horizontal gene transfer in the evolution of pathogenesis advances in molecular and cellular microbiology

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Horizontal Gene Transfer In The Evolution Of Pathogenesis

Author : Michael Hensel
ISBN : 9781139472050
Genre : Science
File Size : 74. 18 MB
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Horizontal gene transfer is a major driving force in the evolution of many bacterial pathogens. The development of high-throughput sequencing tools and more sophisticated genomic and proteomic techniques in recent years has resulted in a better understanding of this phenomenon. Written by leading experts in the field, this edited volume is aimed at graduate students and researchers and provides an overview of current knowledge relating to the evolution of microbial pathogenicity. This volume provides an overview of the mechanisms and biological consequences of the genome rearrangements resulting from horizontal gene transfer, in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, as well as overviews of the key mobile genetic elements involved. Subsequent chapters focus on paradigms for the evolution of important bacterial pathogens, including Salmonella enterica, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus. The influence of socioeconomic parameters in the dissemination of transferable elements, such as antibiotic resistant genes in bacteria, is also discussed.

Applications Of Molecular Microbiological Methods

Author : Sean M. Caffrey Torben L. Skovhus
ISBN : 9781908230690
Genre : Science
File Size : 32. 30 MB
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Innovative, constructive and continually evolving technologies are propelling microbiology into an exciting new era. This new era will witness the harnessing and control of complex microbial communities in a huge variety of applications in the industrial, medical and environmental spheres. State-of-the-art tools are being developed and utilized to analyse the molecules that microorganisms possess and generate, including DNA, RNA, proteins, lipids and cellular metabolites. This book, written by international experts in the field, presents emerging molecular methods that allow the diversity of a microbial community to be surveyed and its functions to be investigated. The first part of the book provides examples of the application of molecular microbiological methods in various industrial applications. Part two deals with the identification of microorganisms in medical settings while the third part presents case studies that use molecular methods to assess the structure and function of microbial communities in natural environments. The fourth part of the book describes in greater detail the methods and technologies featured in the preceding case studies including metagenomics, stable isotope probing, fluorescence in situ hybridization, quantitative PCR, reverse transcription PCR and single cell methods. These detailed descriptions enable readers to evaluate the applicability of various tools for approaching questions and case studies of their own. This practical, authoritative and up-to-date volume is a valuable resource for anyone applying or developing molecular methods in any area of microbiology and is a recommended acquisition for all microbiology laboratories.

Campylobacter Ecology And Evolution

Author : Samuel K. Sheppard
ISBN : 9781908230980
Genre : Science
File Size : 57. 5 MB
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Members of the genus Campylobacter are commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract of mammals and birds, and can be commensal or pathogenic in nature. For example, Campylobacter jejuni can be a harmless commensal organism in poultry and other avian and animal hosts but in humans, it is pathogenic and the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. In recent years, the application of DNA sequencing and 'omics' technologies to large numbers of isolates has allowed Campylobacter research to advance rapidly revealing fascinating new insights into the cellular biology and evolution of this highly variable group of bacteria. In this book, internationally recognised experts critically review and provide novel insights into important aspects Campylobacter research. The book is divided into four sections: Mechanisms of evolution; Adaptations to host colonisation; Molecular epidemiology; and Ecology in poultry. The topics covered range from the mechanisms of evolution through the processes of host colonisation and within host adaptation, and epidemiology to considerations of their broader biochemical and ecological properties. An important resource summarising our current knowledge of Campylobacter ecology and evolution, this book is essential reading for all researchers working with Campylobacter and related organisms.

Advances In Cell And Molecular Diagnostics

Author : Pongali Raghavendra
ISBN : 9780128136805
Genre : Medical
File Size : 34. 28 MB
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Advances in Cell and Molecular Diagnostics brings the scientific advances in the translation and validation of cellular and molecular discoveries in medicine into the clinical diagnostic setting. It enumerates the description and application of technological advances in the field of cellular and molecular diagnostic medicine, providing an overview of specialized fields, such as biomarker, genetic marker, screening, DNA-profiling, NGS, cytogenetics, transcriptome, cancer biomarkers, prostate specific antigen, and biomarker toxicologies. In addition, it presents novel discoveries and clinical pathologic correlations, including studies in oncology, infectious diseases, inherited diseases, predisposition to disease, and the description or polymorphisms linked to disease states. This book is a valuable resource for oncologists, practitioners and several members of the biomedical field who are interested in understanding how to apply cutting-edge technologies into diagnostics and healthcare. Encompasses the current scientific advances in the translation and validation of cellular and molecular discoveries into the clinical diagnostic setting Explains the application of cellular and molecular diagnostics methodologies in clinical trials Focuses on translating preclinical tests to the bedside in order to help readers apply the most recent technologies to healthcare

Evolution Of Virulence In Eukaryotic Microbes

Author : L. David Sibley
ISBN : 9781118308134
Genre : Science
File Size : 42. 69 MB
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A unique and timely review of the emergence of eukaryotic virulence in fungi, oomycetes, and protozoa, as they affect both animals and plants Evolution of Virulence in Eukaryotic Microbes addresses new developments in defining the molecular basis of virulence in eukaryotic pathogens. By examining how pathogenic determinants have evolved in concert with their hosts, often overcoming innate and adaptive immune mechanisms, the book takes a fresh look at the selective processes that have shaped their evolution. Introductory chapters ground the reader in principal evolutionary themes such as phylogenetics and genetic exchange, building a basis of knowledge for later chapters covering advances in genetic tools, how pathogens exchange genetic material in nature, and the common themes of evolutionary adaptation that lead to disease in different hosts. With the goal of linking the research findings of the many disparate scientific communities in the field, the book: Assembles for the first time a collection of chapters on the diversity of eukaryotic microorganisms and the influence of evolutionary forces on the origins and emergence of their virulent attributes Highlights examples from three important, divergent groups of eukaryotic microorganisms that cause disease in animals and plants: oomycetes, protozoan parasites, and fungi Covers how the development of genetic tools has fostered the identification and functional analyses of virulence determinants Addresses how pathogens exchange genetic material in nature via classical or modified meiotic processes, horizontal gene transfer, and sexual cycles including those that are cryptic or even unisexual Provides a broad framework for formulating future studies by illustrating themes common to different pathogenic microbes Evolution of Virulence in Eukaryotic Microbes is an ideal book for microbiologists, evolutionary biologists and medical professionals, as well as graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and faculty members working on the evolution of pathogens.

Pathogenic Escherichia Coli

Author : Stefano Morabito
ISBN : 9781908230997
Genre : Science
File Size : 33. 10 MB
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In recent years we have accumulated a great deal of knowledge on the features associated with virulence of pathogenic E. coli. A large number of virulence genes have been identified and their products characterised. Great strides have been made in our understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms and the bacterium-host interaction. However, much remains elusive in our understanding of pathogenicity at a cellular and sub-cellular level. This is largely due to E. coli genome's plasticity: it generates great variability and facilitates the rapid emergence of new pathogenic variants. Elucidating the mechanisms underlying the evolution of these pathogens and their interactions with the host are key stages for disease prevention. This book reviews the most important recent findings of the studies on pathogenic E. coli providing a timely overview of the field. Topics covered include: epidemiology of the disease in humans and animals and the biological mechanisms that shaped the pathogenic types of E. coli; shiga toxins; subtilase cytotoxin; cell cycle modulating toxins; the heat stable and heat labile enterotoxins; haemolysins; structural, molecular and functional characteristics of A/E lesions; colonization factor antigens of ETEC; enteroaggregative adhesion; host cell invasion; and the development of vaccinal strategies to confront the burden of disease. Chapters are written from a molecular and cellular biology standpoint but also include discussions of the findings with a wider perspective including considerations on public health and the impact on animal productions. Essential reading for everyone working on these and related pathogens.

Advances In Botanical Research

Author : Jean-Claude Kader
ISBN : 0080885098
Genre : Science
File Size : 71. 35 MB
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Edited by Jean-Claude Kader and Michel Delseny and supported by an international Editorial Board, Advances in Botanical Research publishes in-depth and up-to-date reviews on a wide range of topics in plant sciences. Currently in its 49th volume, the series features a wide range of reviews by recognized experts on all aspects of plant genetics, biochemistry, cell biology, molecular biology, physiology and ecology. This eclectic volume features six reviews on cutting-edge topics of interest to postgraduates and researchers alike. * Multidisciplinary reviews written from a broad range of scientific perspectives * For over 30 years, series has enjoyed a reputation for excellence * Contributors internationally recognized authorities in their respective fields

Current Topics In Microbiology And Immunology

Author : James B. Kaper
ISBN : CORNELL:31924094548223
Genre : Bacterial genetics
File Size : 84. 16 MB
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Pathogenicity Islands And The Evolution Of Pathogenic Microbes

Author : Jörg Hinrich Hacker
ISBN : WISC:89081095218
Genre : Science
File Size : 80. 52 MB
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Molecular Mechanisms Of Microbial Evolution

Author : Pabulo H. Rampelotto
ISBN : 9783319690780
Genre : Science
File Size : 61. 58 MB
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One of the most profound paradigms that have transformed our understanding about life over the last decades was the acknowledgement that microorganisms play a central role in shaping the past and present environments on Earth and the nature of all life forms. Each organism is the product of its history and all extant life traces back to common ancestors, which were microorganisms. Nowadays, microorganisms represent the vast majority of biodiversity on Earth and have survived nearly 4 billion years of evolutionary change. Microbial evolution occurred and continues to take place in a great variety of environmental conditions. However, we still know little about the processes of evolution as applied to microorganisms and microbial populations. In addition, the molecular mechanisms by which microorganisms communicate/interact with each other and with multicellular organisms remains poorly understood. Such patterns of microbe-host interaction are essential to understand the evolution of microbial symbiosis and pathogenesis.Recent advances in DNA sequencing, high-throughput technologies, and genetic manipulation systems have enabled studies that directly characterize the molecular and genomic bases of evolution, producing data that are making us change our view of the microbial world. The notion that mutations in the coding regions of genomes are, in combination with selective forces, the main contributors to biodiversity needs to be re-examined as evidence accumulates, indicating that many non-coding regions that contain regulatory signals show a high rate of variation even among closely related organisms. Comparative analyses of an increasing number of closely related microbial genomes have yielded exciting insight into the sources of microbial genome variability with respect to gene content, gene order and evolution of genes with unknown functions. Furthermore, laboratory studies (i.e. experimental microbial evolution) are providing fundamental biological insight through direct observation of the evolution process. They not only enable testing evolutionary theory and principles, but also have applications to metabolic engineering and human health. Overall, these studies ranging from viruses to Bacteria to microbial Eukaryotes are illuminating the mechanisms of evolution at a resolution that Darwin, Delbruck and Dobzhansky could barely have imagined. Consequently, it is timely to review and highlight the progress so far as well as discuss what remains unknown and requires future research. This book explores the current state of knowledge on the molecular mechanisms of microbial evolution with a collection of papers written by authors who are leading experts in the field.

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