general organic and biological chemistry structures of life 4th edition

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General Organic And Biological Chemistry

Author : Karen C. Timberlake
ISBN : 9780133890938
Genre : Education
File Size : 26. 17 MB
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NOTE: You are purchasing a standalone product; MasteringChemistry does not come packaged with this content If you would like to purchase MasteringChemistry search for ISBN-10:03219669291/ISBN-13: 9780321966926. That package includes ISBN-10: 0133858413/ISBN-13: 9780133858419 and ISBN-10: 0321967461/ISBN-13: 9780321967466. General, Organic, and Biological chemistry (2-semester). Give allied health students the chemistry they need…how and when they need it! Designed to prepare students for health-related careers, General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry: Structures of Life breaks chemical concepts and problem solving into clear, manageable pieces, ensuring students follow along and stay motivated throughout their first, and often only, chemistry course. Karen Timberlake’s friendly writing style, student focus, vetted and refined clinical chemistry problems, and engaging health-related applications help today’s students make connections between chemistry and their intended careers as they develop the problem-solving skills they’ll need beyond the classroom. The Fifth Edition fully integrates the text with MasteringChemistry to provide an interactive and engaging experience. New Construct a Concept Map activities help students connect ideas through video solutions and live demonstrations, while the text and media establish a clinical focus that ties chemistry directly to allied health. Instructors can also assign MasteringChemistry’s new Dynamic Study Modules, which enable students to remediate core math and chemistry skills outside of class, freeing professors to focus on GOB Chemistry concepts and problem solving during class. Also available with MasteringChemistry MasteringChemistry from Pearson is the leading online homework, tutorial, and assessment system, designed to improve results by engaging students before, during, and after class with powerful content. Instructors ensure students arrive ready to learn by assigning educationally effective content before class, and encourage critical thinking and retention with in-class resources such as Learning Catalytics. Students can further master concepts after class through traditional and adaptive homework assignments that provide hints and answer-specific feedback. The Mastering gradebook records scores for all automatically graded assignments in one place, while diagnostic tools give instructors access to rich data to assess student understanding and misconceptions. Mastering brings learning full circle by continuously adapting to each student and making learning more personal than ever–before, during, and after class.

General Organic And Biological Chemistry 4th Ed Karen C Timberlake 2013

Author : Pearson Education, Inc
Genre : Science
File Size : 75. 5 MB
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Welcome to the fourth edition of General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry: Structures of Life. This chemistry text was written and designed to help you prepare for a career in a health-related profession, such as nursing, dietetics, respiratory therapy, and environmental and agricultural science. This text assumes no prior knowledge of chemistry. My main objective in writing this text is to make the study of chemistry an engaging and positive experience for you by relating the structure and behavior of matter to its role in health and the environment. This new edition introduces more problem-solving strategies, including new Concept Checks, more problem-solving guides, new Analyze the Problem features, conceptual and challenge problems, and new sets of combined problems. It is also my goal to encourage you become a critical thinker by understanding the scientific concepts with current issues concerning health and the environment. Thus, I have utilized materials that • motivate you to learn and enjoy chemistry • relate chemistry to careers that interest you • develop problem-solving skills that lead to your success in chemistry • promote your learning and success in your chosen career I hope that this textbook helps you discover exciting new ideas and gives you a rewarding Â�experience as you develop an understanding and appreciation of the role of chemistry in your life. New for the Fourth Edition New features have been added throughout this fourth edition, including the following: • All new chapter openers provide engaging stories that illustrate how Chemistry is used daily in contemporary professions. • New Analyze the Problem feature illustrates how to break down a word problem into the components required to solve a problem. • A new Chapter 1, Chemistry and Measurements, offers a comprehensive overview of introductory Chemistry and a study plan for learning the fundamentals. • Learning Goals are now included at the end of each chapter section with Questions and Problems to reinforce student retention of the main concepts. • Problems with high difficulty in MasteringChemistry were moved to the Challenge Problems sections or revised, while problems that received low assign values from professors nationwide were rewritten and improved to better support student learning throughout the course. Additionally, over 30 new tutorials specific to this text including activities incorporating Concept Maps will be available with Â�MasteringChemistry for the Fourth Edition. • Two new types of interest boxes, Chemistry Link to Industry and Chemistry Link to History, demonstrate connections between the chemical concepts and real events, then and now. • New Guides to Problem Solving include Using Concentration to Calculate Mass or Volume, Using Density, Writing Formulas with Polyatomic Ions, Using Half- Lives, Drawing Electron-Dot Formulas, Determination of Polarity of a Molecule, and Â�Calculating the Molar Mass of a Gas. • Chapter Reviews now include bulleted lists and thumbnail art samples related to the content of each section. • Statements in Guides to Problem Solving were rewritten and matched to steps of the corresponding Sample Problems. • Problems were rewritten and added to give matched sets of problems for each odd number and its following even number. Chapter-by-Chapter Changes to the Fourth Edition Chapter 1, “Chemistry and Measurements,” now introduces students to the concepts of chemicals and chemistry and asks students to develop a study plan for learning chemistry. Students learn measurement and the need to understand numerical structures of the metric system in the sciences. • The Chemistry Link to Health, “Bone Density,” has been updated to discuss changes in bone density with age and is now included in Chapter 1. • New Guide to Problem Solving, “Using Density,” uses color blocks as visual guides in the step-by-step solution pathway. • Content in Scientific Notation was rewritten to clarify the coefficient and the power of 10. • New photos added that include the standard kilogram, mass of a nickel, a virus, and ophthalmologist. • New material identifies exact and measured numbers and their significant figures within equalities and conversion factors. • New Sample Problem on percent body fat illustrates the use of a percent conversion factor as an equality and the formation of conversion factors. • New numbers added to Study Checks to match the Sample Problem numbers. • New problems added and problems paired to obtain similar content and questions. • More emphasis on metric (SI) units and removed some problems that used U.S. system units. Chapter 2, “Energy and Matter,” now looks at energy, temperature, classification of matter, states of matter, physical and chemical changes, and nutritional energy values. • The Chemistry Link to the Environment updates the content of “Carbon Dioxide and Global Warming.” • New Guide to Problem Solving, “Calculating Temperature,” was added. • New macro-to-micro art emphasizes the atomic level of compounds and changes of state. • New problems relating the burning of fuel to product Â�energy to light a light bulb were added while problems with heat of fusion, heat of vaporization, and multiple step calculations were deleted. Chapter 3, “Atoms and Elements,” looks at elements, atoms, subatomic particles, and atomic mass. The Periodic Table Â�emphasizes the numbering of groups from 1–18. • New element name and symbol Copernicium, Cn, was added to the periodic table. • New atomic number 117 was added to the periodic table. • New Chemistry Link to Industry, “Many Forms of Carbon,” was added, which describes four forms of carbon: diamond, graphite, buckminsterfullerene, and nanotubes. • New Chemistry Link to Health, “Elements Essential to Health,” was added, which describes the essential elements in an adult and the position of each on the periodic table. • New column added in Table 3.8, “Most Prevalent Isotope.” • New shapes of d orbitals added to Shapes of Orbitals. • Material on mass number in Section 3.4 was rewritten. • New Metallic Character text added to Section 3.8, Trends in Periodic Properties. • New problems added that compare metallic character of elements. • New summary of Trends in Periodic Properties added for valence electrons, atomic radius, ionization energy, and metallic character from top to bottom of a group and going left to right in a period. Chapter 4, “Nuclear Chemistry,” extends the concepts of subatomic particles, atomic number, and atomic mass to a discussion of the nucleus of radioisotopes including the positron. Nuclear equations are written and balanced for both naturally occurring and artificially produced radioisotopes. The topic of biological Â�effects of radiation is part of the chapter content. • New column “Type of Radiation” added to Â�Tables 4.7 and 4.8. • Increased the number of radioisotopes in Table 4.8. • New problems added on measuring activity of a radioisotope, positron equation balancing, and positron decay. • Updated to full symbols using mass number and atomic number in Sample Problems for balancing nuclear equations. • Updated art including alpha and beta radiation. • Placed bombarding particles at the beginning of nuclear equations involving bombardment. Chapter 5, “Compounds and Their Bonds,” describes how Â�atoms form ionic and covalent bonds in compounds. Students learn to write chemical formulas and to name ionic compounds—Â� including those with polyatomic ions—and covalent compounds. Students are introduced to the three-dimensional shape of molecules. The discussion of polyatomic ions, which includes more polyatomic ions, follows the formation of ionic compounds. The concept of resonance is discussed for the electron-dot formulas for compounds with multiple bonds. Electronegativity, bond polarity, and the shapes of molecules are discussed. Attractive Forces in Compounds compares the attractive forces between particles and their impact on physical properties and changes of state. • Updated/added Concept Checks to clarify understanding of concepts for problem solving including “Drawing Electron-Dot Formulas” and “Using Electronegativity to Determine the Polarity of Bonds.” • Revised Formation of Ions to emphasize the stability of electron configurations. • Updated/added art in ionic compounds with new colors for Na, Cl, Mg, and S, and to illustrate dispersion forces between two nonpolar molecules • Added more transition elements and their charges to Â�Table 5.5. • Reorganized polarity of molecules by presenting nonpolar molecules followed by polar molecules. • New guides “Writing Formulas with Polyatomic Ions,” “Determination of Polarity of a Molecule,” and “Drawing Electron-Dot Formulas,” were added. • New table “Typical Bonding Patterns of Some Nonmetals in Covalent Compounds” was added. • The discussion of exceptions to bonding patterns now Â�includes models of BCl3 and SF6. • Identification of molecular shape now emphasizes Â�electron-group geometry. • New wedge–dash notation was added to three-dimensional structures of methane and ammonia. Chapter 6, “Chemical Reactions and Quantities,” includes balancing chemical equations and classifying reaction types as combination, decomposition, single and double replacement, and combustion reactions. Calculations include the use of the mole, molar mass, and equation coefficients for problem solving involving mole and mass calculations for chemical reactions. • Updated colors for atoms of H, C, O, and N in models of compounds undergoing reactions. • New combustion reactions are now included in types of reactions. New problems were added for combustion to Questions and Problems. • New number line added to illustrate direction of change in oxidation or reduction. • Rewrote discussion of Oxidation and Reduction in Â�Biological Systems to relate Â�addition of O, loss of H, and loss of electrons to reduction with gain of H, loss of O, or gain of electrons. • New Concept Check, “Calculating Percent Yield,” was added. • Rewrote limiting reactant problems to improve success in problem solving. • Added list, “Three Conditions Required for a Reaction to Occur.” • Added tutorials include “Classifying Chemical Reactions by What Atoms Do,” “Signs of a Chemical Reaction,” “Limiting Reactant and Yield: Mole Calculations,” Â�“Limiting Reactant and Yield: Mass Calculations,” and “The Mole as a Counting Unit.” • Added “draw the formulas of reactants and products” to problems with visual reactants and products. • Added “predict products” of reactions to help students identify formation of products. Chapter 7, “Gases,” discusses the properties of a gas and asks the student to calculate changes in gases using the gas laws Â�including the Ideal Gas Law. • New/added Concept Checks for each of the gas laws and molar volume provide a conceptual transition between text information and problem solving. • New guide “Calculating the Molar Mass of a Gas” was added. • New gas properties that remain constant are now Â�included in gas Sample Problem solutions. • Gas problems were added that relate to real world gases or gas mixtures. Chapter 8, “Solutions,” describes solutions, solubility, saturation, concentrations, insoluble salts, and colligative properties. New problem-solving strategies clarify the use of concentration conversion factors to determine the volume of solution or mass of solute. The volumes and molarities of solutions are used to calculate product quantities in chemical reactions as well as in dilutions and titrations. • Combined percent concentrations and molarity in Â�Section 8.4 to give standard format for concentration calculations. • New table “Summary of Types of Concentration Expressions and Their Units” clarifies the types of units in percent concentrations and molarity. • New Sample Problem for volume/volume percent concentration was added. • New guide “Using Concentration to Calculate Mass or Volume,” was added. • New Explore Your World activity, “Preparing Rock Candy,” for students to experience an everyday saturated solution was added. • Placed dilution in a separate Section 8.5 “Dilution of Â�Solutions and Solution Reactions” that applies dilution to both percent and molarity solutions. • New Concept Check about freezing point changes was added. • New material and photo of the Alaskan Upis beetle that produces biological antifreeze to survive subfreezing environment. • Updated/added tables on concentration factors that combine percent and molarity, organize solution problem data, and identify the type of solution as well as updated the table “Solubility Rules for Ionic Solids in Water.” • New material was added on the function of electrolytes in the cells and organs of the body, Pedialyte, and the Â�impact of solute dissociation on freezing point lowering and boiling point elevation. Chapter 9, “Chemical Equilibrium,” looks at the rates of reactions and the equilibrium condition when forward and reverse rates for a reaction become equal. Equilibrium expressions for reactions are written and equilibrium constants are calculated. Le Châtelier’s principle is used to evaluate the impact on concentrations when a stress is placed on the system • New photo added to content and Sample Problems that illustrate a biological example of enzymes (catalysts) in laundry detergents. • Rewrote several problems to guide students through equilibrium concentration. • Converted old Figures 9.9 and 9.10 to unnumbered art and updated to show correct proportions of reactants and products at equilibrium. • Rewrote and updated Concept Checks and Sample Problems about concentration changes and equilibrium mixtures. • Moved old Figure 9.8 of SO2 and O2 to Section 9.2 to Â�illustrate reversible reactions and updated for more visuals on forward and reverse reactions reaching equilibrium. • Revised Section 9.5 to be more qualitative and less quantitative and added content on the effect of volume changes on equilibrium systems. • New art was added to illustrate Le Châtelier’s Principle to show how adding water to one side of two connected water tanks reaches equilibrium, how addition of reactant places stress on an equilibrium system and how the system responds to reduce stress, and how a container shows shifts in equilibrium conditions when the piston increases or decreases volume. Chapter 10, “Acids and Bases,” discusses acids and bases, Brønsted– Lowry acids and bases, and conjugate acid–base pairs. The dissociation of strong and weak acids and bases is related to their strengths as acids or bases. The ionization of water leads to the ionproduct constant of water, Kw, the pH scale, and the calculation of pH. Chemical equations for acids in reactions are balanced and titration of an acid is illustrated. Buffers are discussed along with their role in the blood. • New Concept Check and photo illustrates the ionization of calcium hydroxide in the preparation of hominy and grits. • New molecular models added to show atoms in carbonic acid, hydrogen carbonate, and carbonate ions, and atoms in formic acid and formate ion were added to illustrate their structures. • New photos added to show use of calcium carbonate added to farm crops to reduce acidity of the soil, the chemical Â�reaction of sodium bicarbonate with an acid and the products of carbon dioxide and a salt, calcium hydroxide as lime and dental filler, and how low dissociation of HF illustrates that hydrofluoric acid is a weak acid. • New art illustrates the parietal cells in the lining of the stomach that secrete gastric acid HCl in Chemistry Link to Health. • New guide “Calculating 3H3O+4 from pH” was added. • New list compares the effect of different ratios of 3H2PO4 - 4 > 3HPO4 2-4 on pH. Chapter 11, “Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes,” discusses the structure, nomenclature, and reactions of Â�alkanes. Guides to Problem Solving (GPS) clarify the rules for Â�nomenclature. The chapter provides an overview of each family of organic compounds and their functional groups and forms a Â�basis for understanding the biomolecules of living systems. • Information on oil spills was updated to include recent British Petroleum oil spill. • Updated colors for atoms of H, C, O, and N in models of compounds undergoing reactions. • New representations of atoms with updated colors were added to Table 11.8. • Updated and simplified the section and problems associated with Naming of Alkanes with Substituents. • Converted Sample Problem 11.3 to Concept Check 11.4 to provide more detail on how to distinguish between structural formulas that are isomers or the same molecule. • Updated the discussion of melting and boiling points of alkanes by adding analogies and photos of licorice sticks and tennis balls to illustrate impact of contact points on boiling points differences of straight-chain Â�alkanes and branched alkanes. • Changed Sample Problem 11.8 to Concept Check 11.7 in which students isolate functional groups in compounds and classify each class of compound. • Rewrote and highlighted functional groups in various classes of organic compounds to help students identify a group of atoms that is a functional group on an alkane chain. Chapter 12, “Alkenes, Alkynes, and Aromatic Compounds,” Â�discusses alkenes and alkynes, cis–trans isomers, addition reactions, polymers of alkenes found in everyday items, and aromatic compounds. • Alkene examples were added to introductory paragraph. • Bond angles were added in illustration of alkene and Â�alkyne structures. • Added skeletal formulas to the table of alkanes, Â�alkenes, and alkynes, and added reactions for alkenes and alkynes. • Changed instruction from write to draw a condensed structural formula. • Color screens were added to Sample Problem 12.1 to clarify “Naming Alkenes and Alkynes.” • Rewrote material in Section 12.2 to highlight cis and trans positions of groups attached to carbons and double bonds and discussion of benzene structure stability. • New Concept Check 12.3, “Converting Formulas of Â�Alkenes to Cis and Trans Isomers,” illustrates how to draw groups in cis and trans isomers. • Added photos and formulas of aromatic compounds Chapter 13, “Alcohols, Phenols, Ethers, and Thiols,” Â�discusses structures, names, properties, and reactions of alcohols, phenols, thiols, and ethers. • New skeletal formulas for alcohols and ethers were added and the naming of alcohols was simplified. • Changed instruction from write to draw a condensed structural formula. • Moved classification of alcohols to Section 13.3. • Updated the “Guide to Naming Alcohols.” • New color screens were added to Sample Problems that named alcohols and phenols and IUPAC naming of ethers. • Rewrote Sample Problem 13.4, “Isomers of Alcohols and Ethers” including Study Check. • Reorganized Table 13.1 to include solubility and boiling points of some typical alcohols and ethers and to include the number of carbon atoms and condensed structural formula with up to five carbon atoms. • New Chemistry Link to Health, “Hand Sanitizers and Ethanol,” has been added. • Updated art in Oxidation of Alcohols to include level of oxidation of secondary alcohols. • New colors for H and O atoms involved in oxidation and reduction were used. Chapter 14, “Aldehydes, Ketones, and Chiral Molecules,” discusses the nomenclature and structures of aldehydes and Â�ketones. The discussion of Fischer projections, chiral molecules, and mirror images prepares students for the discussions on carbohydrates in Chapter 15. • New skeletal formulas for aldehydes and ketones were added. • Rewrote Sample Problem 14.3, “Boiling Point and Solubility.” • New problems on Tollens’ and Benedict’s reagents were added. • New glucose example was added to Chemistry Link to Health, “Some Important Aldehydes and Ketones.” • IUPAC names used for alcohols, aldehydes, and ketones in addition reactions. • Rewrote content on Drawing Fischer Projections and addition reactions that form hemiacetals and acetals. • New photos and mirror images for ibuprofen and naproxen were added. Chapter 15, “Carbohydrates,” applies the organic chemistry of alcohols, aldehydes, and ketones to carbohydrates, which relates the study of chemistry to health and medicine. • New art includes photo of iodine test for starch. • Converted green spheres in types of carbohydrates to more representative hexagon shapes. • Converted all CHO groups at top of Fischer projections to C“O and Hi. • Rewrote the descriptions of the glycosidic bonds in monosaccharides, the definitions of anomers and anomeric carbons, and Fischer projections for clarity. • Converted all open-chain structures to Fischer projections. • New discussion of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) was included. • Updated Guide to Problem Solving and discussion in Sample Problem for “Drawing Haworth Structures.” • New color coding of iOH groups in open-chain and Haworth structures of d-glucose and of O in Â�carbonyl groups and free hydroxyl group to highlight differences in alpha and beta anomers of monosaccharides. • Described mutarotation for all the monosaccharides and disaccharides maltose and lactose. • Highlighted hemiacetal and acetal linkage in monosaccharides and disaccharides along with iOH groups in Â�alpha and beta anomers. • Ionized the structure of aspartame sweetener. • Rewrote Chemistry Link to Health, “Blood Types and Carbohydrates,” to clarify blood types and antigens. Chapter 16, “Carboxylic Acids and Esters,” discusses two more of the organic families that are important in biochemical systems. The chemical reactions discussed are most applicable to reactions in biochemical systems. • Updated art with proper atom colors of H, O, and C. • Rewrote “Guide to Naming Carboxylic Acids.” • New skeletal formulas and color-coded screens were added to Sample Problem 16.1, “Naming Carboxylic Acids.” • New photos of acetic acid crystals, facial with lactic acid, willow tree (aspirin), fingernail polish, aspirin, Â�Dacron clothing, grapes, strawberries, and raspberries were added. • Reworked naming for esters and turned all ester formulas to place acyl portion first. • New color coding screens were added to Sample Problem 16.6, “Naming Esters.” • New problems for structural isomers of carboxylic acids and esters were added. Chapter 17, “Lipids,” contains the functional groups of alcohols, aldehydes, and ketones in larger molecules such as triacylglycerols, glycerophospholipids, and steroids. • Updated melting points of fatty acids. • New Table 17.3 now compares similarities of organic and lipid reactions of esterification, hydrogenation, Â�hydrolysis, and saponification. • Redesigned the art for the structure of a glycerophospholipid. • New discussion of snake venom, which contains phospholipases, was added. • Updated/added art on the olestra structure and adrenal glands and kidneys. • Replaced Figure 17.10 with new art for lipoprotein transport of HDLs and LDLs Added new material in Chemistry Link to Health, Â�“Converting Unsaturated Fats to Saturated Fats: Â�Hydrogenation and Interesterification” and added a new Chemistry Link to Health, “Infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome.” Chapter 18, “Amines and Amides,” emphasizes the nitrogen atom in their functional groups and their names. Alkaloids are discussed as the naturally occurring amines in plants. • Updated the “Guide to the IUPAC Naming of Amines.” • Rewrote Naming Compounds with Two Functional Groups to include names of amino substituents in alcohols, ketones, and carboxylic acid. • New tables added on summarizing the priority of naming in molecules with two functional groups and comparing melting points of primary, secondary, and tertiary amines. • New guide, “Naming Compounds with Two Functional Groups,” was added. • New Sample Problem, “IUPAC Names for Compounds with Two Functional Groups,” was added. • New photos include indigo related to aniline, Benadryl product for antihistamines, and Neo-Synephrine product. • New models of amines showing number of hydrogen bonds between molecules of primary, secondary, and tertiary amines and showing the number of hydrogen bonds for solubility of primary, secondary, and tertiary amines in water. • New section written on the role of amines in Neurotransmitters. • New art on structures of neurotransmitters and over-thecounter products. • New Questions and Problems and Additional Problems written on neurotransmitters. Chapter 19, “Amino Acids and Proteins,” discusses amino Â�acids, formation of proteins, structural levels of proteins, hydrolysis, and denaturation of proteins. • New one-letter abbreviations for amino acids were added to Table 19.2 and in problems. • New list of amino acids, R groups, polarity, and behavior in water was added. • Amino acids now drawn with bond line to H from a-C, and bond line from H to N. • Reactions of zwitterions in acids and bases are now separated into two equations. • Ammonium groups and carboxylate groups in amino Â�acids are now color coded. • New guide “Drawing a Peptide” has been added. • New Table 19.7 “Protein Denaturation” has been added. • Updated artwork of a prion to show both normal and Â�abnormal protein structures. • Updated myoglobin and hemoglobin structures to ribbon models. • New art added including ribbon models of proteins, structures of pentapeptide met-enkephalin, and ball-andstick models for some amino acids. Chapter 20, “Enzymes and Vitamins,” relates the importance of the three-dimensional shape of proteins to their function as Â�enzymes. The shape of an enzyme and its substrate is a factor in enzyme regulation. End products of an enzyme-catalyzed Â�sequence can increase or decrease the rate of an enzyme-Â� catalyzed reaction. Proteins change shape and lose function when subjected to pH changes and high temperatures. The Â�important role of water-soluble vitamins as coenzymes is Â�related to enzyme function. • Changed equation for carbonic anhydrase to CO2 + H2OhHCO3 - + H+. • Combined art of enzyme with new pullout art to give more detail of active site. • Added Enzyme–Product complex (EP complex) to Â�enzyme-catalyzed reactions. • New art added for enzyme-catalyzed reactions includes EP complex, enzymes using ribbon models to show Â�active site with substrate, and proenzymes of proteases. • New emphasis on the dynamic induced-fit model of substrate and active site. • Classification of Enzymes and Names was moved from Section 20.1 to Section 20.2 and shortened. Chapter 21, “Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis,” describes the nucleic acids and their importance as biomolecules that store and direct information for cellular components, growth, and reproduction. The role of complementary base pairing is highlighted in both DNA replication and the formation of mRNA during protein synthesis. Discussions include the Â�genetic code, its relationship to the order of amino acids in a protein, and how mutations can occur when the nucleotide sequence is altered. Recombinant DNA and viruses are also discussed. • New Table 21.1 summarizes the components in DNA and RNA; Table 21.6 summarizes steps in protein synthesis, site and materials, and process; and Table 21.7 summarizes the nucleotide and amino acid sequences in protein synthesis. • Section 21.3 now includes work of Rosalind Franklin on the DNA double helix. Chapter 22, “Metabolic Pathways for Carbohydrates,” Â�describes the stages of metabolism and the digestion of carbohydrates, our most important fuel. The breakdown of glucose to pyruvate is described using the glycolytic pathway, which is followed under aerobic conditions by the decarboxylation of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA. The synthesis of glycogen and the synthesis of glucose from noncarbohydrate sources are discussed. • Updated Figure 22.1 for stages of metabolism, Figure 22.3 for ATP structure, Figure 22.4 using color blocks to show ADP + Pi forms ATP, and Figure 22.10 to use color blocks for ATP in glycolysis • New tables added to summarize enzymes and coenzymes in metabolic reactions: “Characteristics of Oxidation and Reduction in Metabolic Pathways” (Table 22.2) and Â�“Enzymes and Coenzymes in Metabolic Reactions” Â�(Table 22.3). • New color-coded art was added for structures of NAD and FAD in Figures 22.5 and 22.6. • New art in Figure 22.12 adds glucose structures for reactions for glycogenesis. Chapter 23, “Metabolic Pathways and Energy Production,” looks at the entry of acetyl-CoA into the citric acid cycle and the production of reduced coenzymes for electron transport, oxidative phosphorylation, and the synthesis of ATP. • Updated Figure 23.1 with new coding for components of citric acid cycle, Figure 23.3 to use same colors for components of the citric acid cycle, and Figures 23.5 and 23.7 to include complex notations and model of ATP synthase. • New overall equation at Complex I written as NADH + H+ + CoQhCoQH2 + NAD+. • Structure for oxidation/reduction of CoQ/CoQH2 now Â�included in Complex I discussion. • New ribbon model for cytochrome c was added. • Updated ATP formation at F1 and Fo ATP synthase sites. • Updated color screens for NADH, FADH2, and ATP. Chapter 24, “Metabolic Pathways for Lipids and Amino Acids,” discusses the digestion of lipids and proteins and the metabolic pathways that convert fatty acids and amino acids into energy. Discussions include the conversion of excess carbohydrates to triacylglycerols in adipose tissue and how the intermediates of the citric acid cycle are converted to nonessential amino acids. • Rewrote Mobilization of Fat Stores as Utilization of Fat Stores. • Updated discussion for Transport of Fatty Acids. • New chemical equations added for b-oxidation with the discussion of Reactions 1, 2, 3, and 4. • Replaced vertical representation of b-oxidation. • Changed fatty acids to give different fatty acids in text and in Questions and Problems. • Updated Figure 24.4 with new color coding for components of b-oxidation of capric acid and Figure 24.10 for carbon atoms from degraded amino acids. • Updated color screens for NADH, FADH2, and ATP. • New ribbon model of leptin added to Chemistry Link to Health, “Stored Fat and Obesity.” • Updated colors in Figures 24.8 and 24.12 to be consistent with earlier art of metabolic cycles. Instructional Package General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry: Structures of Life, fourth edition, provides an integrated teaching and learning package of support material for both students and professors. For Students Study Guide╇╇ for General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry: Structures of Life, fourth edition, by Karen Timberlake. This manual is keyed to the learning goals in the text, and designed to promote active learning through a variety of exercises with answers as well as practice tests. (ISBN 0321767020) Selected Solutions Manual╇╇ for General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry: Structures of Life, fourth edition, by Mark Quirie. This manual contains the complete solutions to the oddnumbered problems. (ISBN 0321767039) MasteringChemistry® (╇ ╇ The most advanced, most widely used online chemistry tutorial and homework program is available for the fourth edition of General, Â�Organic, and Biological Chemistry: Structures of Life. Â�MasteringChemistry® utilizes the Socratic Method to coach students through problem-solving techniques, offering hints, and simpler questions on request to help students learn, not just practice. A powerful gradebook with diagnostics that gives instructors unprecedented insight into their students’ learning is also available. For the Fourth Edition, 30 new tutorials have been created to guide students through the most challenging General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry topics and help them make connections between different concepts. Pearson eText╇╇ Pearson eText offers students the power to create notes, highlight text in different colors, create bookmarks, zoom, and view single or multiple pages. Â�Access to the Pearson eText for General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry: Structures of Life, fourth edition, is available for purchase Â�either as a stand-alone item (ISBN 0321768701) or within MasteringChemistry® (ISBN 0321638697). Media Icons╇╇ in the margins throughout the text direct you to Â�tutorials within the Item Library and self-study activities and case studies in the Study Area located within MasteringChemistry® for General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry: Structures of Life, fourth edition. Laboratory Manual for General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry 2e╇╇ by Karen Â�Timberlake. This best-selling lab Â�manual coordinates 42 experiments with the topics in General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry: Structures of Life, fourth edition; uses new terms during the lab; and explores chemical concepts. Laboratory investigations develop skills of manipulating equipment, reporting data, solving problems, making calculations, and drawing conclusions. (ISBN 0321695291) Essential Laboratory Manual for General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry 2e╇╇ by Karen Timberlake. This manual contains 25 experiments for the standard course sequence of topics in General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry: Structures of Life, fourth edition. (ISBN 0136055478) For Instructors MasteringChemistry® (╇╇ MasteringChemistry ® is the first adaptive-learning online homework and tutorial system. Instructors can create online assignments for their students by choosing from a wide range of items, including endof- chapter problems and research-enhanced tutorials. Assignments are automatically graded with Â�up-to-date diagnostic information, helping instructors pinpoint where students struggle Â�either individually or as a class as a whole. For the Fourth Edition, new tutorials have been created to guide students through the most challenging General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry topics and help them make connections between different concepts. Instructor Resource DVD╇╇ This DVD includes all the art and tables from the book in JPG format for use in classroom projection or creating study materials and tests. In addition, the instructor can access the PowerPoint™ lecture outlines, featuring over 2000 slides. Also available on the discs are downloadable files of the Instructor Solutions Manual, a set of “clicker questions” suitable for use with classroom-response systems, and the test bank. (ISBN 0321638700) Instructor Solutions Manual╇╇ Prepared by Mark Quirie, this manual highlights chapter topics and includes suggestions for the laboratory. Contains complete solution setups and answers to all problems in the text. (ISBN 0321767292) Printed Test Bank╇╇ Prepared by Bill Timberlake, this test bank contains over 2000 questions in multiple-choice, matching, true– false, and short-answer format. (ISBN 0321767306) Online Instructor Manual to Laboratory Manual╇╇ Contains Â�answers to report pages for the Laboratory Manual and Essential Laboratory Manual. (ISBN 0321751035) Also visit the Pearson Education catalog page for Timberlake’s General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry: Structures of Life, fourth edition, at to download available instructor supplements. Acknowledgments The preparation of a new edition is a continuous effort of many people. As in my work on other textbooks, I am thankful for the support, encouragement, and dedication of many people who put in hours of tireless effort to produce a high-quality book that provides an outstanding learning package. The editorial team at Pearson has done an exceptional job. I want to thank Adam Â�Jaworski, editor in chief, and executive editor, Jeanne Zalesky, who supported my vision of this fourth edition and the addition of the new Analyze the Problem feature; more Guides to Problem Solving; new Chemistry Links to Health, History, Â�Industry, and the Environment; new learning goals with section questions and problems; thumbnails in Chapter Review; matched problem sets; and an updated art program. I am in awe and much appreciate all the wonderful work of Jessica Â�Neumann, associate editor, who was like an angel encouraging me at each step while skillfully Â�coordinating Â�reviews, art, website materials, and all the things it takes to make a book come together. I appreciate the work of Beth Sweeten, project manager, and Andrea Stefanowicz of Â�PreMediaGlobal, who brilliantly coordinated all phases of the manuscript to the final pages of a beautiful book. Thanks to Mark Quirie and Vincent Dunlap, manuscript reviewers and Â�accuracy checkers, and Denise Rubens, copy editor, who precisely reviewed and edited the manuscript to make sure the words and problems were correct to help students learn chemistry. Their keen eyes and thoughtful comments were extremely helpful in the development of this text. I am especially proud of the art program in this text, which lends beauty and understanding to chemistry. I would like to thank Connie Long and Derek Bacchus, art director and book designer, whose creative ideas provided the outstanding Â�design for the cover and pages of the book. Eric Schrader, photo Â�researcher, was invaluable in researching and selecting vivid photos for the text so that students can see the beauty of chemistry. Thanks also to Bio-Rad Laboratories for their courtesy and use of KnowItAll Â�ChemWindows, drawing software that helped me produce chemical structures for the manuscript. The macro-to-micro illustrations designed by Production Solutions and Precision Graphics give students visual impressions of the atomic and molecular organization of everyday things and are a fantastic learning tool. I want to thank Denne Wesolowski for the hours of proofreading all the pages. I also appreciate all the hard work in the field put in by the marketing team and Erin Gardner, marketing manager. I am extremely grateful to an incredible group of peers for their careful assessment of all the new ideas for the text; for their suggested additions, corrections, changes, and deletions; and for providing an incredible amount of feedback about Â�improvements for the book. In addition, I appreciate the time scientists took to let us take photos and discuss their work with them. I admire and appreciate every one of you. If you would like to share your experience with chemistry or have questions and comments about this text, I would appreciate hearing from you. Karen Timberlake Email: [email protected]

General Organic And Biological Chemistry Pearson New International Edition

Author : Karen C. Timberlake
ISBN : 9781292033891
Genre : Science
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Were you looking for the book with access to MasteringChemistry? This product is the book alone, and does NOT come with access to MasteringChemistry. Buy the book and access card package to save money on this resource. Designed to prepare students for health-related careers, General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry: Structures of Life breaks chemical concepts down into manageable pieces and offers a step-by-step approach that clarifies student understanding. Timberlake’s friendly writing style, student focus, strong problems, and engaging, health-related applications make this book a best seller among its peers. The Fourth Edition emphasizes connections between chemistry and students’ future careers — and develops the problem-solving skills students need beyond the classroom. Each chapter now includes NEW chapter-opening Career Interviews and Career Focus features to illustrate the role chemistry plays in modern, health-related professions. A new Analyze the Problem feature furthers critical-thinking skills by showing students how to break down a word problem into the components needed to solve that problem. Throughout the new edition, national student performance data collected through MasteringChemistry® on assigned problems informed the extensive revisions to end-of-chapter problems, ensuring their effectiveness. This package contains: General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry: Structures of Life, Fourth Edition


Author : Karen C. Timberlake
ISBN : 0321908449
Genre : Science
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Some printings include access code card, "Mastering Chemistry."

Chemistry For The Biosciences

Author : Jonathan Crowe
ISBN : 0199280975
Genre : Science
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Chemistry pervades our life, giving shape and character to the world around us. It moulds our climate, fuels our transport, gives food its taste and smell. Most of all, chemistry powers life itself. Chemistry for the Biosciences leads students through the essential concepts that are central to understanding biological systems, using everyday examples and analogies to build their confidence in an often daunting subject. Placing an emphasis on clear explanations, it fosters understanding as opposed to rote learning and, by focusing on the key themes that unify the subject, shows how integral chemistry is to the biosciences. With scientific research placing more emphasis on the interface of chemistry and biology than ever before, few can argue the importance to the biology student of mastering the essential chemical concepts that underpin the subject. Chemistry for the Biosciences is the ideal teaching and learning resource to ensure today's biology students grasp these concepts, and appreciate their importance throughout the subject. The Online Resource Centre features illustrations from the book available to download to facilitate lecture preparation and a test bank of multiple choice questions for students.

Biomedical Pharmaceutical Sciences With Patient Care Correlations

Author : Dean Pacific University Oregon School of Pharmacy Reza Karimi
ISBN : 9781449621100
Genre : Medical
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Biomedical & Pharmaceutical Sciences with Patient Care Correlations provides a solid foundation in the areas of science that pharmacy students most need to understand to succeed in their education and career. Offering a comprehensive overview of the biomedical and pharmaceutical sciences, it is an ideal primary or secondary textbook for introductory courses. Students can also use this text to refresh their scientific knowledge before beginning graduate study. Biomedical & Pharmaceutical Sciences with Patient Care Correlations includes 16 chapters that cover subjects ranging from cell biology and medicinal chemistry to toxicology and biostatistics. It also includes clinical correlations and integrated cases. Practical as well as informative, this essential reference relates the subject matter to the real world of pharmacy practice to assist students throughout their graduate studies and professional careers. Features Provides a comprehensive introduction to the biomedical and pharmaceutical sciences curriculum Serves as an ideal text for all introductory pharmacy courses Covers the topics that are most challenging for students Relates science to the real world of pharmacy practice Includes over 525 illustrations, photos, and figures

Nature Of Science In General Chemistry Textbooks

Author : Mansoor Niaz
ISBN : 9400719205
Genre : Science
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Research in science education has recognized the importance of history and philosophy of science (HPS). Nature of science (NOS) is considered to be an essential part of HPS with important implications for teaching science. The role played by textbooks in developing students’ informed conceptions of NOS has been a source of considerable interest for science educators. In some parts of the world, textbooks become the curriculum and determine to a great extent what is taught and learned in the classroom. Given this background and interest, this monograph has evaluated NOS in university level general chemistry textbooks published in U.S.A. Most textbooks in this study provided little insight with respect to the nine criteria used for evaluating NOS. Some of the textbooks, however, inevitably refer to HPS and thus provide guidelines for future textbooks. A few of the textbooks go into considerable detail to present the atomic models of Dalton, Thomson, Rutherford, Bohr and wave mechanical to illustrate the tentative nature of scientific theories --- an important NOS aspect. These results lead to the question: Are we teaching science as practiced by scientists? An answer to this question can help us to understand the importance of NOS, by providing students an HPS-based environment, so that they too (just like the scientists) feel the thrill and excitement of discovering new things. This monograph provides students and teachers guidelines for introducing various aspects of NOS, based on historical episodes.

Fundamentals Of General Organic And Biological Chemistry 6th Ed Mc Murry Castellion Ballantine Hoeger Peterson 2010

Author : Prentice Hall-Pearson Education, Inc
Genre : Science
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John McMurry, educated at Harvard and Columbia, has taught approximately 17,000 students in general and organic chemistry over a 30-year period. AProfessor of Chemistry at Cornell University since 1980, Dr. McMurry previously spent 13 years on the faculty at the University of California at Santa Cruz. He has received numerous awards, including the Alfred P. Sloan Fellowship (1969 71), the National Institute of Health Career Development Award (1975 80), the Alexander von Humboldt Senior Scientist Award (1986 87), and the Max Planck Research Award (1991). About the Authors David S. Ballantine received his B.S. in Chemistry in 1977 from the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, VA, and his Ph.D. in Chemistry in 1983 from the University of Maryland at College Park. After several years as a researcher at the Naval Research Labs in Washington, DC, he joined the faculty in the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry of Northern Illinois University, where he has been a professor for the past twenty years. He was awarded the Excellence in Undergraduate Teaching Award in 1998 and was recently named the departmental Director of Undergraduate Studies. In addition, he is the faculty advisor to the NIU Chemistry Club, an American Chemical Society Student Affiliate program. Carl A.Hoeger received his B.S. in Chemistry from San Diego State University and his Ph.D. in Organic Chemistry from the University of Wisconsin, Madison in 1983. After a postdoctoral stint at the University of California, Riverside, he joined the Peptide Biology Laboratory at the Salk Institute in 1985 where he ran the NIH Peptide Facility while doing basic research in the development of peptide agonists and antagonists. During this time he also taught general, organic, and biochemistry at San Diego City College, Palomar College, and Miramar College. He joined the teaching faculty at University of Califiornia, San Diego in 1998. Dr. Hoeger has been teaching chemistry to undergraduates for over 20 years, where he continues to explore the use of technology in the classroom. In 2004 he won the Paul and Barbara Saltman Distinguished Teaching Award from UCSD. He is currently the General Chemistry coordinator at UCSD, where he is also responsible for the training and guidance of over 100 teaching assistants in the Chemistry and Biochemistry departments. Virginia E. Peterson received her B.S. in Chemistry in 1967 from the University of Washington in Seattle, and her Ph.D. in Biochemistry in 1980 from the University of Maryland at College Park. Between her undergraduate and graduate years she worked in lipid, diabetes, and heart disease research at Stanford University. Following her Ph.D. she took a position in the Biochemistry Department at the University of Missouri in Columbia and is now an Associate Professor. Currently she is the Director of Undergraduate Advising for the department and teaches both senior capstone classes and biochemistry classes for nonscience majors. Awards include both the college level and the university-wide Excellence in Teaching Award and, in 2006, the University s Outstanding Advisor Award and the State of Missouri Outstanding University Advisor Award. Dr. Peterson believes in public service and in 2003 received the Silver Beaver Award for service from the Boy Scouts of America. This textbook is primarily designed to provide students in the allied health sciences with an appropriate background in chemistry and biochemistry. But it also provides a general context for many of the chemical concepts so that students in other disciplines will gain a better appreciation of the importance of chemistry in everyday life. The coverage in this sixth edition includes sufficient breadth and depth to ensure adequate context and to provide students with opportunities to expand their knowledge. To teach chemistry all the way from What is an atom? to How do we get energy from glucose? is a challenge. Throughout our general chemistry and organic chemistry coverage, the focus is on concepts fundamental to the chemistry of living things and everyday life. In our biochemistry coverage we strive to meet the further challenge of providing a context for the application of those concepts in biological systems. Our goal is to provide enough detail for thorough understanding while avoiding so much detail that students are overwhelmed. Many practical and relevant examples are included to illustrate the concepts and enhance student learning. The material covered is ample for a two-term introduction to general, organic, and biological chemistry. While the general and early organic chapters contain concepts that are fundamental to understanding the material in biochemistry, the later chapters can be covered individually and in an order that can be adjusted to meet the needs of the students and the duration of the course. The writing style is clear and concise and punctuated with practical and familiar examples from students personal experience. Art work, diagrams, and molecular models are used extensively to provide graphical illustration of concepts to enhance student understanding. Since the true test of knowledge is the ability to apply that knowledge appropriately, we include numerous worked examples that incorporate consistent problem-solving strategies. Regardless of their career paths, all students will be citizens in an increasingly technological society. When they recognize the principles of chemistry at work not just in their careers but in their daily lives, they are prepared to make informed decisions on scientific issues based on a firm understanding of the underlying concepts. Organization GENERAL CHEMISTRY: CHAPTERS 1 11 The introduction to elements, atoms, the periodic table, and the quantitative nature of chemistry (Chapters 1 3) is followed by chapters that individually highlight the nature of ionic and molecular compounds (Chapters 4 and 5). The next two chapters discuss chemical reactions and their stoichiometry, energies, rates, and equilibria (Chapters 6 and 7). Topics relevant to the chemistry of life follow: Gases, Liquids, and Solids (Chapter 8); Solutions (Chapter 9); and Acids and Bases (Chapter 10). Nuclear Chemistry (Chapter 11) closes the general chemistry sequence. ORGANIC CHEMISTRY: CHAPTERS 12 17 These chapters concisely focus on what students must know in order to understand biochemistry. The introduction to hydrocarbons (Chapters 12 and 13) includes the basics of nomenclature, which is thereafter kept to a minimum. Discussion of functional groups with single bonds to oxygen, sulfur, or a halogen (Chapter 14) is followed by a short chapter on amines, which are so important to the chemistry of living things and drugs (Chapter 15). After introducing aldehydes and ketones (Chapter 16), the chemistry of carboxylic acids and their derivatives (including amides) is covered (Chapter 17), with a focus on similarities among the derivatives. xv Preface BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY: CHAPTERS 18 29 Rather than proceed through the complexities of protein, carbohydrate, lipid, and nucleic acid structure before getting to the roles of these compounds in the body, structure and function are integrated in this text. Protein structure (Chapter 18) is followed by enzyme and coenzyme chemistry (Chapter 19). After that we cover the function of hormones and neurotransmitters, and the action of drugs (Chapter 20). With enzymes introduced, the central pathways and themes of biochemical energy production can be described (Chapter 21). If the time you have available to cover biochemistry is limited, stop with Chapter 21 and your students will have an excellent preparation in the essentials of metabolism. The following chapters cover carbohydrate chemistry (Chapters 22 and 23), then lipid chemistry (Chapters 24 and 25). Next we discuss nucleic acids and protein synthesis (Chapter 26) and genomics (Chapter 27). The last two chapters cover protein and amino acid metabolism (Chapter 28) and provide an overview of the chemistry of body fluids (Chapter 29). Changes to This Edition COVERAGE OF GENERAL CHEMISTRY Once again, there is a major emphasis in this edition on problem-solving strategies. This is reflected in expanded solutions in the Worked Example problems and the addition of more Key Concept Problems that focus on conceptual understanding. The most significant change in the Worked Example problems is the addition of a Ballpark Estimate at the beginning of many problems. The Ballpark Estimate provides an opportunity for students to evaluate the relationships involved in the problem and allows them to use an intuitive approach to arrive at a first approximation of the final answer. The ability to think through a problem before attempting a mathematical solution is a skill that will be particularly useful on exams, or when solving real world problems. Other specific changes to chapters are provided below: Chapter 1 The Scientific Method is introduced in the text and reinforced in Applications presented in the chapter. Chapter 3 Discussion of the critical experiments of Thomson, Millikan, and Rutherford are included in the Application Are Atoms Real to provide historical perspective on the development of our understanding of atomic structure. Electron dot structures are introduced in Chapter 3 to emphasize the importance of the valence shell electronic configurations with respect to chemical behavior of the elements. Chapter 4 Electron dot structures are used to reinforce the role of valence shell electronic configurations in explaining periodic behavior and the formation of ions. Chapter 5 The two methods for drawing Lewis dot structures (the general method and the streamlined method for molecules containing C, N, O, X, and H) are discussed back-to-back to highlight the underlying principle of the octet rule common to both methods. Chapter 6 The concept of limiting reagents is incorporated in Section 6.7 in the discussion of reaction stoichiometry and percent yields. xvi Preface Chapter 7 The discussion of free energy and entropy in Section 7.4 has been revised to help students develop a more intuitive understanding of the role of entropy in spontaneous processes. Section 7.8 includes more discussion of how the equilibrium constant is calculated and what it tells us about the extent of reaction. Chapter 8 Sections 8.3 8.10 include more emphasis on use of the kinetic molecular theory to understand the behavior of gases described by the gas laws. Section 8.15 includes more discussion on the energetics of phase changes to help students understand the difference between heat transfer associated with a temperature change and heat transfer associated with the phase change of a substance. Chapter 9 Discussion of equivalents in Section 9.10 has been revised to emphasize the relationship between ionic charge and equivalents of ionic compounds. Discussion of osmotic pressure (Section 9.12) now includes the osmotic pressure equation and emphasizes the similarity with the ideal gas law. Chapter 10 Both the algebraic and logarithmic forms of K w are presented in Section 10.8 to give students another approach to solving pH problems. The discussion of buffer systems now introduces the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation. This relationship makes it easier to identify the factors that affect the pH of a buffer system and is particularly useful in biochemical applications in later chapters. Discussion of common acid-base reactions has been moved back in the chapter to provide a more logical segue into titrations in Section 10.15. Chapter 11 Treatment of half-life in Section 11.5 now includes a generic equation to allow students to determine the fraction of isotope remaining after an integral or non-integral number of half-lives, which is more consistent with real world applications. The Applications in this chapter have been expanded to include discussion of new technologies such as Boron Neutron-Capture Therapy (BNCT), or to clear up misconceptions about current methods such as MRI. COVERAGE OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY Amajor emphasis in this edition was placed on making the fundamental reactions organic molecules undergo much clearer to the reader, with particular vision toward those reactions encountered again in biochemical transformations. Also new to this edition is the expanded use and evaluation of line-angle structure for organic molecules, which are so important when discussing biomolecules. Most of the Applications have been updated to reflect current understanding and research. Other specific changes to chapters are provided below: Chapter 12 This chapter has been significantly rewritten to provide the student with a stronger foundation for the organic chemistry chapters that follow. Aclearer description of what a functional group is, as well as a more systematic approach to drawing alkane isomers have been made. Preface xvii The topic of how to draw and interpret line structures for organic molecules has been added, along with worked examples of such. The discussion of conformations has been expanded. Chapter 13 Amore general discussion of cis and trans isomers has been added. The discussion of organic reaction types, particularly rearrangement reactions, have been simplified. Chapter 14 The topic of oxidation in organic molecules has been clarified. Chapter 15 The role of NO in human biology has been updated to reflect current research. Chapter 16 A more detailed discussion of what is meant by toxic or poisonous has been added. Chapter 17 Adiscussion of ibuprofen has been added. COVERAGE OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY New topics, such as the use of anabolic steroids in sports, have been added to many of these chapters to highlight the relevance of biochemistry in modern society. In this text, nutrition is not treated as a separate subject but is integrated with the discussion of each type of biomolecule. Chapter 18 The discussion of sickle cell anemia has been expanded and the role of an amino acid substitution on hemoglobin structure clarified. The Application Prions Proteins That Cause Disease has been updated to reflect current research. Chapter 19 Incorporated the information about lead poisoning into the discussion of enzyme inhibition. Chapter 20 The discussion of anabolic steroids has been updated. The discussion of drugs and their interaction with the neurotransmitter acetylcholine has been expanded. Chapter 21 The discussion of ATP energy production has been revised. Chapter 22 An explanation of the chair conformation of glucose has been included to enhance understanding of the shape of cyclic sugars. The Application Chirality and Drugs has been updated. The Application Cell Surface Carbohydrates and Blood Type has been revised. xviii Preface Chapter 23 The explanation of substrate level phosphorylation has been expanded for clarity. The emerging medical condition referred to as Metabolic Syndrome has been added to the text discussion of diabetes. The Application Diagnosis and Monitoring of Diabetes has been updated to include metabolic syndrome. Section 23.11 now contains an expanded discussion of gluconeogenesis. The discussion of polysaccharides has been updated. Chapter 24 The description of the cell membrane has been expanded. A discussion of some inhibitors of Cox 1 and Cox 2 enzymes, important in inflammation, has been added. Chapter 25 The discussion of triacylglycerol synthesis has been expanded. The discussion of ketone body formation has been expanded. A thorough explanation of the biosynthesis of fatty acids has been added. Chapter 26 The Application Viruses and AIDS has been updated. Information about the 1918 influenza pandemic was included in the Application Bird Flu : The Next Epidemic? Chapter 27 A discussion of the problems associated with using recombinant DNA for commercial protein manufacture has been added. In Section 27.5, new bioethical issues are pointed out to reflect modern concerns. The discussion of recombinant DNA and polymerase chain reactions has been moved to this chapter from Chapter 26. Focus on Learning WORKED EXAMPLES Most Worked Examples, both quantitative and not quantitative, include an Analysis section that precedes the Solution. The Analysis lays out the approach to solving a problem of the given type. When appropriate, a Ballpark Estimate gives students an overview of the relationships needed to solve the problem, and provides an intuitive approach to arrive at a rough estimate of the answer. The Solution presents the worked-out example using the strategy laid out in the Analysis and, in many cases, includes expanded discussion to enhance student understanding. The use of the two-column format introduced in the fifth edition for quantitative problems has been applied to more Worked Examples throughout the text. Following the Solution there is a Ballpark Check that compares the calculated answer to the Ballpark Estimate, when appropriate, and verifies that the answer makes chemical and physical sense. KEY CONCEPT PROBLEMS are integrated throughout the chapters to focus attention on the use of essential concepts, as do the Understanding Key Concepts problems at the end of each chapter. Understanding Key Concepts problems are designed to test students mastery of the core principles developed in the chapter. Students thus Preface xix have an opportunity to ask Did I get it? before they proceed. Most of these Key Concept Problems use graphics or molecular-level art to illustrate the core principles and will be particularly useful to visual learners. PROBLEMS The problems within the chapters, for which brief answers are given in an appendix, cover every skill and topic to be understood. One or more problems, many of which are new to this edition, follow each Worked Example and others stand alone at the ends of sections. MORE COLOR-KEYED, LABELED EQUATIONS It is entirely too easy to skip looking at a chemical equation while reading. We have extensively used color to call attention to the aspects of chemical equations and structures under discussion, a continuing feature of this book that has been judged very helpful. MOLECULAR MODELS Additional computer-generated molecular models have been introduced, including the use of electrostatic-potential maps for molecular models. KEY WORDS Every key term is boldfaced on its first use, fully defined in the margin adjacent to that use, and listed at the end of the chapter. These are the terms students must understand to get on with the subject at hand. Definitions of all Key Words are collected in the Glossary. END-OF-CHAPTER SUMMARIES Here, the answers to the questions posed at the beginning of the chapter provide a summary of what is covered in that chapter. Where appropriate, the types of chemical reactions in a chapter are also summarized. Focus on Relevancy Chemistry is often considered to be a difficult and tedious subject. But when students make a connection between a concept in class and an application in their daily lives the chemistry comes alive, and they get excited about the subject. The applications in this book strive to capture student interest and emphasize the relevance of the scientific concepts. The use of relevant applications makes the concepts more accessible and increases understanding. Applications are both integrated into the discussions in the text and set off from the text in Application boxes. Each boxed application provides sufficient information for reasonable understanding and, in many cases, extends the concepts discussed in the text in new ways. The boxes end with a cross-reference to end-of-chapter problems that can be assigned by the instructor. Some wellreceived Applications from previous editions that have been retained include Breathing and Oxygen Transport, Buffers in the Body, Prions, Protein Analysis by Electrophoresis, The Biochemistry of Running, and DNA Fingerprinting. New Applications in this edition include Aspirin A Case Study, Temperature- Sensitive Materials, Anemia A Limiting Reagent Problem, GERD: Too Much Acid or Not Enough, and It s a Ribozyme! FOCUS ON MAKING CONNECTIONS AMONG GENERAL, ORGANIC, AND BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY This can be a difficult course to teach. Much of what students are interested in lies in the last part of the course, but the material they need to understand the biochemistry is found in the first two-thirds. It is easy to lose sight of the connections among general, organic, and biological chemistry so we use a feature, Concepts to Review, to call attention to these connections. From Chapter 4 on, the Concepts to Review section at the beginning of the chapter lists topics covered in earlier chapters that form the basis for what is discussed in the current chapter. xx Preface We have also retained the successful concept link icons and Looking Ahead notes. Concept link icons are used extensively to indicate places where previously covered material is relevant to the discussion at hand. These links provide for cross-references and also serve to highlight important chemical themes as they are revisited. Looking Ahead notes call attention to connections between just-covered material and discussions in forthcoming chapters. These notes are designed to illustrate to the students why what they are learning will be useful in what lies ahead. Making It Easier to Teach: Supplements for Instructors MasteringChemistry ( MasteringChemistry is the first adaptive-learning online homework system. It provides selected end-of-chapter problems from the text, as well as hundreds of tutorials with automatic grading, immediate answer-specific feedback, and simpler questions on request. Based on extensive research of precise concepts students struggle with, MasteringChemistry uniquely responds to your immediate needs, thereby optimizing your study time. Instructor Resource Manual (0-32-161241-8) Features lecture outlines with presentation suggestions, teaching tips, suggested in-class demonstrations, and topics for classroom discussion. Test Item File (0-32-161514-X) Updated to reflect the revisions in this text and contains questions in a bank of more than 2,000 multiple-choice questions. Transparency Pack (0-32-161513-1) More than 225 full-color transparencies chosen from the text put principles into visual perspective and save you time while you are preparing for your lectures. Instructor Resource Center on CD/DVD (0-32-161242-6) This CD/DVD provides an intergrated collection of resources designed to help you make efficient and effective use of your time. This CD/DVD features most art from the text, including figures and tables in PDF format for high-resolution printing, as well as four pre-built PowerPoint presentations. The first presentation contains the images/ figures/tables embedded within the PowerPoint slides, while the second includes a complete modifiable lecture outline. The final two presentations contain worked in chapter sample exercises and questions to be used with Classroom Response Systems. This CD/DVD also contains movies and animations, as well as the TestGen version of the Test Item File, which allows you to create and tailor exams to your needs. BlackBoard® and WebCT® Practice and assessment materials are available upon request in these course management platforms. Making It Easier to Learn: Supplements for Students Study Guide and Full Solutions Manual (0-32-161238-8) and Study Guide and Selected Solutions Manual (0-32-161239-6), both by Susan McMurry. The selected version provides solutions only to those problems that have a short answer in the Preface xxi text s Selected Answer Appendix (problems numbered in blue in the text). Both versions explain in detail how the answers to the in-text and end-of-chapter problems are obtained. They also contain chapter summaries, study hints, and self-tests for each chapter. For the Laboratory Exploring Chemistry: Laboratory Experiments in General, Organic and Biological Chemistry, 2nd Edition (0-13-047714-1) by Julie R. Peller of Indiana University. Written specifically to accompany Fundamentals of General, Organic and Biological Chemistry, this manual contains 34 fresh and accessible experiments specifically for GOB students. Catalyst: The Prentice Hall Custom Laboratory Program for Chemistry. This program allows you to custom-build a chemistry lab manual that matches your content needs and course organization. You can either write your own labs using the Lab Authoring Kit tool, or select from the hundreds of labs available at www. This program also allows you to add your own course notes, syllabi, or other materials. Acknowledgments From conception to completion, the development of a modern textbook requires both a focused attention on the goals and the coordinated efforts of a diverse team. We have been most fortunate to have had the services of many talented and dedicated individuals whose efforts have contributed greatly to the overall quality of this text. First and foremost, we are grateful to Kent Porter Hamann who, as senior editor of this text through many past revisions, provided exemplary leadership and encouragement to the team in the early stages of this project. Very special appreciation goes to Ray Mullaney, editor in chief of book development, who mentored the new team members and managed to coordinate the many and varied details. Irene Nunes, our developmental editor, worked closely with the authors to ensure accuracy and consistency. We also are grateful for the services of Wendy Perez, project manager; Laurie Varites, assistant editor; Lia Tarabokjia, and Jill Traut and Robert Walters, production project managers. Finally, special thanks also to Susan McMurry and Margaret Trombley, whose efforts on the Solutions Manuals and MasteringChemistry tutorial software, respectively, have added value to the overall package. Finally, many instructors and students who have used the fifth edition have provided valuable insights and feedback and improved the accuracy of the current edition. We gratefully acknowledge the following reviewers for their contributions to the sixth edition: xxii Preface Sheikh Ahmed, West Virgina University Stanley Bajue, CUNY-Medgar Evers College Daniel Bender, Sacramento City College Dianne A. Bennett, Sacramento City College Alfredo Castro, Felician College Gezahegn Chaka, Louisiana State University, Alexandria Michael Columbia, Indiana University- Purdue University, Fort Wayne Rajeev B. Dabke, Columbus State University Danae R. Quirk-Dorr, Minnesota State University, Mankato Pamela S. Doyle, Essex County College Marie E. Dunstan, York College of Pennsylvania Karen L. Ericson, Indiana University-Purdue University, Fort Wayne Charles P. Gibson, University of Wisconsin, Oshkosh Clifford Gottlieb, Shasta College Mildred V. Hall, Clark State Community College Meg Hausman, University of Southern Maine Ronald Hirko, South Dakota State University L. Jaye Hopkins, Spokane Community College Margaret Isbell, Sacramento City College James T. Johnson, Sinclair Community College Margaret G. Kimble, Indiana University- Purdue University Fort Wayne Preface xxiii Grace Lasker, Lake Washington Technical College Ashley Mahoney, Bethel University Matthew G. Marmorino, Indiana University, South Bend Diann Marten, South Central College, Mankato Barbara D. Mowery, York College of Pennsylvania Tracey Arnold Murray, Capital University Andrew M. Napper, Shawnee State University Lisa Nichols, Butte Community College Glenn S. Nomura, Georgia Perimeter College Douglas E. Raynie, South Dakota State University Paul D. Root, Henry Ford Community College Victor V. Ryzhov, Northern Illinois University Karen Sanchez, Florida Community College, Jacksonville-South Mir Shamsuddin, Loyola University, Chicago Jeanne A. Stuckey, University of Michigan John Sullivan, Highland Community College Deborah E. Swain, North Carolina Central University Susan T. Thomas, University of Texas, San Antonio Yakov Woldman, Valdosta State University The authors are committed to maintaining the highest quality and accuracy and look forward to comments from students and instructors regarding any aspect of this text and supporting materials. Questions or comments should be directed to the lead co-author. David S. Ballantine [email protected]

A Textbook Of Science For The Health Professions

Author : Barry G. Hinwood
ISBN : 0748733779
Genre : Medical
File Size : 55. 37 MB
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There can be an important gap in a student's knowledge if fundamental principles of any one of the sciences are not fully understood. This may result in an inability to apply principles to practice. A Textbook of Science for the Health Professions provides a solid foundation for understanding science at a level appropriate to students' needs.

The Chemistry Of Evolution

Author : R.J.P Williams
ISBN : 0080462111
Genre : Nature
File Size : 86. 37 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Docs
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Conventionally, evolution has always been described in terms of species. The Chemistry of Evolution takes a novel, not to say revolutionary, approach and examines the evolution of chemicals and the use and degradation of energy, coupled to the environment, as the drive behind it. The authors address the major changes of life from bacteria to man in a systematic and unavoidable sequence, reclassifying organisms as chemotypes. Written by the authors of the bestseller The Biological Chemistry of the Elements - The Inorganic Chemistry of Life, the clarity and precision of The Chemistry of Evolution plainly demonstrate that life is totally interactive with the environment. This exciting theory makes this work an essential addition to the academic and public library. * Provides a novel analysis of evolution in chemical terms * Stresses Systems Biology * Examines the connection between life and the environment, starting with the ‘big bang’ theory * Reorientates the chemistry of life by emphasising the need to analyse the functions of 20 chemical elements in all organisms

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