions. However, the SP alternative design can increase the SE compared to the baseline by using the Massive-MIMO iterative channel estimation and decoding (MICED) algorithm proposed in this dissertation. In particular, the SE gains are found in cases with high mobility, high carrier frequencies, or high number of spatially multiplexed UEs. For the mixed-ADCs alternative design, improvements in the SE and EE compared to the Massive MIMO baseline can be achieved in cases with distributed BS antennas where interference suppression techniques are used. El desarrollo en tecnologías de información y comunicación (en inglés, ICT) provee los medios para alcanzar la conectividad global que puede ayudar a la humanidad a progresar y prosperar. Esto implica que el avance tecnológico debe satisfacer la alta demanda de tráfico de data y número de equipos conectados que se encuentra en rápido crecimiento. La tecnología de múltiple-entrada múltiple-salida masiva, en inglés Massive MIMO, se considera una pieza fundamental de la quinta generación de comunicaciones inalámbricas (5G) debido a su capacidad de proveer una alta eficiencia espectral y energética (en inglés, SE y EE, respectivamente). Esta tecnología está caracterizada fundamentalmente por el uso de un alto número de antenas en la estación base (en inglés, BS) para multiplexar a varios usuarios en el espacio. En el desarrollo de nuevas tecnologías como Massive MIMO, muchas alternativas de diseño necesitan ser evaluadas y comparadas para encontrar el mejor punto de operación con un balance conveniente entre complejidad y bajo costo. En esta tesis, dos alternativas de diseño para el procesamiento de señales y el hardware de Massive MIMO son estudiadas y comparadas con la operación del diseño base en términos de eficiencia espectral, eficiencia energética y consumo de potencia. El primer diseño se denomina transmisión de pilotos superpuestos (en inglés, SP) y está basado en la superposición de señales piloto y de datos para eliminar la necesidad de asignar recursos dedicados a señales pilotos. Además, la transmisión de pilotos superpuestos permite reducir la interferencia que surge a raíz de reusar las señales pilotos en distintas celdas, este efecto se denomina contaminación de pilotos (en inglés pilot contamination). El segundo diseño se denomina conversores analógico-adigital (en inglés, ADC) mixtos (en inglés, mixed-ADCs) y se basa en permitir distintas resoluciones de bit en los conversores analógico-a-digital de las antenas en la estación base. Este diseño permite que la resolución de los conversores analógico-a-digital se adapte a las condiciones de propagación de las señales para balancear los beneficios en eficiencia espectral con el costo de potencia consumida. Los resultados muestran que el diseño base de Massive MIMO, cuando esta optimizado de manera apropiada, es la opción preferida en despliegues y condiciones de propagación estándares. Sin embargo, la transmisión de pilotos superpuestos puede incrementar la eficiencia espectral en comparación al diseño base cuando se combina con el método iterativo para la estimación de canal y decodificación en Massive MIMO propuesto en esta tesis (en inglés, MICED). En particular, las ganancias en eficiencia espectral son obtenidas en escenarios con alta movilidad de usuarios, alta frecuencia portadora, o alto número de usuarios multiplexados en el espacio. Con respecto al diseño alternativo de conversores analógico-a-digital mixtos, la eficiencia espectral y energética pueden ser incrementadas en comparación al diseño base cuando las antenas de la estación base están distribuidas en el espacio y técnicas para suprimir interferencia entre usuarios son usadas. Die Entwicklung der Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien (ICT) bietet die Möglichkeit eine globale Konnektivität zu erreichen, die Fortschritt und Wohlstand fördern kann. Dies bedeutet zugleich, dass der steigende Datenverkehr und die wachsende Anzahl verbundener Geräte eines entsprechenden technologischen Fortschritts bedarf. Massive MIMO, wobei MIMO für multiple-input multiple-output steht, ist eine fundamentale Komponente des drahtlosen 5G Kommunikationsstandards, da sie eine hohe spektrale Effizienz (SE) und Energieeffizienz bietet (EE). Die Hauptkomponente dieser Technologie ist die Nutzung einer großen Anzahl an Antennen auf Seiten der Basisstationen (BSs) um mehrere Nutzer zu bedienen, die ihre Signale zur selben Zeit auf derselben Frequenz senden während sie in der räumlichen Domäne getrennt sind (spatial multiplexing). In der Entwicklung neuer Technologien wie Massive MIMO müssen viele Designalternativen evaluiert und verglichen werden um den optimalen Betriebspunkt im Sinne eines sinnvollen Gleichgewichts zwischen Kosteneffizienz und Komplexität zu finden. In dieser Doktorarbeit werden zwei alternative Designs für Signalverarbeitung und Hardware in Massive MIMO Systemen untersucht und in Bezug auf spektrale Effizienz, Energieeffizienz und Stromverbrauch mit dem Massive MIMO Basisdesign verglichen. Das erste Design heißt überlagerte Pilotton Übertragung (superimposed pilot, SP) und basiert auf der Überlagerung von Pilotton und Datensignal, damit nicht mehr die Notwendigkeit besteht bestimmte Ressourcen für Pilottöne zu reservieren. Dies ermöglicht die Übertragung größerer Datenmengen und reduziert die Interferenz, die aus der wiederholten Nutzung der Pilottöne in verschiedenen Zellen resultiert (pilot contamination). Das zweite Design nennt sich gemischte analog zu digital Konverter (mixed analog-to-digital converters, ADCs) und erlaubt es einen Kompromiss zwischen hoher spektraler Effizienz und niedrigem Stromverbrauch zu finden. Dies geschieht indem die Bit Auflösung an jeder BS Antenne an die Ausbreitungsbedingungen der Signale angepasst wird. Die Resultate zeigen, dass das Massive MIMO Basisdesign, wenn es richtig optimiert ist, bei Standardeinsätzen und unter normalen Ausbreitungsbedingungen, die bevorzugte Wahl ist. Das alternative SP Design kann jedoch die spektrale Effizienz im Vergleich zum Basisdesign durch die Nutzung des in dieser Dissertation vorgeschlagenen Massive MIMO iterativen Kanalschätzungs- und Dekodierungsalgorithmus (MICED) erhöhen. Die verbesserte spektrale Effizienz findet sich insbesondere in Fällen hoher Nutzermobilität, hoher Frequenzen oder hoher Anzahl an gleichzeitig bedienter Nutzer. Das gemischte analog zu digital Konverter Design ermöglicht in Fällen verteilter Basisstationen bei denen Interferenz unterdrückende Techniken genutzt werden eine verbesserte spektrale Effizienz und Energieeffizienz. Utvecklingen av informations- och kommunikationsteknik (IKT) gör det möjligt för människor från hela världen att kopplas samman och utbyta kunskaper. Ju mer vi vet och förstår om varandra, desto större är chansen att mänskligheten kan uppnå globala utvecklingsmål och välstånd. IKT-utvecklingen är associerad med höga krav på datatakter och antal uppkopplade enheter. Dessa krav ökar ständigt och måste mötas med teknologisk utveckling. Massiv MIMO, där MIMO står för multiple-input multiple-output, är flerantennteknik och en grundsten i nästa generations trådlösa kommunikationssystem. Huvudanledningen till detta är att tekniken kan förbättra spektraleffektiviteten (SE), vilket är ett mått på hur väl vi kan kommunicera data över begränsade radiofrekvensresurser. Tekniken förbättrar även energieffektiviteten (EE), vilket är ett mått på hur effektivt tekniken använder energi till att kommunicera data. Massiv MIMO bygger på användandet av ett stort antal av antenner på basstationerna för att kommunicera med ett flertal användare samtidigt och på samma frekvensresurser. Detta möjliggörs genom ”rumslig multiplexing” vilket betyder att signaler från användare på olika platser kan separeras på basstationen i den rumsliga domänen. Denna separering kräver att basstationen först mäter egenskaperna hos signaler som kommer från de olika användarnas positioner. När en ny teknik, såsom Massiv MIMO, utvecklas är det viktigt att olika alternativa designer utvärderas och jämförs för att identifiera den bästa varianten. Detta kan exempelvis vara den variant som uppnår en viss balans mellan hög kommunikationsprestanda och låg kostnad. I denna avhandling utvärderas två alternativa sätt att designa signalbehandlingen och hårdvaran i Massiv MIMO. Dessa jämförs med konventionell Massiv MIMO i termer av SE, EE och effektförbrukning. Den första alternativa designen kallas överlagrade piloter och bygger på att kända pilotsignaler och okända datasignaler skickas samtidigt från användarna, istället för efter varandra. Pilotsignalerna används för att mäta upp de trådlösa kanalerna som signalerna färdas över medan datasignalerna innehåller den information som ska kommuniceras. Genom att överlagra pilotsignalerna så behövs inga dedikerade radioresurser för piloter och därmed finns det mer resurser för datasändning. Dessutom minskar överlagrandet de störningar som kommer från andra användare som använder samma pilot, vilket kallas pilotkontaminering. Den andra alternativa designen kallas mixade analog-till-digital (AD) omvandlare. En AD-omvandlare är en krets som behövs på varje antenn för att omvandla analoga radiosignaler till digitala signaler som kan processas i en dator. Bitupplösningen i AD-omvandlaren avgör hur många nivåer som kan användas för att representera den analoga signalen. Ju högre bitupplösning desto fler nivåer och därmed en mer noggrann representation, men detta leder även till högre beräkningskomplexitet och effektförbrukning. Mixade AD-omvandlare försöker balansera mellan hög prestanda och låg komplexitet genom att optimera bitupplösningen på varje antenn i ett Massiv MIMO system. Avhandlingens resultat visar att det går att öka SE i Massiv MIMO genom att använda överlagrade piloter, ifall den föreslagna algoritmen MICED (Massive-MIMO iterative channel estimation and decoding) används. Förbättringarna är särskilt stora när användarna har hög mobilitet, när en hög bärfrekvens används eller när antalet rumsligt multiplexade användare är högt. När det gäller mixade AD-omvandlare så kan små förbättringar i SE uppnås, jämfört med konventionell Massiv MIMO, när bitupplösningen i AD-omvandlarna optimeras under förutsättning att signalstyrkan varierar mellan basstationens antenner. Sammanfattningsvis så kan de alternativa designerna av Massiv MIMO som studerats i avhandlingen ge små prestandaförbättringar jämfört med konventionella metoder. Men trots detta så kan de konventionella metoderna uppnå en bra avvägning mellan hög prestanda och låg komplexitet ifall de optimeras väl.

Fundamentals Of Network Planning And Optimisation 2g 3g 4g

Author : Ajay R. Mishra
ISBN : 9781119331711
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 60. 33 MB
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Updated new edition covering all aspects of network planning and optimization This welcome new edition provides comprehensive coverage of all aspects of network planning in all the technologies, from 2G to 5G, in radio, transmission and core aspects. Written by leading experts in the field, it serves as a handbook for anyone engaged in the study, design, deployment and business of cellular networks. It increases basic understanding of the currently deployed, and emerging, technologies, and helps to make evolution plans for future networks. The book also provides an overview of the forthcoming technologies that are expected to make an impact in the future, such as 5G. Fundamentals of Cellular Network Planning and Optimization, Second Edition encompasses all the technologies as well as the planning and implementation details that go with them. It covers 2G (GSM, EGPRS), 3G (WCDMA) and 4G (LTE) networks and introduces 5G. The book also looks at all the sub-systems of the network, focusing on both the practical and theoretical issues. Provides comprehensive coverage of the planning aspects of the full range of today's mobile network systems, covering radio access network, circuit and packet switching, signaling, control, and backhaul/Core transmission networks New elements in book include HSPA, Ethernet, 4G/LTE and 5G Covers areas such as Virtualization, IoT, Artificial Intelligence, Spectrum Management and Cloud By bringing all these concepts under one cover, Fundamentals of Cellular Network Planning and Optimization becomes essential reading for network design engineers working with cellular service vendors or operators, experts/scientists working on end-to-end issues, and undergraduate/post-graduate students.

Fundamentals Of 5g Mobile Networks

Author : Jonathan Rodriguez
ISBN : 9781118867488
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 37. 41 MB
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Fundamentals of 5G Mobile Networks provides an overview of the key features of the 5th Generation (5G) mobile networks, discussing the motivation for 5G and the main challenges in developing this new technology. This book provides an insight into the key areas of research that will define this new system technology paving the path towards future research and development. The book is multi-disciplinary in nature, and aims to cover a whole host of intertwined subjects that will predominantly influence the 5G landscape, including the future Internet, cloud computing, small cells and self-organizing networks (SONs), cooperative communications, dynamic spectrum management and cognitive radio, Broadcast-Broadband convergence , 5G security challenge, and green RF. This book aims to be the first of its kind towards painting a holistic perspective on 5G Mobile, allowing 5G stakeholders to capture key technology trends on different layering domains and to identify potential inter-disciplinary design aspects that need to be solved in order to deliver a 5G Mobile system that operates seamlessly.

Foundations Of Mimo Communication

Author : Robert W. Heath Jr
ISBN : 9780521762281
Genre : Computers
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An accessible, comprehensive and coherent treatment of MIMO communication, drawing on ideas from information theory and signal processing.

Analysis Of Alternative Massive Mimo Designs

Author : Daniel Verenzuela
ISBN : 9789176853238
Genre :
File Size : 80. 94 MB
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The development of information and communication technologies (ICT) provides the means for reaching global connectivity that can help humanity progress and prosper. This comes with high demands on data traffic and number of connected devices which are rapidly growing and need to be met by technological development. Massive MIMO, where MIMO stands for multiple-input multiple-output, is envisioned as a fundamental component of next generation wireless communications for its ability to provide high spectral and energy efficiency, SE and EE, respectively. The key feature of this technology is the use of a large number of antennas at the base stations (BS) to spatially multiplex several user equipments (UEs). In the development of new technologies like Massive MIMO, many design alternatives need to be evaluated and compared in order to find the best operating point with a preferable tradeoff between high performance and low cost. In this thesis, two alternative designs for signal processing and hardware in Massive MIMO are studied and compared with the baseline operation in terms of SE, EE, and power consumption. The first design is called superimposed pilot (SP) transmission and is based on superimposing pilot and data symbols to remove the overhead from pilot transmission and reduce pilot contamination. The second design is mixed analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) and it aims at balancing high performance and low complexity by allowing different ADC bit resolutions across the BS antennas. The results show that the baseline operation of Massive MIMO, properly optimized, is the preferred choice. However, SP and mixed ADCs still have room for improvement and further study is needed to ascertain the full capabilities of these alternative designs.

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