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Hellenistic Phoenicia

Author : John D. Grainger
ISBN : UOM:39015024972450
Genre : History
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The cultural history of the Phoenicians seems to have stopped short at the time of Alexander the Great's destruction of the city of Tyre, yet in truth, these people survived the destruction of their cities and the confiscation of their lands to enjoy long periods of peace and prosperity. This study pursues the themes of trade and economic history and shows how the adaptation of the Phoenicians to life in the Hellenistic world reveals a number of features common to that world as a whole, but also some which are distinctive to the Phoenicians themselves. The first full account of the Hellenization of Phoenician culture, this book will provide a new look at Hellenistic life for all interested in Roman and near-eastern culture.

Hellenistic And Roman Terracottas

Author : Giorgos Papantoniou
ISBN : 9789004384835
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 50. 52 MB
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Hellenistic and Roman Terracottas is a collective volume presenting newly excavated material, as well as diverse and innovative approaches in the study the iconography, function and technology of ancient terracottas.


Author : J. Brian Peckham
ISBN : 9781646021222
Genre : History
File Size : 59. 54 MB
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Phoenicia has long been known as the homeland of the Mediterranean seafarers who gave the Greeks their alphabet. But along with this fairly well-known reality, many mysteries remain, in part because the record of the coastal cities and regions that the people of Phoenicia inhabited is fragmentary and episodic. In this magnum opus, the late Brian Peckham examines all of the evidence currently available to paint as complete a portrait as is possible of the land, its history, its people, and its culture. In fact, it was not the Phoenicians but the Canaanites who invented the alphabet; what distinguished the Phoenicians in their turn was the transmission of the alphabet, which was a revolutionary invention, to everyone they met. The Phoenicians were traders and merchants, the Tyrians especially, thriving in the back-and-forth of barter in copper for Levantine produce. They were artists, especially the Sidonians, known for gold and silver masterpieces engraved with scenes from the stories they told and which they exchanged for iron and eventually steel; and they were builders, like the Byblians, who taught the alphabet and numbers as elements of their trade. When the Greeks went west, the Phoenicians went with them. Italy was the first destination; settlements in Spain eventually followed; but Carthage in North Africa was a uniquely Phoenician foundation. The Atlantic Spanish settlements retained their Phoenician character, but the Mediterranean settlements in Spain, Sicily, Sardinia, and Malta were quickly converted into resource centers for the North African colony of Carthage, a colony that came to eclipse the influence of the Levantine coastal city-states. An emerging independent Western Phoenicia left Tyre free to consolidate its hegemony in the East. It became the sole west-Asiatic agent of the Assyrian Empire. But then the Babylonians let it all slip away; and the Persians, intent on war and world domination, wasted their own and everyone’s time trying to dominate the irascible and indomitable Greeks. The Punic West (Carthage) made the same mistake until it was handed off to the Romans. But Phoenicia had been born in a Greek matrix and in time had the sense and good grace to slip quietly into the dominant and sustaining Occidental culture. This complicated history shows up in episodes and anecdotes along a frangible and fractured timeline. Individual men and women come forward in their artifacts, amulets, or seals. There are king lists and alliances, companies, and city assemblies. Years or centuries are skipped in the twinkling of any eye and only occasionally recovered. Phoenicia, like all history, is a construct, a product of historiography, an answer to questions. The history of Phoenicia is the history of its cities in relationship to each other and to the peoples, cities, and kingdoms who nourished their curiosity and their ambition. It is written by deduction and extrapolation, by shaping hard data into malleable evidence, by working from the peripheries of their worlds to the centers where they lived, by trying to uncover their mentalities, plans, beliefs, suppositions, and dreams in the residue of their products and accomplishments. For this reason, the subtitle, Episodes and Anecdotes from the Ancient Mediterranean, is a particularly appropriate description of Peckham’s masterful (posthumous) volume, the fruit of a lifetime of research into the history and culture of the Phoenicians.

Regional Schools In Hellenistic Sculpture

Author : Olga Palagia
ISBN : 9781785705489
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 31. 91 MB
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Essays describing recent research and new discoveries of Hellenistic sculpture, based on papers presented at an international conference at the American School of Classical Studies at Athens in 1996.

Lykophron S Alexandra Rome And The Hellenistic World

Author : Simon Hornblower
ISBN : 9780191035647
Genre : Literary Collections
File Size : 44. 39 MB
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This volume takes as its subject one of the most important Greek poems of the Hellenistic period: the Alexandra attributed to Lykophron, probably written in about 190 BC. At 1474 lines and with a riddling narrative and a preponderance of unusual vocabulary it is a notoriously challenging prospect for scholars, but it also sheds crucial light on Greek religion (in particular the role of women) and on foundation myths and myths of colonial identity. Most of the poem purports to be a prophecy by the Trojan princess, Kassandra, who foretells the conflicts between Europe and Asia from the Trojan Wars to the establishment of Roman ascendancy over the Greek world in the poet's own time. The central section narrates in the future tense the dispersal of returning Greek heroes throughout the Mediterranean zone, and their founding of new cities. This section culminates in the Italian wanderings and foundational activity of the Trojan refugee Aineias, Kassandra's own kinsman. Following Simon Hornblower's detailed full-length commentary on the Alexandra (OUP 2015; paperback 2017), this monograph asserts the poem's importance as not only a strongly political work, but also as a historical document of interest to cultural and religious historians and students of myths of identity. Divided into two Parts, the first explores Lykophron's geopolitical world, paying special attention to south Italy (perhaps the bilingual poet's own area of origin), Sicily, and Rhodes; it suggests that the recent hostile presence of Hannibal in south Italy surfaces as a frequent yet indirectly expressed concern of the poem. The thematic second Part investigates the Alexandra's relation to the Sibylline Oracles and to other apocalyptic literature of the period, and argues for its cultural and religious topicality. The Conclusion puts the case for the 190s BC as a turning-point in Roman history and contends that Lykophron demonstrates a veiled awareness of this, especially of certain peculiar features of Roman colonizing policy in that decade.

The Phoenicians

Author : Vadim S. Jigoulov
ISBN : 9781789144796
Genre : History
File Size : 43. 47 MB
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Drawing on an impressive range of archaeological and textual sources and a nuanced understanding of biases, this book offers a valuable reappraisal of the enigmatic Phoenicians. The Phoenicians is a fascinating exploration of this much-mythologized people: their history, artistic heritage, and the scope of their maritime and colonizing activities in the Mediterranean. Two aspects of the book stand out from other studies of Phoenician history: the source-focused approach and the attention paid to the various ways that biases—ancient and modern—have contributed to widespread misconceptions about who the Phoenicians really were. The book describes and analyzes various artifacts (epigraphic, numismatic, and material remains) and considers how historians have derived information about a people with little surviving literature. This analysis includes a critical look at the primary texts (classical, Near Eastern, and biblical), the relationship between the Phoenician and Punic worlds; Phoenician interaction with the Greeks and others; and the repurposing of Phoenician heritage in modernity. Detailed and engrossing, The Phoenicians casts new light on this most enigmatic of civilizations.

The Hellenistic Settlements In The East From Armenia And Mesopotamia To Bactria And India

Author : Getzel M. Cohen
ISBN : 9780520273825
Genre : History
File Size : 79. 66 MB
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This is the third volume of Getzel Cohen’s important work on the Hellenistic settlements in the ancient world. Through the conquests of Alexander the Great, his successors and others, Greek and Macedonian culture spread deep into Asia, with colonists settling as far away as Bactria and India. In this book, Cohen provides historical narratives, detailed references, citations, and commentaries on all the Graeco-Macedonian settlements founded (or refounded) in the East. Organized geographically, Cohen pulls together discoveries and debates from dozens of widely scattered archaeological and epigraphic projects, making a distinct contribution to ongoing questions and opening new avenues of inquiry.

The Phoenicians And The Mayans

Author : Dr. Frank Tifus
ISBN : 9781105930133
Genre :
File Size : 88. 96 MB
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The Oxford Handbook Of The Phoenician And Punic Mediterranean

Author : Brian R. Doak
ISBN : 9780190499341
Genre : History
File Size : 88. 4 MB
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The Phoenicians created the Mediterranean world as we know it-yet they remain a shadowy and poorly understood group. The academic study of the Phoenicians has come to an important crossroads; the field has grown in sheer content, sophistication of analysis, and diversity of interpretation, and we now need a current overview of where the study of these ancient seafarers and craftsman stands and where it is going. Moreover, the field of Phoenician studies is particularly fragmented and scattered. While there is growing interest in all things Phoenician and Punic, the latest advances are mostly published in specialized journals and conference volumes in a plethora of languages. This Handbook is the first of its type to appear in over two decades, and the first ever to appear in English. In these chapters, written by a wide range of prominent and promising scholars from across Europe, North America, Australia, and the Mediterranean world, readers will find summary studies on key historical moments (such as the history of Carthage), areas of culture (organized around language, religion, and material culture), regional studies and areas of contact (spanning from the Levant and the Aegean to Iberia and North Africa), and the reception of the Phoenicians as an idea, entangled with the formation of other cultural identities, both ancient and modern.

The Hellenistic Settlements In Syria The Red Sea Basin And North Africa

Author : Getzel M. Cohen
ISBN : 9780520241480
Genre : History
File Size : 90. 81 MB
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"The Hellenistic Settlements in Syria, the Red Sea Basin, and North Africa will take its place, as the first volume has already done, as an indispensable resource for the study of Greek history. The book will be a research tool of lasting value: there is nothing remotely similar available to the student of urbanism in the ancient world. The scholarship is of the highest quality, thorough and current."—Kent Rigsby, editor of Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies

The Social History Of Achaemenid Phoenicia

Author : Vadim S. Jigoulov
ISBN : 9781134938094
Genre : History
File Size : 40. 94 MB
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Even though the Persian period has attracted a fair share of scholarly interest in recent years, as yet no concerted effort has been attempted to construct a comprehensive social history of Phoenician city-states as an integral part of the Achaemenid empire. This monograph explores the evidence from Persian-period literary (both ancient Jewish and classical), epigraphic, and numismatic sources, as well as material culture remains, in order to sketch just such a history. This study examines developments in Persian-period Phoenician city-states on the three levels: that of the individual household, the city-state, and the administrative unit of the Persian empire. These three societal levels are analyzed within the contexts of economic competition between and among the Phoenician city-states, their burgeoning economic ties with the outside world, and their interaction with the Persian imperial influence in the Levant.

A History Of The Hellenistic World

Author : R. Malcolm Errington
ISBN : 9781444359596
Genre : History
File Size : 84. 61 MB
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A History of the Hellenistic World provides an engaging look at the Macedonian monarchies in the period following the reign of Alexander the Great, and examines their impact on the Greek world. Offers a clearly organized narrative with particular emphasis on state and governmental structures Makes extensive use of inscriptions in translation to illustrate the continuing vitality of the Greek city states prior to the Roman conquest Emphasizes the specific Macedonian origins of all active participants in the creation of the Hellenistic world Highlights the relationships between Greek city-states and Macedonian monarchies

The Punic Mediterranean

Author : Josephine Crawley Quinn
ISBN : 9781316194935
Genre : History
File Size : 70. 11 MB
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The role of the Phoenicians in the economy, culture and politics of the ancient Mediterranean was as large as that of the Greeks and Romans, and deeply interconnected with that 'classical' world, but their lack of literature and their oriental associations mean that they are much less well-known. This book brings state-of-the-art international scholarship on Phoenician and Punic studies to an English-speaking audience, collecting new papers from fifteen leading voices in the field from Europe and North Africa, with a bias towards the younger generation. Focusing on a series of case-studies from the colonial world of the western Mediterranean, it asks what 'Phoenician' and 'Punic' actually mean, how Punic or western Phoenician identity has been constructed by ancients and moderns, and whether there was in fact a 'Punic world'.

Shifting Social Imaginaries In The Hellenistic Period

Author : Eftychia Stavrianopoulou
ISBN : 9789004257993
Genre : History
File Size : 82. 11 MB
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The contributions of the present volume deal with the repercussions of intercultural encounters between Greek and non-Greek groups in the Hellenistic period. Its methodological focus lies in exploring the transformative potential of those encounters and their impact on the social imaginaries of all parties involved.

A History Of The Jews And Judaism In The Second Temple Period Volume 2

Author : Lester L. Grabbe
ISBN : 9780567381743
Genre : Religion
File Size : 28. 72 MB
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This is the second volume of the projected four-volume history of the Second Temple period. It is axiomatic that there are large gaps in the history of the Persian period, but the early Greek period is possibly even less known. This volume brings together all we know about the Jews during the period from Alexander's conquest to the eve of the Maccabaean revolt, including the Jews in Egypt as well as the situation in Judah. Based directly on the primary sources, which are surveyed, the study addresses questions such as administration, society, religion, economy, jurisprudence, Hellenism and Jewish identity. These are discussed in the context of the wider Hellenistic world and its history. A strength of the study is its extensive up-to-date secondary bibliography (approximately one thousand items).

The Middle East Under Rome

Author : Maurice Sartre
ISBN : 0674016831
Genre : History
File Size : 52. 75 MB
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The ancient Middle East was the theater of passionate interaction between Phoenicians, Aramaeans, Arabs, Jews, Greeks, and Romans. At the crossroads of the Mediterranean, Mesopotamia, and the Arabian peninsula, the area dominated by what the Romans called Syria was at times a scene of violent confrontation, but more often one of peaceful interaction, of prosperous cultivation, energetic production, and commerce--a crucible of cultural, religious, and artistic innovations that profoundly determined the course of world history. Maurice Sartre has written a long overdue and comprehensive history of the Semitic Near East (modern Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, and Israel) from the eve of the Roman conquest to the end of the third century C.E. and the dramatic rise of Christianity. Sartre's broad yet finely detailed perspective takes in all aspects of this history, not just the political and military, but economic, social, cultural, and religious developments as well. He devotes particular attention to the history of the Jewish people, placing it within that of the whole Middle East. Drawing upon the full range of ancient sources, including literary texts, Greek, Latin, and Semitic inscriptions, and the most recent archaeological discoveries, The Middle East under Rome will be an indispensable resource for students and scholars. This absorbing account of intense cultural interaction will also engage anyone interested in the history of the Middle East.

Visual Style And Constructing Identity In The Hellenistic World

Author : Miguel John Versluys
ISBN : 9781108210881
Genre : History
File Size : 61. 25 MB
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Located in the small kingdom of Commagene at the upper Euphrates, the late Hellenistic monument of Nemrud Dağ (c.50 BC) has been undeservedly neglected by scholars. Qualified as a Greco-Persian hybrid instigated by a lunatic king, this fascinating project of bricolage has been written out of history. This volume redresses that imbalance, interpreting Nemrud Dağ as an attempt at canon building by Antiochos I in order to construct a dynastic ideology and social order, and proving the monument's importance for our understanding of a crucial transitional phase from Hellenistic to Roman. Hellenistic Commagene therefore holds a profound significance for a number of discussions, such as the functioning of the Hellenistic koine and the genesis of Roman 'art', Hellenism and Persianism in antiquity, dynastic propaganda and the power of images, Romanisation in the East, the contextualising of the Augustan cultural revolution, and the role of Greek culture in the Roman world.

The Origins Of Democracy In Tribes City States And Nation States

Author : Ronald M. Glassman
ISBN : 9783319516950
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 46. 66 MB
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This four-part work describes and analyses democracy and despotism in tribes, city-states, and nation states. The theoretical framework used in this work combines Weberian, Aristotelian, evolutionary anthropological, and feminist theories in a comparative-historical context. The dual nature of humans, as both an animal and a consciously aware being, underpins the analysis presented. Part One covers tribes. It uses anthropological literature to describe the “campfire democracy” of the African Bushmen, the Pygmies, and other band societies. Its main focus is on the tribal democracy of the Cheyenne, Iroquois, Huron, and other tribes, and it pays special attention to the role of women in tribal democracies. Part Two describes the city-states of Mesopotamia, Syria, and Canaan-Phoenicia, and includes a section on the theocracy of the Jews. This part focuses on the transition from tribal democracy to city-state democracy in the ancient Middle East – from the Sumerian city-states to the Phoenician. Part Three focuses on the origins of democracy and covers Greece—Mycenaean, Dorian, and the Golden Age. It presents a detailed description of the tribal democracy of Archaic Greece – emphasizing the causal effect of the hoplite-phalanx military formation in egalitarianizing Greek tribal society. Next, it analyses the transition from tribal to city-state democracy—with the new commercial classes engendering the oligarchic and democratic conflicts described by Plato and Aristotle. Part Four describes the Norse tribes as they contacted Rome, the rise of kingships, the renaissance of the city-states, and the parliamentary monarchies of the emerging nation-states. It provides details of the rise of commercial city states in Renaissance Italy, Hanseatic Germany and the Netherlands.

The Temple Complex At Horvat Omrit

Author : J. Andrew Overman
ISBN : 9789004461901
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 26. 43 MB
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This report from the Omrit temple excavations presents artifacts (e.g., ceramics, frescoes, coins, etc.) recovered in the excavations of the Roman period sanctuary in northern Israel, and discusses the stratigraphy, building phases, and dating of the complex.

Encyclopedia Of The Ancient Greek World

Author : David Sacks
ISBN : 9781438110202
Genre : History
File Size : 21. 21 MB
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Discusses the people, places and events found in over 2,000 years of Greek civilization.

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