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Processes On The Early Earth

Author : W. U. Reimold
ISBN : 9780813724058
Genre : Science
File Size : 43. 98 MB
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"This Special Paper presents a collection of 19 papers contributed to a joint Field Forum organized by the Geological Society of America and the Geological Society of South Africa in July 2004 in the Barberton Greenstone Belt and the Vredefort Dome, South Africa. The papers cover a wide variety of themes, including Archean and Proterozoic crust formation and geodynamics (with an appraisal of evidence of Archean subduction processes); the significance of impacts in the evolution of the early Earth's crust; traces of early life in Archean environments of Australia and South Africa and related studies of depositional environments; and processes affecting the giant Witwatersrand gold deposit."--Publisher's website.


Author : Jonathan I. Lunine
ISBN : 9781107328167
Genre : Science
File Size : 21. 94 MB
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Fully updated throughout, including revised illustrations and new images from NASA missions, this new edition provides an overview of Earth's history from a planetary science perspective for Earth science undergraduates. Earth's evolution is described in the context of what we know about other planets and the cosmos at large, from the origin of the cosmos to the processes that shape planetary environments and from the origins of life to the inner workings of cells. Astronomy, Earth science, planetary science and astrobiology are integrated to give students the whole picture of how the Earth has come to its present state and an understanding of the relationship between key ideas in different fields. The book presents concepts in nontechnical language and mathematical treatments are avoided where possible. New end-of-chapter summaries and questions allow students to check their understanding and critical thinking is emphasized to encourage students to explore ideas scientifically for themselves.

Earth S Oldest Rocks

Author : Martin J. van Kranendonk
ISBN : 0080552471
Genre : Science
File Size : 56. 98 MB
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Earth’s Oldest Rocks provides a comprehensive overview of all aspects of early Earth, from planetary accretion through to development of protocratons with depleted lithospheric keels by c. 3.2 Ga, in a series of papers written by over 50 of the world's leading experts. The book is divided into two chapters on early Earth history, ten chapters on the geology of specific cratons, and two chapters on early Earth analogues and the tectonic framework of early Earth. Individual contributions address topics that range from planetary accretion, a review of Earth meteorites, significance and composition of Hadean protocrust, composition of Archaean mantle and deep crust, all aspects of the geology of Paleoarchean cratons, composition of Archean oceans and hydrothermal environments, evidence and geological settings of early life, early Earth analogues from Venus and New Zealand, and a tectonic framework for early Earth. * Contains comprehensive reviews of areas of ancient lithosphere on Earth, of planetary accretion processes, and of meteorites * Focuses on specific aspects of early Earth, including oldest putative life forms, evidence of the composition of the ancient atmosphere-hydrosphere, and the oldest evidence for subduction-accretion * Presents an overview of geological processes and model of the tectonic framework on early Earth

Theory Of The Earth

Author : Thomas Nail
ISBN : 9781503627567
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 88. 67 MB
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We need a new philosophy of the earth. Geological time used to refer to slow and gradual processes, but today we are watching land sink into the sea and forests transform into deserts. We can even see the creation of new geological strata made of plastic, chicken bones, and other waste that could remain in the fossil record for millennia or longer. Crafting a philosophy of geology that rewrites natural and human history from the broader perspective of movement, Thomas Nail provides a new materialist, kinetic ethics of the earth that speaks to this moment. Climate change and other ecological disruptions challenge us to reconsider the deep history of minerals, atmosphere, plants, and animals and to take a more process-oriented perspective that sees humanity as part of the larger cosmic and terrestrial drama of mobility and flow. Building on his earlier work on the philosophy of movement, Nail argues that we should shift our biocentric emphasis from conservation to expenditure, flux, and planetary diversity. Theory of the Earth urges us to rethink our ethical relationship to one another, the planet, and the cosmos at large.

Geology And Habitability Of Terrestrial Planets

Author : Kathryn E. Fishbaugh
ISBN : 9780387742885
Genre : Science
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Given the universal interest in whether extraterrestrial life has developed or could eventually develop, it is vital that an examination of planetary habitability go beyond simple assumptions. This book has resulted from a workshop at the International Space Science Institute (ISSI) which brought together experts to discuss the multi-faceted problem of how the habitability of a planet co-evolves with the geology of the surface and interior, the atmosphere, and the magnetosphere.

Accretion Of Extraterrestrial Matter Throughout Earth S History

Author : Bernhard Peucker-Ehrenbrink
ISBN : 0306466899
Genre : Science
File Size : 68. 55 MB
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Extraterrestrial matter affecting the earth varies in size from cosmic dust particles to the large meteor thought to have caused the mass extinction of the dinosaurs. In this volume, 22 contributions from Peucker-Ehrenbrink (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution), Schmitz (U. of Goteborg, Sweden) and other international scientists discuss the accretion of extraterrestrial matter on Earth throughout the planet's history. Topics include, for example, the atmospheric entry heating of interplanetary dust, the sedimentary record of impact events, and the cosmic ray exposure history of meteorites. c. Book News Inc.

Encyclopedia Of Astrobiology

Author : Muriel Gargaud
ISBN : 9783642112713
Genre : Body, Mind & Spirit
File Size : 83. 26 MB
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Astrobiology is a remarkably interdisciplinary field. This reference serves as a key to understanding technical terms from the different subfields of astrobiology, including astronomy, biology, chemistry, the geosciences and the space sciences.

Origin Of The Earth And Moon

Author : Robin M. Canup
ISBN : 0816520739
Genre : Science
File Size : 85. 38 MB
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The age-old question of how our home planet and its satellite originated has in recent times undergone a minor revolution. The emergence of the "giant impact theory" as the most successful model for the origin of the Moon has been difficult to reconcile with some aspects of the Earth, and the development of an integrated model for the origin of the Earth-Moon system has been difficult for this reason. However, recent technical advances in experimental and isotopic work, together with intensified interest in the modeling of planetary dynamics, have produced a wealth of new results requiring a rethinking of models for the origin of the Earth and Moon. This book is intended to serve as a resource for those scientists working closely in this field, while at the same time it provides enough balance and depth to offer an introduction for students or technically minded general readers. Its thirty chapters address isotopic and chemical constraints on accretion, the dynamics of terrestrial planet formation, the impact-triggered formation of the Earth-Moon system, differentiation of the Earth and Moon, the origin of terrestrial volatiles, and conditions on the young Earth and Moon. Covering such subjects as the history and origin of the Moon's orbit, water on the Earth, and the implications of Earth-Moon interactions for terrestrial climate and life, the book constitutes a state-of-the-art overview of the most recent investigations in the field. Although many advances have been made in our ability to evaluate competing models of the formation of the Earth-Moon system, there are still many gaps in our understanding. This book makes great strides toward closing those gaps by highlighting the extensive progress that has been made and pointing toward future research.

Encyclopedia Of Earth And Space Science

Author : Timothy M. Kusky
ISBN : 9781438128597
Genre : Reference
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Provides a comprehensive reference for Earth and space sciences, including entries on climate change, stellar evolution, tsunamis, renewable energy options, and mass wasting.


Author : Charles S. Cockell
ISBN : 9781119550358
Genre : Science
File Size : 77. 87 MB
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A guide to understanding the formation of life in the Universe The revised and updated second edition of Astrobiology offers an introductory text that explores the structure of living things, the formation of the elements required for life in the Universe, the biological and geological history of the Earth, and the habitability of other planets. Written by a noted expert on the topic, the book examines many of the major conceptual foundations in astrobiology, which cover a diversity of traditional fields including chemistry, biology, geosciences, physics, and astronomy. The book explores many profound questions such as: How did life originate on Earth? How has life persisted on Earth for over three billion years? Is there life elsewhere in the Universe? What is the future of life on Earth? Astrobiology is centered on investigating the past and future of life on Earth by looking beyond Earth to get the answers. Astrobiology links the diverse scientific fields needed to understand life on our own planet and, potentially, life beyond. This new second edition: Expands on information about the nature of astrobiology and why it is useful Contains a new chapter “What is Life?” that explores the history of attempts to understand life Contains 20% more material on the astrobiology of Mars, icy moons, the structure of life, and the habitability of planets New ‘Discussion Boxes’ to stimulate debate and thought about key questions in astrobiology New review and reflection questions for each chapter to aid learning New boxes describing the careers of astrobiologists and how they got into the subject Offers revised and updated information throughout to reflect the latest advances in the field Written for students of life sciences, physics, astronomy and related disciplines, the updated edition of Astrobiology is an essential introductory text that includes recent advances to this dynamic field.

The Cnidaria Past Present And Future

Author : Stefano Goffredo
ISBN : 9783319313054
Genre : Science
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This volume presents a broad panorama of the current status of research of invertebrate animals considered belonging to the phylum Cnidaria, such as hydra, jellyfish, sea anemone, and coral. In this book the Cnidarians are traced from the Earth’s primordial oceans, to their response to the warming and acidifying oceans. Due to the role of corals in the carbon and calcium cycles, various aspects of cnidarian calcification are discussed. The relation of the Cnidaria with Mankind is approached, in accordance with the Editors’ philosophy of bridging the artificial schism between science, arts and Humanities. Cnidarians' encounters with humans result in a broad spectrum of medical emergencies that are reviewed. The final section of the volume is devoted to the role of Hydra and Medusa in mythology and art.

Prebiotic Photochemistry

Author : Franz Saija
ISBN : 9781839164361
Genre : Science
File Size : 48. 61 MB
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Photochemistry is an important facet in the study of the origin of life and prebiotic chemistry. Solar photons are the unique source of the large amounts of energy likely required to initiate the organisation of matter to produce biological life. The Miller–Urey experiment simulated the conditions thought to be present on the early earth and supported the hypothesis that under such conditions complex organic compounds could be synthesised from simpler inorganic precursors. The experiment inspired many others, including the production of various alcohols, aldehydes and organic acids through UV-photolysis of water vapour with carbon monoxide. This book covers the photochemical aspects of the study of prebiotic and origin of life chemistry an ideal companion for postgraduates and researchers in prebiotic chemistry, photochemistry, photobiology, chemical biology and astrochemistry.

Evolution Origin Of Life Concepts And Methods

Author : Pierre Pontarotti
ISBN : 9783030303631
Genre : Science
File Size : 48. 8 MB
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This book presents 15 selected contributions to the 22nd Evolutionary Biology Meeting, which took place in September 2018 in Marseille. They are grouped under the following major themes: · Origin of Life · Concepts and Methods · Genome and Phenotype Evolution The aims of these annual meetings in Marseille are to bring together leading evolutionary biologists and other scientists who employ evolutionary biology concepts, e.g. for medical research, and to promote the exchange of ideas and encourage interdisciplinary collaborations. Offering an up-to-date overview of recent advances in the field of evolutionary biology, this book represents an invaluable source of information for scientists, teachers and advanced students.

Light Of The Stars Alien Worlds And The Fate Of The Earth

Author : Adam Frank
ISBN : 9780393609028
Genre : Science
File Size : 65. 4 MB
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Winner of the 2019 Phi Beta Kappa Award for Science "A valuable perspective on the most important problem of our time." —Adam Becker, NPR Light of the Stars tells the story of humanity’s coming of age as we realize we might not be alone in this universe. Astrophysicist Adam Frank traces the question of alien life from the ancient Greeks to modern thinkers, and he demonstrates that recognizing the possibility of its existence might be the key to save us from climate change. With clarity and conviction, Light of the Stars asks the consequential question: What can the likely presence of life on other planets tell us about our own fate?

The Web Of Geological Sciences

Author : Marion E. Bickford
ISBN : 9780813725239
Genre : Geology
File Size : 88. 31 MB
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The web of geological sciences, Special papers 500 and 523, written in celebration of the 125th anniversary of the Geological Society of America.

Biology Ebook

Author : Raven
ISBN : 9780077188900
Genre : Science
File Size : 62. 12 MB
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Biology Ebook

Carbon In The Geobiosphere

Author : Fred T. Mackenzie
ISBN : 9781402042386
Genre : Science
File Size : 90. 81 MB
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The book covers the fundamentals of the biogeochemical behavior of carbon near the Earth’s surface. It is mainly a reference text for Earth and environmental scientists. It presents an overview of the origins and behavior of the carbon cycle and atmospheric carbon dioxide, and the human effects on them. The book can also be used for a one-semester course at an intermediate to advanced level addressing the behavior of the carbon and related cycles.

Essentials Of Microbiology

Author : Raphael Turner
ISBN : 9781839473470
Genre :
File Size : 84. 91 MB
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Essentials of Microbiology is an extensive guide to all aspects of microbiology covering immunology, bacteriology, virology, medical mycology, diagnostic medical microbiology, and many miscellaneous infections. Microbiologist have made significant contributions to basic biological sciences as well as in the applied areas of public health and medical sciences, agriculture, industry and environmental sciences. The most dramatic current development in applied microbiology is due to development of genetic engineering and recombinant DNA technology. Life is governed by a relatively small number of molecular reactions that exploit a limited variety of simple concepts. However, their combination has led to an amazing chemical diversity which is still beyond the reach of the microbiologists even in the most complex supra-molecular systems, despite a huge set of synthetic methods. Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, which are microscopic, unicellular, and cell-cluster organisms. This includes eukaryotes such as fungi and protests, and prokaryotes. Viruses and prions, though not strictly classed as living organisms, are also studied. Microbiology typically includes the study of the immune system, or Immunology. This book will be useful to researchers, teachers and students of microbiology, botany, zoology and agriculture.

New Research Opportunities In The Earth Sciences

Author : National Research Council
ISBN : 9780309219242
Genre : Science
File Size : 53. 7 MB
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The 2001 National Research Council (NRC) report Basic Research Opportunities in Earth Science (BROES) described how basic research in the Earth sciences serves five national imperatives: (1) discovery, use, and conservation of natural resources; (2) characterization and mitigation of natural hazards; (3) geotechnical support of commercial and infrastructure development; (4) stewardship of the environment; and (5) terrestrial surveillance for global security and national defense. This perspective is even more pressing today, and will persist into the future, with ever-growing emphasis. Today's world-with headlines dominated by issues involving fossil fuel and water resources, earthquake and tsunami disasters claiming hundreds of thousands of lives and causing hundreds of billions of dollars in damages, profound environmental changes associated with the evolving climate system, and nuclear weapons proliferation and testing-has many urgent societal issues that need to be informed by sound understanding of the Earth sciences. A national strategy to sustain basic research and training of expertise across the full spectrum of the Earth sciences is motivated by these national imperatives. New Research Opportunities in the Earth Sciences identifies new and emerging research opportunities in the Earth sciences over the next decade, including surface and deep Earth processes and interdisciplinary research with fields such as ocean and atmospheric sciences, biology, engineering, computer science, and social and behavioral sciences. The report also identifies key instrumentation and facilities needed to support these new and emerging research opportunities. The report describes opportunities for increased cooperation in these new and emerging areas between EAR and other government agency programs, industry, and international programs, and suggests new ways that EAR can help train the next generation of Earth scientists, support young investigators, and increase the participation of underrepresented groups in the field.


Author : Matthew J. Kohn
ISBN : 9783110561890
Genre : Science
File Size : 82. 14 MB
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Petrochronology is a rapidly emerging branch of Earth science that links time (ages or rates) with specific rock-forming processes and their physical conditions. It is founded in petrology and geochemistry, which define a petrogenetic context or delimit a specific process, to which chronometric data are then linked. This combination informs Earth’s petrogenetic processes better than petrology or geochronology alone. This volume and the accompanying short courses address three broad categories of inquiry. Conceptual approaches chapters include petrologic modeling of multi-component chemical and mineralogic systems, and development of methods that include diffusive alteration of mineral chemistry. Methods chapters address four main analytical techniques, specifically EPMA, LA-ICP-MS, SIMS and TIMS. Mineral-specific chapters explore applications to a wide range of minerals, including zircon (metamorphic, igneous, and detrital/Hadean), baddeleyite, REE minerals (monazite, allanite, xenotime and apatite), titanite, rutile, garnet, and major igneous minerals (olivine, plagioclase and pyroxenes). These applications mainly focus on metamorphic, igneous, or tectonic processes, but additionally elucidate fundamental transdisciplinary progress in addressing mechanisms of crystal growth, the chemical consequences of mineral growth kinetics, and how chemical transport and deformation affect chemically complex mineral composites. Most chapters further recommend areas of future research.

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